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21. The impact on post-operative shoulder function of intraoperative nerve monitoring of cranial nerve XI during modified radical neck dissection. (PubMed)

The impact on post-operative shoulder function of intraoperative nerve monitoring of cranial nerve XI during modified radical neck dissection. Intraoperative monitoring of the cranial nerve XI (CN XI) may decrease shoulder disability following modified radical neck dissection. Prospective study was designed comparing results of Constant Shoulder Score (CSS), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and EMG score of the trapezius muscle (mT) before and after surgery. One side of the neck (...) was monitored during surgery with intraoperative nerve monitor. EMG scores of the mT 6 months postoperatively were statistically better on monitored as compared to the non-monitored side of the neck (p = 0.041), while the differences of the CSS and SPADI were not statistically significant. Patients with better EMG scores of the mT at 6 weeks recuperated better and with smaller decrease of the CSS. Intraoperative monitoring is beneficial at the beginning of the surgeon's learning curve and in the process

2017 European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22. Nerves of Steel: a Low-Cost Method for 3D Printing the Cranial Nerves (PubMed)

Nerves of Steel: a Low-Cost Method for 3D Printing the Cranial Nerves Steady-state free precession (SSFP) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can demonstrate details down to the cranial nerve (CN) level. High-resolution three-dimensional (3D) visualization can now quickly be performed at the workstation. However, we are still limited by visualization on flat screens. The emerging technologies in rapid prototyping or 3D printing overcome this limitation. It comprises a variety of automated

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2017 Journal of Digital Imaging

23. Recommendations for Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation and Consolidative Radiation for Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer: Endorsement of the 2019 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Guidance

prophylactic cranial irradiation at a dose of 25 Gy in 10 fractions to people with limited-stage disease SCLC and World Health Organization (WHO) performance status 0 to 2, if their disease has not progressed on first-line treatment. Extensive-stage disease SCLC Consider thoracic radiotherapy with prophylactic cranial irradiation for people with extensive-stage disease SCLC who have had a partial or complete response to chemotherapy within the thorax and at distant sites. Consider prophylactic cranial (...) irradiation at a dose of 25 Gy in 10 fractions for people with extensive-stage disease SCLC and WHO performance status 0 to 2, if their disease has responded to first-line treatment. The Lung Cancer Disease Site Group of CCO also endorses the following recommendation to support research in order to develop better evidence in future to inform care decisions for prophylactic cranial irradiation for patients with SCLC. Recommendation for Research What is the effectiveness and cost effectiveness

2019 Cancer Care Ontario

24. Macroprolactinoma causing VI, X, XII cranial nerve palsies nearly 30 years after initial treatment (PubMed)

Macroprolactinoma causing VI, X, XII cranial nerve palsies nearly 30 years after initial treatment A 48-year-old man was diagnosed with a large macroprolactinoma in 1982 treated with surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy and bromocriptine. Normal prolactin was achieved in 2005 but in 2009 it started rising. Pituitary MRIs in 2009, 2012, 2014 and 2015 were reported as showing empty pituitary fossa. Prolactin continued to increase (despite increasing bromocriptine dose). Trialling cabergoline had (...) , there is significant tumour reduction with prolactin 1565 mU/L and cranial nerve deficits have remained stable. Prolactinomas can manifest aggressive behaviour even decades after initial treatment highlighting the unpredictable clinical course they can demonstrate and the need for careful imaging review.Aggressive behaviour of prolactinomas can manifest even decades after first treatment highlighting the unpredictable clinical course these tumours can demonstrate.Escape from control of hyperprolactinaemia

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2018 Endocrinology, diabetes & metabolism case reports

25. The Xomed Monopolar Cranial Nerve Stimulator Electrode: A Surprising Handy Tool for Deep Dissection of Epidermoid Tumors (PubMed)

The Xomed Monopolar Cranial Nerve Stimulator Electrode: A Surprising Handy Tool for Deep Dissection of Epidermoid Tumors Epidermoid cysts are notorious for their propensity to sneak into deep recesses between cranial nerves in the posterior fossa. Attempts to achieve complete excision using ordinary instruments when tempted by the seeming ease of dissection is known to cause unacceptable deficits. The Xomed monopolar stimulator electrode probe of the nerve integrity electromyography monitor has (...) electrode aid the dissection. The monopolar electrode was used to tease and scoop out the flakes aided by a fine suction. An initial internal decompression allowed the capsule to be folded away and separated from neurovascular structures using the dissector. The thin profile of both the instruments allowed good visualization and delicate control over the dissection in depths of the resection cavity without undue traction or impacts on superficially dissected cranial nerves. This novel use

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2018 Cureus

26. Clinical Course and Prognostic Factors of Acquired Third, Fourth, and Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsy in Korean Patients (PubMed)

Clinical Course and Prognostic Factors of Acquired Third, Fourth, and Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsy in Korean Patients This study aimed to evaluate the clinical course and prognostic factors of acquired third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve (CN) palsy grouped according to etiology.This study involved a retrospective review of the medical records of 153 patients who were diagnosed with acquired paralytic strabismus from January 2004 to July 2015. Outcomes, recovery rates, and time to recovery were

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2018 Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO

27. Multiple cranial nerve palsies in immunodeficiency subtype of Burkitt lymphoma (PubMed)

Multiple cranial nerve palsies in immunodeficiency subtype of Burkitt lymphoma Burkitt lymphoma is a late complication of HIV, and bilateral cranial nerve palsies are extremely rare in patients with AIDS. A twenty year old Caucasian male with known congenital HIV who had been non-adherent with anti-retroviral therapy presented with multiple cranial nerve palsies and was eventually diagnosed with Burkitt lymphoma. Before chemotherapy, he was started on radiation therapy to the brain, meninges (...) , and base of skull with the intent of improving cranial nerve palsies and preventing further neurological sequelae since the cranial nerve palsies were dense and there was concern that intrathecal chemotherapy would have less penetration than radiation. He eventually died due to overall disease burden. We hereby present what we believe is the first reported case of Burkitt lymphoma presenting with bilateral facial, vestibulocochlear, left abducens, and mandibular nerve palsies. Recognition of different

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2018 Journal of community hospital internal medicine perspectives

28. Multiple cranial nerve injuries and neck abscesses caused by a transorally penetrating organic stick (PubMed)

Multiple cranial nerve injuries and neck abscesses caused by a transorally penetrating organic stick Foreign bodies cause a remarkable number of otolaryngological emergency visits and occasionally result in life-threatening conditions and later-emerging complications. Patient recovery depends on the detection and proper extraction of all foreign materials. Despite various obtainable diagnostic tools, adequate anamnesis forms the basis of clinical reasoning and should direct later examinations

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2018 BMJ case reports

29. Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring’s Contributions on the Cranial Nerves and Vomeronasal Organ (PubMed)

Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring’s Contributions on the Cranial Nerves and Vomeronasal Organ Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring (January 28th, 1755, Thorn, then Royal Prussia, now Torun Poland - March 2nd, 1830, Frankfurt am Main, then a free city, now Germany) was one of the most respected Germanic scientists of his time. Whilst working on his philosophy doctorate (Ph.D.) thesis, when he was only 23 years old (circa 1778), Sömmerring proposed a new classification for the arrangement of the cranial (...) nerves, based on the order in which they become visible on the surface of the brain. Amongst his many other anatomical studies worthy of notice, in 1809 Sömmerring began studying the human olfactory system. During this period, he published a detailed text with sketches, being the first to describe in detail the human vomeronasal organ (VNO), working in parallel with Jacobsen, whose name has been synonymous with the VNO, despite denying its existence in man. Nonetheless, Sömmerring's contributions

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2018 Cureus

30. The combined effect of cranial-nerve non-invasive neuromodulation with high-intensity physiotherapy on gait and balance in a patient with cerebellar degeneration: a case report (PubMed)

The combined effect of cranial-nerve non-invasive neuromodulation with high-intensity physiotherapy on gait and balance in a patient with cerebellar degeneration: a case report Cranial-nerve non-invasive neuromodulation (CN-NINM) using the portable neuromodulation stimulator (PoNS™) device has been proposed as a novel adjuvant intervention to improve efficacy of gait and balance. This device modulates input and output signals during motor tasks which prompts neuroplastic changes. In this study

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2018 Cerebellum & ataxias

31. Ruptured posterior cerebral artery aneurysm presenting with a contralateral cranial nerve III palsy: A case report (PubMed)

Ruptured posterior cerebral artery aneurysm presenting with a contralateral cranial nerve III palsy: A case report Posterior cerebral artery aneurysms can frequently present with an ipsilateral cranial nerve III palsy.We report the first case of a posterior cerebral artery aneurysm associated with a contralateral cranial nerve III palsy. A 64-year-old male presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage, Hunt and Hess grade 3, and a left-sided fixed and dilated pupil. Computed tomography scan

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2018 Surgical neurology international

32. Multiple Cranial-Nerve Palsies: An Unusual Culprit (PubMed)

Multiple Cranial-Nerve Palsies: An Unusual Culprit 29629534 2018 11 14 1738-6586 14 2 2018 Apr Journal of clinical neurology (Seoul, Korea) J Clin Neurol Multiple Cranial-Nerve Palsies: An Unusual Culprit. 257-258 10.3988/jcn.2018.14.2.257 Shashikala Turlapati Padmavathi TP Department of Neurology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India. Mehta Sahil S Department of Neurology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER (...) ), Chandigarh, India. mehtasahilpgi@gmail.com. Sharma Aman A Department of Rheumatology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India. Rai Mittal Bhagwant B Department of Nuclear Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India. eng Case Reports Letter Korea (South) J Clin Neurol 101252374 1738-6586 The authors have no financial conflicts of interest. 2017 11 15 2018 01 10 2018 01 17 2018 4 10 6 0 2018 4 10 6 0 2018 4 10 6

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2018 Journal of clinical neurology (Seoul, Korea)

33. Cranial Nerve Injury After Carotid Endarterectomy: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Time Trends.

Cranial Nerve Injury After Carotid Endarterectomy: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Time Trends. To review the incidence of post-carotid endarterectomy (CEA) cranial nerve injury (CNI), and to evaluate the risk factors associated with increased CNI risk.The study was a meta-analysis. Pooled rates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for CNIs after primary CEA. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for potential risk factors. A fixed-effects model or a random effects model (Mantel (...) -Haenszel method) was used for non-heterogeneous and heterogeneous data, respectively. Meta-regression analysis was performed to examine the influence of publication year upon CNI rate.Twenty-six articles, published between 1970 and 2015, were included in the meta-analysis, corresponding to 20,860 CEAs. Meta-analysis revealed that the vagus nerve was the most frequently injured cranial nerve (pooled injury rate 3.99%, 95% CI 2.56-5.70), followed by the hypoglossal nerve (3.79%, 95% CI 2.73-4.99). Fewer

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2018 European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery

34. Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guidelines on Intraoperative Cranial Nerve Monitoring in Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery.

Congress of Neurological Surgeons Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guidelines on Intraoperative Cranial Nerve Monitoring in Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery. Does intraoperative facial nerve monitoring during vestibular schwannoma surgery lead to better long-term facial nerve function?This recommendation applies to adult patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma surgery regardless of tumor characteristics.Level 3: It is recommended that intraoperative facial nerve monitoring be routinely (...) ?This recommendation applies to adult patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma surgery.Level 3: Poor intraoperative EMG electrical response of the facial nerve should not be used as a reliable predictor of poor long-term facial nerve function.Should intraoperative eighth cranial nerve monitoring be used during vestibular schwannoma surgery?This recommendation applies to adult patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma surgery with measurable preoperative hearing levels and tumors smaller than 1.5 cm.Level 3

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2018 Neurosurgery

35. Does the surgical approach for treating mandibular condylar fractures affect the rate of seventh cranial nerve injuries? A systematic review and meta-analysis based on a new classification for surgical approaches.

Does the surgical approach for treating mandibular condylar fractures affect the rate of seventh cranial nerve injuries? A systematic review and meta-analysis based on a new classification for surgical approaches. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of facial nerve injury (FNI) when performing (ORIF) of mandibular condylar fractures by different surgical approaches.A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed that included several databases with specific keywords (...) facial nerve preparation 19% (24.3% for CNFs and 10.5% for CBFs). F) For retromandibular transmassetric anteroparotid approach 3.4% in CNFs/CBFs. G) For retromandibular transmassetric anteroparotid approach with preauricular extension 2.3% for CNFs/CBFs. H) For preauricular approach a) deep subfascial dissection plane 0% in CHFs b) for subfascial approach using traditional preauricular incision 10% (8.5% in CHFs and 11.5% in CNFs). I) For retroauricular approach 3% for CHFs. PFNI rates reported

2018 Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery

36. Isolated cranial nerve III palsy as the presenting manifestation of HIV-related large B-cell lymphoma: clinical, radiological and postmortem observations: report of a case and review of the literature. (PubMed)

were positive. Postmortem examination of the brain revealed malignant lymphomatous cell infiltration of both cranial nerve III, diffuse leptomeningeal disease and focal superficial subependymal and subpial invasion. Based on our review of the literature, we were able to find only 10 detailed cases of cranial nerve III palsy as the presenting manifestation of central nervous system lymphoma. Furthermore, none of the previously reported cases correlated the magnetic resonance imaging findings (...) Isolated cranial nerve III palsy as the presenting manifestation of HIV-related large B-cell lymphoma: clinical, radiological and postmortem observations: report of a case and review of the literature. Rarely can a neurologically isolated cranial nerve III palsy be the presenting manifestation of central nervous system lymphoma. We detail the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of a previously healthy 45-year-old man presenting with an isolated, pupil-involving, right cranial

2017 Survey of Ophthalmology

37. Laryngeal manifestations of cranial nerve IX/X compression at the brainstem. (PubMed)

Laryngeal manifestations of cranial nerve IX/X compression at the brainstem. We report an association between lower cranial nerve (CN IX/X) vascular compression at the brainstem with laryngeal symptoms utilizing a stepwise algorithm that systematically evaluates and eliminates all other common etiologies. Our experiences with retromastoid craniectomy with lower cranial nerve (LCN) decompression versus non-neurosurgical treatments are detailed.Retrospective chart review at a tertiary care (...) (2 of 25 patients, 8%) (P = 0.02). V-RQOL scores improved more in surgical patients [mean change score, 33.0 (standard deviation [SD], 31.2) than nonsurgical patients (mean change score 9.6, SD 20.9) (P = 0.03) (mean follow-up 3.0 years, SD 2.0).Lower cranial nerve compression at the brainstem should be considered when all other etiologies are excluded. Retromastoid craniectomy with LCN decompression demonstrates an acceptable safety profile.4. Laryngoscope, 1-7, 2018.© 2018 The American

2018 Laryngoscope

38. Cranial nerve palsies due to incidental durotomy in lumbar Spine surgery: a case report. (PubMed)

Cranial nerve palsies due to incidental durotomy in lumbar Spine surgery: a case report. We present a 65-year old man who underwent a partial laminectomy at L4. During surgery an incidental durotomy (ID) appeared. Postoperatively he developed cranial nerve palsies. Subsequent to surgical closure of the ID, symptoms completely resolved within three months.

2018 British Journal of Neurosurgery

39. Nationwide Shift From Percutaneous Rhizotomy to Microvascular Decompression for Treatment of Trigeminal and Other Cranial Nerve Neuralgias. (PubMed)

Nationwide Shift From Percutaneous Rhizotomy to Microvascular Decompression for Treatment of Trigeminal and Other Cranial Nerve Neuralgias. The aim of this study was to report the trends in the use of common surgical interventions over the past decade to treat cranial nerve neuralgias.The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Part B National Summary Data File from 2000 to 2016 were studied.A total of 57.1 million persons were enrolled in 2016, up from 39.6 million persons in 2000 (...) . Suboccipital craniectomy done for cranial nerve decompressions (including cranial nerves V, VII, and IX) increased by 33.9 cases per year so that in 2016 the number of cases was 167% of what it was 17 years earlier (ie, from 655 cases in 2000 to 1096 cases in 2016). The less commonly used subtemporal approach craniectomy to treat trigeminal neuralgia (TN) increased by 1.13 cases per year (ie, from 25 cases in 2000 to 46 cases in 2016). The less invasive percutaneous rhizotomy procedures, including glycerol

2018 Headache

40. Cardiovascular endpoints for obstructive sleep apnea with twelfth cranial nerve stimulation (CARDIOSA-12): Rationale and methods. (PubMed)

Cardiovascular endpoints for obstructive sleep apnea with twelfth cranial nerve stimulation (CARDIOSA-12): Rationale and methods. To determine the effect of therapeutic levels of hypoglossal nerve stimulation therapy (HGNS), compared to subtherapeutic levels of HGNS, on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, sympathetic activity, and vascular function.Double-blind, sham-controlled, randomized crossover trial of 10-week duration at a university medical center METHODS: The target enrollment is 60 (...) randomly assigned subjects. Interventions are active versus sham (subtherapeutic) HGNS therapy.The primary outcome is 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure. Secondary outcomes include 24-hour ambulatory diastolic blood pressure, nocturnal systolic and diastolic pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity, pre-ejection period, flow-mediated dilation, and pulse wave velocity.The Cardiovascular Endpoints for Obstructive Sleep Apnea With Twelfth Cranial Nerve Stimulation study is designed to examine

2018 Laryngoscope

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