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Cranial Nerve 10

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9781. Evaluation of the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation in small cell lung cancer. Prophylactic cranial irradiation has been used in patients with small cell lung cancer to reduce the incidence of brain metastasis after primary therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on overall survival and cause-specific survival.A total of 7995 patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 1997 were (...) prognostic factors.The median follow-up time was 13 months (range, 1 month to 180 months). Overall survival at 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years was 23%, 11%, and 6%, respectively, in patients who did not receive PCI. In patients who received PCI, the 2-year, 5-year, and 10-year overall survival rates were 42%, 19%, and 9%, respectively (P =or <.001). The cause-specific survival rate at 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years was 28%, 15%, 11%, respectively, in patients who did not receive PCI and 45%, 24%, 17

2008 Cancer

9782. Successful treatment without cranial radiotherapy of children receiving intensified chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results of the risk-stratified randomized central nervous system treatment trial MRC UKALL XI (ISRC TN 16757172). (Abstract)

Successful treatment without cranial radiotherapy of children receiving intensified chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: results of the risk-stratified randomized central nervous system treatment trial MRC UKALL XI (ISRC TN 16757172). Concern about late adverse effects of cranial radiotherapy (XRT) has led to alternative approaches to eliminate leukaemia from the central nervous system (CNS) in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). The Medical Research Council UKALL XI trial (...) recruited 2090 children with ALL between 1990 and 1997. Median follow-up is 7 years 9 months; event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival were 63.1% and 84.6%, respectively, at 5 years and 59.8% and 79.4% at 10 years. The isolated CNS relapse rate was 7.0% at 10 years. Patients were randomized for CNS-directed therapy within white blood cell (WBC) groups. For WBC <50 x 10(9)/l, high-dose intravenous methotrexate (HDMTX) (6-8 g/m2) with intrathecal methotrexate (ITMTX) was compared with ITMTX alone

2004 British journal of haematology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9783. Comparisons of the effects of acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and transcutaneous cranial electrical stimulation on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in dogs. (Abstract)

Comparisons of the effects of acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and transcutaneous cranial electrical stimulation on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in dogs. To compare the effects of acupuncture (AP), electroacupuncture (EA), and transcutaneous cranial electrical stimulation (TCES) with high-frequency intermittent currents on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane and associated cardiovascular variables in dogs.8 healthy adult female Beagles.Each dog (...) was anesthetized with isoflurane on 4 occasions, allowing a minimum of 10 days between experiments. Isoflurane MAC values were determined for each dog without treatment (controls) and after treatment with AP and EA (AP points included the Large Intestine 4, Lung 7, Governing Vessel 20, Governing Vessel 14, San Tai, and Baihui) and TCES. Isoflurane MAC values were determined by use of noxious electrical buccal stimulation. Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), arterial blood oxygen saturation (Spo2

2005 American journal of veterinary research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9784. Effects of high-frequency cranial electrostimulation on the rest-activity rhythm and salivary cortisol in Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of high-frequency cranial electrostimulation on the rest-activity rhythm and salivary cortisol in Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study. In a previous study, low-frequency (0.5 Hz) cranial electrostimulation (CES) neither improved the rest-activity rhythm nor reduced the level of salivary cortisol in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether the frequency of CES was responsible for these negative findings, we set out to examine the effects of high-frequency (...) CES on the rest-activity rhythm and salivary cortisol of patients with probable AD. We hypothesized that a decreased level of cortisol would parallel a positive effect of high-frequency CES on nocturnal restlessness in AD patients.Twenty AD patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 10) and a control group (n = 10). The experimental group was treated with high-frequency CES, the control group received sham stimulation, for 30 min a day, during 6 weeks. The rest-activity rhythm

2006 Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9785. High-frequency cranial electrostimulation (CES) in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. (Abstract)

High-frequency cranial electrostimulation (CES) in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. In a previous study, low-frequency cranial electrostimulation did not improve cognition and (affective) behavior in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, 21 Alzheimer's disease patients, divided into an experimental (n = 11) and a control group (n = 10), were treated for 30 mins/day, 5 days/wk, for 6 wks with high-frequency cranial electrostimulation. Similar

2006 American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9786. Continuous positive airway pressure breathing increases cranial spread of sensory blockade after cervicothoracic epidural injection of lidocaine. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-9.8) in the control group and 10 (8-12) in the CPAP group (P = 0.13). The number of segments blocked cranial to the injection site was one (0.8-3.5) in the control group and five (3.5-7) in the CPAP group (P = 0.006). The number of patients with a maximal cranial block (up to C2) was one in the control group and seven in the CPAP group (P = 0.02). In both groups, there was a small but significant decrease from baseline in spirometry values, with no differences between groups.Applying CPAP during (...) Continuous positive airway pressure breathing increases cranial spread of sensory blockade after cervicothoracic epidural injection of lidocaine. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) increases the caudad spread of sensory blockade after low-thoracic epidural injection of lidocaine. We hypothesized that CPAP would increase cephalad spread of blockade after cervicothoracic epidural injection.Twenty patients with an epidural catheter at the C6-7 or C7-T1 interspace received an epidural dose

2007 Anesthesia and analgesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9787. Surgery plus chondroprotection for canine cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture: a proton-NMR study. (Abstract)

Surgery plus chondroprotection for canine cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture: a proton-NMR study. Rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) is one of the most frequent causes of lameness of the rear limb in the dog. Regardless of the type of treatment, CCL rupture inevitably leads to knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of associating surgical treatment of spontaneous rupture of the CCL with a chondroprotector, that is called 'supraadditive (...) ' because it is formulated to counteract not only chondrodegeneration, but also the oxidative and inflammatory processes of OA. The open-label controlled study used proton NMR spectroscopy to evaluate the synovial fluid of the stifle of 10 dogs with monolateral rupture of the CCL, selected for the study based on specific inclusive criteria. The dogs were assigned randomly into two groups. Five dogs received the supra-additive chondroprotector for 60 days, starting on the day after surgery. Five dogs

2006 Veterinary and comparative orthopaedics and traumatology : V.C.O.T Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9788. [Effect of cranial needling combined with medicine on IL-6 in the patient of acute cerebral hemorrhage]. (Abstract)

[Effect of cranial needling combined with medicine on IL-6 in the patient of acute cerebral hemorrhage]. To explore the mechanism of cranial needling in treatment of acute intracerebral hemorrhage.Forty-three cases were randomly divided into a cranial needling plus medication group (n=21) and a medication group (n=22). The cranial needling plus medication group were treated with needling skull suture 4 days after the attack, once each day, for 10 sessions, on the basis of routine neurological (...) treatment measures. The medication group were treated with the routine neurological treatment measures. Changes of the scores of neural function defect and IIL-6 contents before and after treatment were compared.The IL-6 contents before and after treatment were (11.29 +/- 8.63) pg/mL and (1.91 +/- 1.02) pg/mL in the cranial needling plus medication group, and (12.15 +/- 7.23) pg/mL and (3.61 +/- 2.71) pg/mL in the medication group, respectively, with very significant differences before and after

2008 Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9789. The spectrum of cranial neuropathy in patients with Bell's palsy. (Abstract)

The spectrum of cranial neuropathy in patients with Bell's palsy. There is controversy regarding whether, and how frequently, other cranial nerve deficits accompany Bell's palsy. We sought to determine prospectively the presence of signs indicating an associated cranial neuropathy in patients with Bell's palsy.All subjects presenting to an emergency department with Bell's palsy over a 2-year period were evaluated. The study included 51 consecutive patients. One patient with Bell's palsy (...) was not examined by a neurologist at the time of presentation and was excluded. The main outcome measure was presence of other cranial nerve deficits.We identified 4 patients with additional cranial neuropathies (contralateral trigeminal [n=1], glossopharyngeal [n=2], and hypoglossal [n=1]). We also identified 13 patients with ipsilateral facial sensory loss, suggesting an ipsilateral trigeminal neuropathy; 3 patients with a contralateral facial palsy; and 3 patients with hearing impairment.This prospective

2004 Archives of Internal Medicine

9790. Pediatric orbital multifocal cavernous hemangiomas associated with bilateral arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa. Case report and review of the literature. Full Text available with Trip Pro

sporadic and single. So far, the authors have not encountered any study reporting the coexistence of bilateral arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa and orbital multifocal cavernous hemangiomas. In this report, they describe a 10-year-old boy with such a hemangioma that included the eyelid, conjunctiva, and retrobulbar space. His was the first case of a surgically treated pediatric orbital multifocal cavernous hemangioma associated with bilateral arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa (...) Pediatric orbital multifocal cavernous hemangiomas associated with bilateral arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa. Case report and review of the literature. Cavernous hemangiomas of the orbit are benign vascular growths that commonly occur in adults and account for 6% of all intraorbital tumors. Multifocal intraorbital cavernous hemangiomas are quite rare. The reported incidence of arachnoid cysts accounts for only 1% of lesions that occupy intracranial space, and they are nearly always

2005 Journal of Neurosurgery

9791. Internal cranial expansion procedure for the treatment of symptomatic intracranial hypertension. (Abstract)

Internal cranial expansion procedure for the treatment of symptomatic intracranial hypertension. The authors describe the internal cranial expansion (ICE) procedure, a surgical technique that was used to treat two chronically shunt-treated children who presented with medically and surgically refractory intracranial hypertension despite the presence of functioning cerebrospinal fluid shunt systems. The ICE procedure was used as a means to increase intracranial volume without sacrificing (...) calvarial rigidity. Intracranial volume was increased by 5% in one case and 10% in the other. Both patients have returned to their neurological and functional baselines, and they are free of symptoms related to intracranial hypertension.

2007 Journal of Neurosurgery

9792. A stereotactic device for rabbits based on mandibular and cranial landmarks: technical note. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A stereotactic device for rabbits based on mandibular and cranial landmarks: technical note. The authors have developed a stereotactic device for use in rabbits that uses the plane at the base of the mandible combined with cranial sutures as an anatomical reference. The device was developed for a study designed to evaluate catheters for infection prophylaxis, and this required the implantation of silicone catheters along a reproducible trajectory through the lateral ventricle. Cadaver and atlas (...) ' brains demonstrated 78.6% accuracy of the trajectory within a tolerance of deviation of 5 degrees , and 94.6% accuracy within a tolerance of 10 degrees . The accuracy of the trajectory of the last 18 consecutively operated animals was constantly within a tolerance of 5 degrees . The device can be autoclaved and, since it is relatively simple and inexpensive to build, the authors manufactured 3 identical frames and used them alternately to operate under sterile conditions. The fast and pain-free head

2008 Journal of Neurosurgery

9793. Collagen matrix duraplasty for cranial and spinal surgery: a clinical and imaging study. (Abstract)

Collagen matrix duraplasty for cranial and spinal surgery: a clinical and imaging study. The repair of dural defects is controversial in contemporary neurosurgery. To date, collagen-based products remain a continued area of interest in the development of dural grafts. The authors conducted a prospective case-control study in which they evaluated collagen matrix in the repair of dural defects following cranial and spinal surgery by using specific clinical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (...) outcome measures.Enrolled in the study were 79 patients, 36 male (45.6%) and 43 female (54.4%), with a mean age of 53 +/- 15.8 years. The pathological diagnosis was brain tumor in 49 cases (62%), vascular conditions in 16 (20.2%), degenerative spine in 10 (12.7%), trauma in two (2.5%), and other in two (2.5%). Most of the patients underwent supratentorial craniotomy (57; 72.2%), whereas 11 patients (13.9%) each underwent posterior fossa and spinal surgery. Sixty-three patients (79.7%) completed

2007 Journal of Neurosurgery

9794. Subacute spinal subdural hematoma after spontaneous resolution of cranial subdural hematoma: causal relationship or coincidence? Case report. (Abstract)

Subacute spinal subdural hematoma after spontaneous resolution of cranial subdural hematoma: causal relationship or coincidence? Case report. The etiopathogenesis of traumatic spinal subdural hematoma (SSH) is uncertain. Unlike the supratentorial subdural space, no bridging veins traverse the spinal subdural space. The authors describe a case of subacute SSH that occurred after spontaneous resolution of traumatic intracranial SDH and suggest a causal relationship between the two. A 23-year-old (...) woman suffered an acute intracranial SDH after a snowboarding accident. There was no clinical or radiological evidence of spine injury. Conservative management of the supratentorial SDH resulted in spontaneous radiologically documented resolution with redistribution of blood in the subdural space. Four days after the injury, the patient started noticing new onset of mild low-back pain. The pain progressively worsened. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine 10 days after the original

2004 Journal of Neurosurgery

9795. Relative roles of microsurgery and stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of patients with cranial meningiomas: a single-surgeon 4-year integrated experience with both modalities. (Abstract)

of treatment. Symptoms improved in 48.4% of patients undergoing microsurgery and 16.7% of those who underwent GKS. Transient and permanent cranial nerve morbidity was 7.9 compared with 2.9%, and 5.3 compared with 8.5% for GKS and microsurgery, respectively. In a patient satisfaction survey 93.1% of microsurgery patients and 91.2% of GKS patients were highly satisfied.Both GKS and microsurgery serve important roles in the overall management of patients with meningiomas. Both are safe and effective (...) Relative roles of microsurgery and stereotactic radiosurgery for the treatment of patients with cranial meningiomas: a single-surgeon 4-year integrated experience with both modalities. The authors sought to assess the respective roles of microsurgery and gamma knife surgery (GKS) in the treatment of patients with meningiomas.The authors culled from a 4-year prospective database data on 74 cases of meningiomas. Thirty-eight were treated with GKS and 35 with microsurgery. Simpson Grade 1 or 2

2005 Journal of Neurosurgery

9796. A superciliary approach for anterior cranial fossa lesions in children. Technical note. Full Text available with Trip Pro

x 3-cm bone opening just above the eyebrow through a superciliary incision, has been previously described in adults for many lesions situated in the anterior cranial fossa, including tumors and aneurysms. The authors review their experience in using this approach in 27 children for a variety of intracranial lesions. This approach was used for 28 procedures in children ranging in age from 1 to 16 years (mean age 10 years). The lesions included arachnoid cysts, cerebrospinal fluid fistulas (...) A superciliary approach for anterior cranial fossa lesions in children. Technical note. Many subfrontal and orbitofrontal craniotomy techniques have been proposed and developed for anterior cranial fossa lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical experience with the frontolateral keyhole craniotomy through a superciliary skin incision in children. The keyhole craniotomy is a modification of the traditional pterional approach. This modified approach, a craniotomy with a 2.5

2005 Journal of Neurosurgery

9797. Using the processus cochleariformis as a multipurpose landmark in middle cranial fossa surgery. (Abstract)

cochleariformis to inner-ear structures, and to define 14 other measurements that relate inner-ear structures to adjacent structures within the intact bone.Using 10 cadaver specimens, 20 reproducible measurements were defined. The first six of these defined the relation of the processus cochleariformis to inner-ear structures in the middle cranial fossa approach. The other measurements defined the exact location of the inner-ear structures and adjacent structures within the intact bone.The vertical crest lies (...) cochleariformis to the coronal plane. The other measurements obtained give important clues about the position of the cochlea, vestibulum, greater superficial petrosal nerve and labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve.If the classical landmarks are indiscernible during middle cranial fossa surgery, then the processus cochleariformis, with its intimate and constant relationships to inner-ear structures, is a safe and constant landmark.

2008 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

9798. A case of cranial fasciitis masquerading as acute mastoiditis. (Abstract)

A case of cranial fasciitis masquerading as acute mastoiditis. We report a case of infection against a background of pre-existing cranial fasciitis.Case report and review of world literature on cranial fasciitis.Cranial fasciitis of childhood is a benign condition and a rare variant of nodular fasciitis. We present the case of a 10-week-old infant with symptoms and signs consistent with a subperiosteal abscess complicating acute mastoiditis. Subsequent findings showed this to be an infection (...) against a background of pre-existing cranial fasciitis.To our knowledge, this is the first such reported case in the literature. Knowledge of the distinctive histopathological features, coupled with an awareness of the condition, are crucial to establishing a definitive diagnosis of cranial fasciitis and, in turn, to instituting appropriate management. The aetiopathogenesis of the condition remains unclear.

2008 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

9799. Otogenic Cranial Base Osteomyelitis: A Proposed Prognosis-Based System for Disease Classification. (Abstract)

Charlson comorbidity score was 5, and 63% of patients were diabetic. The most common presenting symptoms were pain and otorrhea, and 8 patients had cranial nerve neuropathy. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common bacterial pathogen (n = 28; 74%), and 9 patients had fungal or mixed infections. On average, antibiotics were administered for 161 days, and 6 patients had concomitant surgery. The average follow-up was 33 months, and 3-year disease-specific survival was 76%. Univariate predictors (...) of survival were the SPECT grade, fungal/mixed infections, Charlson score, immune compromise, and cranial nerve neuropathy. The only independent predictor of survival on multivariate Cox regression was the SPECT stage at presentation.Cranial base osteomyelitis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and requires prolonged treatment. Long-term outcome can be predicted from the initial SPECT scan.

2008 Otology and Neurotology

9800. Systemic chemotherapy after cranial irradiation in patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer: A retrospective study. (Abstract)

Systemic chemotherapy after cranial irradiation in patients with brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer: A retrospective study. Brain metastases (BMs) are found in about 10% of patients with newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This retrospective study was conducted to assess the clinical outcomes and prognostic factors of patients who received chemotherapy after cranial irradiation for NSCLC with synchronous BMs.From January 2000 through July 2007, we reviewed (...) the medical records of patients who received systemic chemotherapy following cranial irradiation for BMs from newly diagnosed NSCLC.A total of 40 patients were included in this review. As the first-line chemotherapy, a total of 114 cycles were administered, for a median number of 2 cycles per patient (range, 0.5-8 cycles). Thirty-four patients (85%) received platinum-based combination regimen and the remaining 6 received chemotherapy with a single agent. Sixteen (40%) patients, 11 of whom had ECOG of 2

2008 Lung Cancer

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