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Cranial Nerve 10

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9801. [Effect of cranial needling combined with medicine on IL-6 in the patient of acute cerebral hemorrhage]. (Abstract)

[Effect of cranial needling combined with medicine on IL-6 in the patient of acute cerebral hemorrhage]. To explore the mechanism of cranial needling in treatment of acute intracerebral hemorrhage.Forty-three cases were randomly divided into a cranial needling plus medication group (n=21) and a medication group (n=22). The cranial needling plus medication group were treated with needling skull suture 4 days after the attack, once each day, for 10 sessions, on the basis of routine neurological (...) treatment measures. The medication group were treated with the routine neurological treatment measures. Changes of the scores of neural function defect and IIL-6 contents before and after treatment were compared.The IL-6 contents before and after treatment were (11.29 +/- 8.63) pg/mL and (1.91 +/- 1.02) pg/mL in the cranial needling plus medication group, and (12.15 +/- 7.23) pg/mL and (3.61 +/- 2.71) pg/mL in the medication group, respectively, with very significant differences before and after

2008 Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9802. Effects of high-frequency cranial electrostimulation on the rest-activity rhythm and salivary cortisol in Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of high-frequency cranial electrostimulation on the rest-activity rhythm and salivary cortisol in Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study. In a previous study, low-frequency (0.5 Hz) cranial electrostimulation (CES) neither improved the rest-activity rhythm nor reduced the level of salivary cortisol in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether the frequency of CES was responsible for these negative findings, we set out to examine the effects of high-frequency (...) CES on the rest-activity rhythm and salivary cortisol of patients with probable AD. We hypothesized that a decreased level of cortisol would parallel a positive effect of high-frequency CES on nocturnal restlessness in AD patients.Twenty AD patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 10) and a control group (n = 10). The experimental group was treated with high-frequency CES, the control group received sham stimulation, for 30 min a day, during 6 weeks. The rest-activity rhythm

2006 Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9803. Continuous positive airway pressure breathing increases cranial spread of sensory blockade after cervicothoracic epidural injection of lidocaine. (Abstract)

-9.8) in the control group and 10 (8-12) in the CPAP group (P = 0.13). The number of segments blocked cranial to the injection site was one (0.8-3.5) in the control group and five (3.5-7) in the CPAP group (P = 0.006). The number of patients with a maximal cranial block (up to C2) was one in the control group and seven in the CPAP group (P = 0.02). In both groups, there was a small but significant decrease from baseline in spirometry values, with no differences between groups.Applying CPAP during (...) Continuous positive airway pressure breathing increases cranial spread of sensory blockade after cervicothoracic epidural injection of lidocaine. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) increases the caudad spread of sensory blockade after low-thoracic epidural injection of lidocaine. We hypothesized that CPAP would increase cephalad spread of blockade after cervicothoracic epidural injection.Twenty patients with an epidural catheter at the C6-7 or C7-T1 interspace received an epidural dose

2007 Anesthesia and analgesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9804. High-frequency cranial electrostimulation (CES) in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. (Abstract)

High-frequency cranial electrostimulation (CES) in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. In a previous study, low-frequency cranial electrostimulation did not improve cognition and (affective) behavior in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, 21 Alzheimer's disease patients, divided into an experimental (n = 11) and a control group (n = 10), were treated for 30 mins/day, 5 days/wk, for 6 wks with high-frequency cranial electrostimulation. Similar

2006 American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9805. Successful treatment without cranial radiotherapy of children receiving intensified chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results of the risk-stratified randomized central nervous system treatment trial MRC UKALL XI (ISRC TN 16757172). (Abstract)

Successful treatment without cranial radiotherapy of children receiving intensified chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results of the risk-stratified randomized central nervous system treatment trial MRC UKALL XI (ISRC TN 16757172). Concern about late adverse effects of cranial radiotherapy (XRT) has led to alternative approaches to eliminate leukaemia from the central nervous system (CNS) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). The Medical Research Council UKALL XI trial (...) recruited 2090 children with ALL between 1990 and 1997. Median follow-up is 7 years 9 months; event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival were 63.1% and 84.6%, respectively, at 5 years and 59.8% and 79.4% at 10 years. The isolated CNS relapse rate was 7.0% at 10 years. Patients were randomized for CNS-directed therapy within white blood cell (WBC) groups. For WBC <50 x 10(9)/l, high-dose intravenous methotrexate (HDMTX) (6-8 g/m2) with intrathecal methotrexate (ITMTX) was compared with ITMTX alone

2004 British journal of haematology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9806. Splitting of the Extraocular Horizontal Rectus Muscle in Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders. (Abstract)

Splitting of the Extraocular Horizontal Rectus Muscle in Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders. To analyze the horizontal rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) by orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders that arises from abnormal development of cranial nerve nuclei or their axonal connections.Case series, retrospective analysis.The morphology of the horizontal rectus EOMs was analyzed in orbital MRI on 4 patients with congenital (...) , and 1 of the 4 patients (25%) with oculomotor palsy, but in none of the 6 normal subjects and 12 patients with acquired cranial nerve palsy.Since splitting of the horizontal rectus EOMs was noted in patients with congenital dysinnervation disorders, including Duane syndrome, Sevel's theory that the horizontal rectus EOMs develop from the superior and inferior mesodermal complexes is considered to be reasonable.

2008 American Journal of Ophthalmology

9807. Evaluation of the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer. (Abstract)

Evaluation of the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer. Prophylactic cranial irradiation has been used in patients with small cell lung cancer to reduce the incidence of brain metastasis after primary therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on overall survival and cause-specific survival.A total of 7995 patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 1997 were (...) prognostic factors.The median follow-up time was 13 months (range, 1 month to 180 months). Overall survival at 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years was 23%, 11%, and 6%, respectively, in patients who did not receive PCI. In patients who received PCI, the 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year overall survival rates were 42%, 19%, and 9%, respectively (P =or <.001). The cause-specific survival rate at 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years was 28%, 15%, 11%, respectively, in patients who did not receive PCI and 45%, 24%, 17

2008 Cancer

9808. A novel form of aberrant innervation in congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder. (Abstract)

A novel form of aberrant innervation in congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder. Certain forms of congenital incomitant strabismus are associated with abnormal cranial nerve development and resultant abnormal orbital innervation (eg, Duane retraction syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles [CFEOM]); such conditions can be considered congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs). In addition to duction limitation and/or ptosis, orbital CCDD phenotypes include (...) inappropriate extraocular muscle and/or levator innervation by nerves intended for innervation of other structures (eg, some of the innervation intended for the medial rectus muscle inappropriately innervating the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle in Duane retraction syndrome). This report documents a unique orbital dysinnervational pattern-supraduction during attempted adduction and infraduction during attempted abduction in the left affected eye of a girl with exotropia and enophthalmos.

2008 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

9809. Systemic chemotherapy after cranial irradiation in patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer: A retrospective study. (Abstract)

Systemic chemotherapy after cranial irradiation in patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer: A retrospective study. Brain metastases (BMs) are found in about 10% of patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This retrospective study was conducted to assess the clinical outcomes and prognostic factors of patients who received chemotherapy after cranial irradiation for NSCLC with synchronous BMs.From January 2000 through July 2007, we reviewed (...) the medical records of patients who received systemic chemotherapy following cranial irradiation for BMs from newly diagnosed NSCLC.A total of 40 patients were included in this review. As the first-line chemotherapy, a total of 114 cycles were administered, for a median number of 2 cycles per patient (range, 0.5-8 cycles). Thirty-four patients (85%) received platinum-based combination regimen and the remaining 6 received chemotherapy with a single agent. Sixteen (40%) patients, 11 of whom had ECOG of 2

2008 Lung Cancer

9810. Cystic olfactory schwannoma of the anterior cranial base. (Abstract)

olfactory nerve. It was removed completely and histology showed it to be a schwannoma. Olfactory groove schwannomas are rare lesions and should be differentiated from meningiomas, neuroblastomas and dural-based metastatic lesions of the anterior cranial base. (...) Cystic olfactory schwannoma of the anterior cranial base. Olfactory groove schwannomas are extremely uncommon and less than 30 cases are reported in the literature. We report a 21-year-old developmentally-retarded boy who experienced severe headache and aggressive behaviour for 5 months. Imaging showed a cystic mass in the subfrontal region, which was removed by craniotomy. The lesion had a vascular supply from the anterior ethmoidal arteries and it was noted to be attached to the right

2008 British Journal of Neurosurgery

9811. A case of cranial fasciitis masquerading as acute mastoiditis. (Abstract)

A case of cranial fasciitis masquerading as acute mastoiditis. We report a case of infection against a background of pre-existing cranial fasciitis.Case report and review of world literature on cranial fasciitis.Cranial fasciitis of childhood is a benign condition and a rare variant of nodular fasciitis. We present the case of a 10-week-old infant with symptoms and signs consistent with a subperiosteal abscess complicating acute mastoiditis. Subsequent findings showed this to be an infection (...) against a background of pre-existing cranial fasciitis.To our knowledge, this is the first such reported case in the literature. Knowledge of the distinctive histopathological features, coupled with an awareness of the condition, are crucial to establishing a definitive diagnosis of cranial fasciitis and, in turn, to instituting appropriate management. The aetiopathogenesis of the condition remains unclear.

2008 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

9812. Otogenic Cranial Base Osteomyelitis: A Proposed Prognosis-Based System for Disease Classification. (Abstract)

Charlson comorbidity score was 5, and 63% of patients were diabetic. The most common presenting symptoms were pain and otorrhea, and 8 patients had cranial nerve neuropathy. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common bacterial pathogen (n = 28; 74%), and 9 patients had fungal or mixed infections. On average, antibiotics were administered for 161 days, and 6 patients had concomitant surgery. The average follow-up was 33 months, and 3-year disease-specific survival was 76%. Univariate predictors (...) of survival were the SPECT grade, fungal/mixed infections, Charlson score, immune compromise, and cranial nerve neuropathy. The only independent predictor of survival on multivariate Cox regression was the SPECT stage at presentation.Cranial base osteomyelitis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and requires prolonged treatment. Long-term outcome can be predicted from the initial SPECT scan.

2008 Otology and Neurotology

9813. Using the processus cochleariformis as a multipurpose landmark in middle cranial fossa surgery. (Abstract)

cochleariformis to inner-ear structures, and to define 14 other measurements that relate inner-ear structures to adjacent structures within the intact bone.Using 10 cadaver specimens, 20 reproducible measurements were defined. The first six of these defined the relation of the processus cochleariformis to inner-ear structures in the middle cranial fossa approach. The other measurements defined the exact location of the inner-ear structures and adjacent structures within the intact bone.The vertical crest lies (...) cochleariformis to the coronal plane. The other measurements obtained give important clues about the position of the cochlea, vestibulum, greater superficial petrosal nerve and labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve.If the classical landmarks are indiscernible during middle cranial fossa surgery, then the processus cochleariformis, with its intimate and constant relationships to inner-ear structures, is a safe and constant landmark.

2008 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

9814. Cranial Neuropathy as a Presenting Sign of Recurrent Aggressive Skin Cancer. (Abstract)

with multiple cranial neuropathies. All exhibited neuropathy of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). The tumors involved were squamous cell carcinoma (4) and melanoma (2). All patients were multiply symptomatic, presenting with a mean of three neurologic symptoms, including facial numbness (5), facial paralysis or weakness (3), facial pain (3), diplopia (3), paresthesia (3), hearing loss (1), or formication (2). Symptoms were present for an average of 7 months prior to diagnosis of perineural recurrence (...) . Cranial nerve involvement was confirmed in all patients by magnetic resonance imaging, and five patients manifested histologic evidence of perineural tumor infiltration. Treatment consisted of various combinations of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy for five patients, and one patient declined any intervention. Death rate subsequent to disease was 50%, and follow-up has continued within our institution on all patients for an average of 25.5 months (range, 3-72 months).Cranial neuropathy is a rare

2008 Dermatologic Surgery

9815. Sensitivity of Noncontrast Cranial Computed Tomography for the Emergency Department Diagnosis of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. (Abstract)

, 2001, to December 31, 2004, with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. We determined whether patients were diagnosed by cranial CT or lumbar puncture, the presence of headache and level of consciousness at ED presentation, and whether or not they had an aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation.We identified 149 patients who were diagnosed with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage during the study period. Noncontrast cranial CT scan diagnosed 139 patients, and 10 were diagnosed with lumbar puncture (...) Sensitivity of Noncontrast Cranial Computed Tomography for the Emergency Department Diagnosis of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Emergency physicians use noncontrast cranial computed tomographic (CT) imaging of headache patients to identify subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. Given sufficiently high sensitivity, CT imaging could be used as a definitive diagnostic study in these patients. The purpose of this study is to determine the sensitivity of noncontrast

2008 Annals of Emergency Medicine

9816. Neurocognitive function in patients with small cell lung cancer : effect of prophylactic cranial irradiation. (Abstract)

Neurocognitive function in patients with small cell lung cancer : effect of prophylactic cranial irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has been tempered by fears of detrimental effects on cognitive function. Neuropsychologic testing was prospectively conducted before and after PCI to evaluate its effects on cognitive function in patients with SCLC.Ninety-six patients who completely or partially responded to initial therapy (...) underwent formal neurocognitive testing before PCI. Three patients who had central nervous system metastasis were excluded. Of the remaining patients, 69 received PCI (mean dose, 25 grays [Gy] in 10 fractions). Repeat testing was performed on 37 patients (median follow-up, 23 months; range, 6-120 months).Baseline impairment was defined as > or =1.5 standard deviations below the normative mean. Before undergoing PCI, 47% of patients had evidence of impaired cognitive function. After PCI, univariate

2007 Cancer

9817. Current definitions of hypotension do not predict abnormal cranial ultrasound findings in preterm infants. (Abstract)

catheters in the first 3 days of life. Sequential 5-minute epochs of continuous mean arterial pressure recordings were assigned a mean value and a coefficient of variation. We applied to our data 3 definitions of hypotension in current clinical use and derived a hypotensive index for each definition. We examined the association between these definitions of hypotension and abnormal cranial ultrasound findings between days 5 and 10. In addition, we evaluated the effect of illness severity (Score (...) Current definitions of hypotension do not predict abnormal cranial ultrasound findings in preterm infants. Hypotension is a commonly treated complication of prematurity, although definitions and management guidelines vary widely. Our goal was to examine the relationship between current definitions of hypotension and early abnormal cranial ultrasound findings.We prospectively measured mean arterial pressure in 84 infants who were < or = 30 weeks' gestational age and had umbilical arterial

2007 Pediatrics

9818. Subacute spinal subdural hematoma after spontaneous resolution of cranial subdural hematoma: causal relationship or coincidence? Case report. (Abstract)

Subacute spinal subdural hematoma after spontaneous resolution of cranial subdural hematoma: causal relationship or coincidence? Case report. The etiopathogenesis of traumatic spinal subdural hematoma (SSH) is uncertain. Unlike the supratentorial subdural space, no bridging veins traverse the spinal subdural space. The authors describe a case of subacute SSH that occurred after spontaneous resolution of traumatic intracranial SDH and suggest a causal relationship between the two. A 23-year-old (...) woman suffered an acute intracranial SDH after a snowboarding accident. There was no clinical or radiological evidence of spine injury. Conservative management of the supratentorial SDH resulted in spontaneous radiologically documented resolution with redistribution of blood in the subdural space. Four days after the injury, the patient started noticing new onset of mild low-back pain. The pain progressively worsened. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine 10 days after the original

2004 Journal of Neurosurgery

9819. Collagen matrix duraplasty for cranial and spinal surgery: a clinical and imaging study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Collagen matrix duraplasty for cranial and spinal surgery: a clinical and imaging study. The repair of dural defects is controversial in contemporary neurosurgery. To date, collagen-based products remain a continued area of interest in the development of dural grafts. The authors conducted a prospective case-control study in which they evaluated collagen matrix in the repair of dural defects following cranial and spinal surgery by using specific clinical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (...) outcome measures.Enrolled in the study were 79 patients, 36 male (45.6%) and 43 female (54.4%), with a mean age of 53 +/- 15.8 years. The pathological diagnosis was brain tumor in 49 cases (62%), vascular conditions in 16 (20.2%), degenerative spine in 10 (12.7%), trauma in two (2.5%), and other in two (2.5%). Most of the patients underwent supratentorial craniotomy (57; 72.2%), whereas 11 patients (13.9%) each underwent posterior fossa and spinal surgery. Sixty-three patients (79.7%) completed

2007 Journal of Neurosurgery

9820. Pediatric orbital multifocal cavernous hemangiomas associated with bilateral arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa. Case report and review of the literature. (Abstract)

sporadic and single. So far, the authors have not encountered any study reporting the coexistence of bilateral arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa and orbital multifocal cavernous hemangiomas. In this report, they describe a 10-year-old boy with such a hemangioma that included the eyelid, conjunctiva, and retrobulbar space. His was the first case of a surgically treated pediatric orbital multifocal cavernous hemangioma associated with bilateral arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa (...) Pediatric orbital multifocal cavernous hemangiomas associated with bilateral arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa. Case report and review of the literature. Cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit are benign vascular growths that commonly occur in adults and account for 6% of all intraorbital tumors. Multifocal intraorbital cavernous hemangiomas are quite rare. The reported incidence of arachnoid cysts accounts for only 1% of lesions that occupy intracranial space, and they are nearly always

2005 Journal of Neurosurgery

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