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Cranial Nerve 12

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1. Assessment of cranial nerve mononeuropathy

Assessment of cranial nerve mononeuropathy Assessment of cranial nerve mononeuropathy - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of cranial nerve mononeuropathy Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: June 2018 Summary There are 12 paired cranial nerves, named and numbered according to the rostral-caudal order of attachment to the brain. They serve a variety of functions and predominantly provide (...) the motor and sensory innervation to the head. The effects of a mononeuropathy depend on where in its pathway the nerve is affected and the aetiology. The signs and symptoms of a cranial nerve mononeuropathy vary depending on which nerve is affected. Olfactory (I) Anatomy Olfaction begins with transduction of odorants from the air into the nasal mucosa. These odorants diffuse or are transported to bipolar receptor cells located in the olfactory neuroepithelium in the roof of the nasal chamber. Action

2018 BMJ Best Practice

2. Cranial Nerve Foramina: Part II – A Review of the Anatomy and Pathology of Cranial Nerve Foramina of the Posterior Cranial Fossa (PubMed)

Cranial Nerve Foramina: Part II – A Review of the Anatomy and Pathology of Cranial Nerve Foramina of the Posterior Cranial Fossa Cranial nerve foramina are integral exits from the confines of the skull. Despite their significance in cranial nerve pathologies, there has been no comprehensive anatomical review of these structures. Owing to the extensive nature of this topic we have divided our review into two parts; Part II, presented here, focuses on the foramina of the posterior cranial fossa

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2018 Cureus

3. Cardiovascular endpoints for obstructive sleep apnea with twelfth cranial nerve stimulation (CARDIOSA-12): Rationale and methods. (PubMed)

Cardiovascular endpoints for obstructive sleep apnea with twelfth cranial nerve stimulation (CARDIOSA-12): Rationale and methods. To determine the effect of therapeutic levels of hypoglossal nerve stimulation therapy (HGNS), compared to subtherapeutic levels of HGNS, on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, sympathetic activity, and vascular function.Double-blind, sham-controlled, randomized crossover trial of 10-week duration at a university medical center METHODS: The target enrollment is 60 (...) randomly assigned subjects. Interventions are active versus sham (subtherapeutic) HGNS therapy.The primary outcome is 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure. Secondary outcomes include 24-hour ambulatory diastolic blood pressure, nocturnal systolic and diastolic pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity, pre-ejection period, flow-mediated dilation, and pulse wave velocity.The Cardiovascular Endpoints for Obstructive Sleep Apnea With Twelfth Cranial Nerve Stimulation study is designed to examine

2018 Laryngoscope

4. CRACKCast E105 – Brain and Cranial Nerve Disorders

CRACKCast E105 – Brain and Cranial Nerve Disorders CRACKCast E105 - Brain and Cranial Nerve Disorders - CanadiEM CRACKCast E105 – Brain and Cranial Nerve Disorders In by Chris Lipp August 31, 2017 This episode of CRACKCast covers Rosen’s Chapter 105, Brain and Cranial Nerve Disorders. These can be the weird and wonderful in the ED, but subtle hints can clue us in that further investigation is needed for our patients. Having a high suspicion for these diagnoses can help you make an appropriate (...) care plan and follow up for patients with neurological disease. Shownotes – Rosen’s in Perspective What are three things I can guarantee you feel a little queasy when pimped about? Well we’ve got you covered here for Cranial Nerve problems, Cerebral Venous Thrombosis and Multiple Sclerosis. When it comes to Cranial nerve deficits, remember to NOT MISS THE INTRACRANIAL CATASTROPHE! When deficits cannot be clearly attributed to lower motor neuron dysfunction, obtain definitive imaging (typically

2017 CandiEM

5. Cranial Nerve Foramina Part I: A Review of the Anatomy and Pathology of Cranial Nerve Foramina of the Anterior and Middle Fossa (PubMed)

Cranial Nerve Foramina Part I: A Review of the Anatomy and Pathology of Cranial Nerve Foramina of the Anterior and Middle Fossa Cranial nerve foramina are integral exits from the confines of the skull. Despite their significance in cranial nerve pathologies, there has been no comprehensive anatomical review of these structures. Owing to the extensive nature of this topic, Part I of our review, presented here, focuses on the foramina of the anterior and middle cranial fossae, discussing each

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2018 Cureus

6. Cranial Nerve Coactivation and Implication for Nerve Transfers to the Facial Nerve. (PubMed)

Cranial Nerve Coactivation and Implication for Nerve Transfers to the Facial Nerve. In reanimation surgery, effortless smile can be achieved by a nonfacial donor nerve. The underlying mechanisms for this smile development, and which is the best nonfacial neurotizer, need further clarification. The aim of the present study was therefore to further explore the natural coactivation between facial mimic muscles and muscles innervated by the most common donor nerves used in smile reanimation (...) . The study was conducted in 10 healthy adults. Correlation between voluntary facial muscle movements and simultaneous electromyographic activity in muscles innervated by the masseter, hypoglossal, and spinal accessory nerves was assessed. The association between voluntary movements in the latter muscles and simultaneous electromyographic activity in facial muscles was also studied. Smile coactivated the masseter and tongue muscles equally. During the seven mimic movements, the masseter muscle had fewer

2018 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

7. Sixth cranial nerve palsy and ipsilateral trigeminal neuralgia caused by vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (PubMed)

Sixth cranial nerve palsy and ipsilateral trigeminal neuralgia caused by vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia To report an unusual case of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia causing both trigeminal neuralgia and ipsilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy.A patient had undergone surgical decompression of trigeminal neuralgia caused by dolichoectatic vertebral and basilar arteries years before presenting with ipsilateral sixth nerve palsy. Brain MRI showed deviant vertebrobasilar arteries that presumably now (...) compressed the sixth cranial nerve. The unaffected left sixth cranial nerve was visible on MRI, but the affected right sixth cranial nerve was not. The central spinal fluid space in Dorello's canal on the affected side was relatively ample, suggesting atrophy of the affected sixth cranial nerve. On follow-up examination one year after presentation, the patient's diplopia was palliated with spectacle prism.This is the tenth reported case of dolichoectasia causing sixth cranial nerve palsy, but only

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2018 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

8. Severe localised granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) manifesting with extensive cranial nerve palsies and cranial diabetes insipidus: a case report and literature review. (PubMed)

Severe localised granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) manifesting with extensive cranial nerve palsies and cranial diabetes insipidus: a case report and literature review. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly Wegener's granulomatosis) is a multisystem vasculitis of small- to medium-sized blood vessels. Cranial involvement can result in cranial nerve palsies and, rarely, pituitary infiltration.We describe the case of a 32 year-old woman with limited but severe (...) GPA manifesting as progressive cranial nerve palsies and pituitary dysfunction. Our patient initially presented with localised ENT involvement, but despite treatment with methotrexate, she deteriorated. Granulomatous inflammatory tissue around the skull base resulted in cavernous sinus syndrome, facial nerve palsy, palsies of cranial nerves IX-XII (Collet-Sicard syndrome), and the rare complication of cranial diabetes insipidus due to pituitary infiltration. The glossopharyngeal, vagus

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2018 BMC Neurology

9. Comparison of height and weight after 12 vs. 18 Gy cranial radiation therapy in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients (PubMed)

Comparison of height and weight after 12 vs. 18 Gy cranial radiation therapy in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients To compare the effect of 12 versus 18 Gy cranial radiation therapy (RT) on height and weight indices among pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).Records of children with ALL who were 2 to 14 years old at the time of RT and were treated at a single institution between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. Patients' height, weight, and body mass index (...) the first 3 years of follow-up. This did not appear to be sex-specific, and there was no difference in change in weight or body mass index.Compared with 18 Gy, patients with ALL who received 12 Gy of cranial RT had less height impairment in the first 3 years post-RT, but further prospective studies are needed.

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2017 Advances in radiation oncology

10. Cranial Nerve 12

Cranial Nerve 12 Cranial Nerve 12 Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 12 Cranial Nerve 12 Aka: Cranial Nerve (...) 12 , Cranial Nerve XII , Hypoglossal Nerve , CN 12 , Hypoglossal Nucleus II. Anatomy Hypoglossal Nucleus Originates in Hypoglossal Nucleus, in the Exits anterior to the All other medulla s ( , , , ) exit posterior to the Course As with all other s (except ), fibers remain ipsilateral (do not cross over) Passes through hypoglossal canal beside foramen magnum Courses downward with neurovascular structures ( ) Curves forward behind to lingual root Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed

2018 FP Notebook

11. Cranial Nerve 12 Paralysis

Cranial Nerve 12 Paralysis Cranial Nerve 12 Paralysis Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 12 Paralysis (...) Cranial Nerve 12 Paralysis Aka: Cranial Nerve 12 Paralysis , 12th Cranial Nerve Paralysis , Hypoglossal Nerve Paralysis , Tongue Paralysis From Related Chapters II. Signs Atrophy, fasciculations of involved half Deviation toward paralyzed side when protruded III. Differential presents with palpable mass No palpable mass in Hypoglossal Nerve Paralysis Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Cranial Nerve 12 Paralysis." Click

2018 FP Notebook

12. Ocular cranial nerve palsies secondary to sphenoid sinusitis (PubMed)

Ocular cranial nerve palsies secondary to sphenoid sinusitis The clinical presentation of sphenoid sinusitis can be highly variable. Rarely, sphenoid sinusitis may present with cranial nerve complications due to the proximity of these structures to the sphenoid sinus.A case series from Rabin Medical Center and all cases of cranial nerves palsies secondary to sphenoid sinusitis that have been reported in the literature were reviewed.Seventeen patients were identified. The abducent nerve (...) was the most common cranial nerve affected (76%), followed by the oculomotor nerve (18%). One patient had combined oculomotor, trochlear and abducent palsies. The most common pathology was isolated purulent sphenoid sinusitis in 64% followed by allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in 18%, and fungal infection in 18%. 94% had an acute presentation. The majority (85%) received a combined intravenous antibiotics and surgical treatment. The remainder received conservative treatment alone. Complete recovery

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2017 World journal of otorhinolaryngology - head and neck surgery

13. Electrical stimulation‐based nerve location prediction for cranial nerve VII localization in acoustic neuroma surgery (PubMed)

Electrical stimulation‐based nerve location prediction for cranial nerve VII localization in acoustic neuroma surgery Cranial nerve (CN) VII localization is a critical step during acoustic neuroma surgery because the nerve is generally hidden due to the tumor mass. The patient can suffer from Bell's palsy if the nerve is accidentally damaged during tumor removal. Surgeons localize CN VII by exploring the target area with a stimulus probe. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) are elicited (...) when the probe locates the nerve. However, false positives and false negatives are possible due to unpredictable tissue impedance in the operative area. Moreover, a single CMAP amplitude is not correlated with probe-to-nerve distance.This paper presents a new modality for nerve localization. The probe-to-nerve distance is predicted by the proposed nerve location prediction model.Input features are extracted from CMAP responses, tissue impedance, and stimulus current. The tissue impedance

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2018 Brain and behavior

14. Imaging of Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI in Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders (PubMed)

Imaging of Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI in Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are a group of diseases caused by abnormal development of cranial nerve nuclei or their axonal connections, resulting in aberrant innervation of the ocular and facial musculature. Its diagnosis could be facilitated by the development of high resolution thin-section magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this review is to describe the method to visualize cranial (...) nerves III, IV, and VI and to present the imaging findings of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders including congenital oculomotor nerve palsy, congenital trochlear nerve palsy, Duane retraction syndrome, Möbius syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, synergistic divergence, and synergistic convergence.© 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society.

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2017 Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO

15. Potential Involvement of Draxin in the Axonal Projection of Cranial Nerves, Especially Cranial Nerve X, in the Chick Hindbrain (PubMed)

Potential Involvement of Draxin in the Axonal Projection of Cranial Nerves, Especially Cranial Nerve X, in the Chick Hindbrain The appropriate projection of axons within the nervous system is a crucial component of the establishment of neural circuitry. Draxin is a repulsive axon guidance protein. Draxin has important functions in the guidance of three commissures in the central nervous system and in the migration of neural crest cells and dI3 interneurons in the chick spinal cord. Here, we (...) report that the distribution of the draxin protein and the location of 23C10-positive areas have a strong temporal and spatial correlation. The overexpression of draxin, especially transmembrane draxin, caused 23C10-positive axon bundles to misproject in the dorsal hindbrain. In addition, the overexpression of transmembrane draxin caused abnormal formation of the ganglion crest of the IX and X cranial nerves, misprojection of some anti-human natural killer-1 (HNK-1)-stained structures in the dorsal

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2016 Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry

16. Nerve Compression Syndromes in the Posterior Cranial Fossa. (PubMed)

Nerve Compression Syndromes in the Posterior Cranial Fossa. Nerve compression syndromes in the posterior cranial fossa can severely impair patients' quality of life. There is often uncertainty about the best treatment. In this article, we provide an overview of these conditions and the corresponding treatment strategies.This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and on a scientific analysis of the authors' patient collective.These syndromes (...) are caused by compression of a cranial nerve by an artery or vein at the zone of the nerve's entry to or exit from the brainstem. The best-known neurovascular compression syndrome is trigeminal neuralgia, followed by hemifacial spasm. Less well known are glossopharyngeal neuralgia, nervus intermedius neuralgia, and vestibular paroxysmia. The initial treatment of trigeminal neuralgia is medical: the first line of treatment is with sodium-blocking anticon- vulsants, such as carbamazepine. For patients

2019 Deutsches Arzteblatt international

17. Full tractography for detecting the position of cranial nerves in preoperative planning for skull base surgery: technical note. (PubMed)

Full tractography for detecting the position of cranial nerves in preoperative planning for skull base surgery: technical note. OBJECTIVEDiffusion imaging tractography has allowed the in vivo description of brain white matter. One of its applications is preoperative planning for brain tumor resection. Due to a limited spatial and angular resolution, it is difficult for fiber tracking to delineate fiber crossing areas and small-scale structures, in particular brainstem tracts and cranial nerves (...) , the cerebellum, and cranial nerves was performed using the software DSI Studio, generalized-q-sampling reconstruction, orientation distribution function (ODF) of fibers, and a quantitative anisotropy-based generalized deterministic algorithm. No ROI or extensive manual filtering of spurious fibers was used. Tractography rendering was displayed in a tridimensional space with directional color code. This approach was also tested on diffusion data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) database.RESULTSThe

2019 Journal of Neurosurgery

18. The impact on post-operative shoulder function of intraoperative nerve monitoring of cranial nerve XI during modified radical neck dissection. (PubMed)

The impact on post-operative shoulder function of intraoperative nerve monitoring of cranial nerve XI during modified radical neck dissection. Intraoperative monitoring of the cranial nerve XI (CN XI) may decrease shoulder disability following modified radical neck dissection. Prospective study was designed comparing results of Constant Shoulder Score (CSS), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and EMG score of the trapezius muscle (mT) before and after surgery. One side of the neck (...) was monitored during surgery with intraoperative nerve monitor. EMG scores of the mT 6 months postoperatively were statistically better on monitored as compared to the non-monitored side of the neck (p = 0.041), while the differences of the CSS and SPADI were not statistically significant. Patients with better EMG scores of the mT at 6 weeks recuperated better and with smaller decrease of the CSS. Intraoperative monitoring is beneficial at the beginning of the surgeon's learning curve and in the process

2017 European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

19. Nerves of Steel: a Low-Cost Method for 3D Printing the Cranial Nerves (PubMed)

Nerves of Steel: a Low-Cost Method for 3D Printing the Cranial Nerves Steady-state free precession (SSFP) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can demonstrate details down to the cranial nerve (CN) level. High-resolution three-dimensional (3D) visualization can now quickly be performed at the workstation. However, we are still limited by visualization on flat screens. The emerging technologies in rapid prototyping or 3D printing overcome this limitation. It comprises a variety of automated

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2017 Journal of Digital Imaging

20. Isolated unilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy: A rare presentation of dengue fever (PubMed)

Isolated unilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy: A rare presentation of dengue fever Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral infection endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. Neurological manifestations in dengue infection are relatively uncommon, and include encephalitis, encephalopathy, neuromuscular disorders and neuro-ocular disorders. Cranial mononeuropathy is a rare manifestation of dengue infection. A 40-year-old man was diagnosed with isolated, unilateral sixth cranial nerve (...) palsy complicating dengue infection. The patient was managed accordingly, and full ocular recovery was observed. This was the first reported case of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy associated with dengue fever in Malaysia. It is important for clinicians to consider dengue as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with fever and sixth cranial nerve palsy.

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2016 Malaysian family physician : the official journal of the Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia

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