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Cranial Nerve 10

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1. Assessment of cranial nerve mononeuropathy

Assessment of cranial nerve mononeuropathy Assessment of cranial nerve mononeuropathy - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of cranial nerve mononeuropathy Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: June 2018 Summary There are 12 paired cranial nerves, named and numbered according to the rostral-caudal order of attachment to the brain. They serve a variety of functions and predominantly provide (...) the motor and sensory innervation to the head. The effects of a mononeuropathy depend on where in its pathway the nerve is affected and the aetiology. The signs and symptoms of a cranial nerve mononeuropathy vary depending on which nerve is affected. Olfactory (I) Anatomy Olfaction begins with transduction of odorants from the air into the nasal mucosa. These odorants diffuse or are transported to bipolar receptor cells located in the olfactory neuroepithelium in the roof of the nasal chamber. Action

2018 BMJ Best Practice

2. Cranial Nerve Foramina: Part II – A Review of the Anatomy and Pathology of Cranial Nerve Foramina of the Posterior Cranial Fossa (PubMed)

Cranial Nerve Foramina: Part II – A Review of the Anatomy and Pathology of Cranial Nerve Foramina of the Posterior Cranial Fossa Cranial nerve foramina are integral exits from the confines of the skull. Despite their significance in cranial nerve pathologies, there has been no comprehensive anatomical review of these structures. Owing to the extensive nature of this topic we have divided our review into two parts; Part II, presented here, focuses on the foramina of the posterior cranial fossa

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2018 Cureus

3. Cranial Nerve Foramina Part I: A Review of the Anatomy and Pathology of Cranial Nerve Foramina of the Anterior and Middle Fossa (PubMed)

Cranial Nerve Foramina Part I: A Review of the Anatomy and Pathology of Cranial Nerve Foramina of the Anterior and Middle Fossa Cranial nerve foramina are integral exits from the confines of the skull. Despite their significance in cranial nerve pathologies, there has been no comprehensive anatomical review of these structures. Owing to the extensive nature of this topic, Part I of our review, presented here, focuses on the foramina of the anterior and middle cranial fossae, discussing each

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2018 Cureus

4. CRACKCast E105 – Brain and Cranial Nerve Disorders

CRACKCast E105 – Brain and Cranial Nerve Disorders CRACKCast E105 - Brain and Cranial Nerve Disorders - CanadiEM CRACKCast E105 – Brain and Cranial Nerve Disorders In by Chris Lipp August 31, 2017 This episode of CRACKCast covers Rosen’s Chapter 105, Brain and Cranial Nerve Disorders. These can be the weird and wonderful in the ED, but subtle hints can clue us in that further investigation is needed for our patients. Having a high suspicion for these diagnoses can help you make an appropriate (...) care plan and follow up for patients with neurological disease. Shownotes – Rosen’s in Perspective What are three things I can guarantee you feel a little queasy when pimped about? Well we’ve got you covered here for Cranial Nerve problems, Cerebral Venous Thrombosis and Multiple Sclerosis. When it comes to Cranial nerve deficits, remember to NOT MISS THE INTRACRANIAL CATASTROPHE! When deficits cannot be clearly attributed to lower motor neuron dysfunction, obtain definitive imaging (typically

2017 CandiEM

5. Sixth cranial nerve palsy and ipsilateral trigeminal neuralgia caused by vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (PubMed)

Sixth cranial nerve palsy and ipsilateral trigeminal neuralgia caused by vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia To report an unusual case of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia causing both trigeminal neuralgia and ipsilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy.A patient had undergone surgical decompression of trigeminal neuralgia caused by dolichoectatic vertebral and basilar arteries years before presenting with ipsilateral sixth nerve palsy. Brain MRI showed deviant vertebrobasilar arteries that presumably now (...) compressed the sixth cranial nerve. The unaffected left sixth cranial nerve was visible on MRI, but the affected right sixth cranial nerve was not. The central spinal fluid space in Dorello's canal on the affected side was relatively ample, suggesting atrophy of the affected sixth cranial nerve. On follow-up examination one year after presentation, the patient's diplopia was palliated with spectacle prism.This is the tenth reported case of dolichoectasia causing sixth cranial nerve palsy, but only

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2018 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

6. Cranial Nerve Coactivation and Implication for Nerve Transfers to the Facial Nerve. (PubMed)

Cranial Nerve Coactivation and Implication for Nerve Transfers to the Facial Nerve. In reanimation surgery, effortless smile can be achieved by a nonfacial donor nerve. The underlying mechanisms for this smile development, and which is the best nonfacial neurotizer, need further clarification. The aim of the present study was therefore to further explore the natural coactivation between facial mimic muscles and muscles innervated by the most common donor nerves used in smile reanimation (...) . The study was conducted in 10 healthy adults. Correlation between voluntary facial muscle movements and simultaneous electromyographic activity in muscles innervated by the masseter, hypoglossal, and spinal accessory nerves was assessed. The association between voluntary movements in the latter muscles and simultaneous electromyographic activity in facial muscles was also studied. Smile coactivated the masseter and tongue muscles equally. During the seven mimic movements, the masseter muscle had fewer

2018 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

7. Severe localised granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) manifesting with extensive cranial nerve palsies and cranial diabetes insipidus: a case report and literature review. (PubMed)

Severe localised granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) manifesting with extensive cranial nerve palsies and cranial diabetes insipidus: a case report and literature review. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly Wegener's granulomatosis) is a multisystem vasculitis of small- to medium-sized blood vessels. Cranial involvement can result in cranial nerve palsies and, rarely, pituitary infiltration.We describe the case of a 32 year-old woman with limited but severe (...) GPA manifesting as progressive cranial nerve palsies and pituitary dysfunction. Our patient initially presented with localised ENT involvement, but despite treatment with methotrexate, she deteriorated. Granulomatous inflammatory tissue around the skull base resulted in cavernous sinus syndrome, facial nerve palsy, palsies of cranial nerves IX-XII (Collet-Sicard syndrome), and the rare complication of cranial diabetes insipidus due to pituitary infiltration. The glossopharyngeal, vagus

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2018 BMC Neurology

8. Idiopathic recurrent facial palsy: Facial nerve decompression via middle cranial fossa approach. (PubMed)

Idiopathic recurrent facial palsy: Facial nerve decompression via middle cranial fossa approach. To introduce our experience of preventing further episodes of idiopathic recurrent facial palsy by facial nerve decompression via middle cranial fossa approach.Twelve cases (surgery group) who had idiopathic recurrent facial palsy underwent facial nerve decompression via middle cranial fossa approach, and 6 cases (control group) who declined surgery accepted conservative treatment. Further episodes (...) decompression via middle cranial fossa approach was able to prevent further episodes of idiopathic recurrent facial palsy, and surgical decompression seemed to achieve better outcomes of facial nerve than conservative treatment.Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

2020 American Journal of Otolaryngology

9. Cranial Nerve 10

Cranial Nerve 10 Cranial Nerve 10 Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 10 Cranial Nerve 10 Aka: Cranial Nerve (...) 10 , Cranial Nerve X , Vagus Nerve , CN 10 II. Anatomy: Cranial Nerves 9-11 Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Physiology Most extensive innervation of any Neck, thorax, innervation Motor, sensory and autonomic IV. Anatomy: Nucleii in Medulla transmits signals to pharynx for swallowing, as well as Also innervates Levator Veli Palatini (raises the ) Dorsal Motor Nucleus CN10 innervates

2018 FP Notebook

10. Electrical stimulation‐based nerve location prediction for cranial nerve VII localization in acoustic neuroma surgery (PubMed)

Electrical stimulation‐based nerve location prediction for cranial nerve VII localization in acoustic neuroma surgery Cranial nerve (CN) VII localization is a critical step during acoustic neuroma surgery because the nerve is generally hidden due to the tumor mass. The patient can suffer from Bell's palsy if the nerve is accidentally damaged during tumor removal. Surgeons localize CN VII by exploring the target area with a stimulus probe. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) are elicited (...) is calculated from the estimated resistance and capacitance of the tissue equivalent circuit. In this study, experiments were conducted in animals. A frog's sciatic nerve and gastrocnemius were used to represent CN VII and facial muscle in humans, respectively. Gelatin (2.8%) was used as a mock material to mimic an acoustic neuroma. The %NaCl applied to the mock material was used to emulate uncontrollable impedance of tissue in the operative area.The 10-fold cross-validation results revealed an average

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2018 Brain and behavior

11. Ocular cranial nerve palsies secondary to sphenoid sinusitis (PubMed)

Ocular cranial nerve palsies secondary to sphenoid sinusitis The clinical presentation of sphenoid sinusitis can be highly variable. Rarely, sphenoid sinusitis may present with cranial nerve complications due to the proximity of these structures to the sphenoid sinus.A case series from Rabin Medical Center and all cases of cranial nerves palsies secondary to sphenoid sinusitis that have been reported in the literature were reviewed.Seventeen patients were identified. The abducent nerve (...) was the most common cranial nerve affected (76%), followed by the oculomotor nerve (18%). One patient had combined oculomotor, trochlear and abducent palsies. The most common pathology was isolated purulent sphenoid sinusitis in 64% followed by allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in 18%, and fungal infection in 18%. 94% had an acute presentation. The majority (85%) received a combined intravenous antibiotics and surgical treatment. The remainder received conservative treatment alone. Complete recovery

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2017 World journal of otorhinolaryngology - head and neck surgery

12. Imaging of Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI in Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders (PubMed)

Imaging of Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI in Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are a group of diseases caused by abnormal development of cranial nerve nuclei or their axonal connections, resulting in aberrant innervation of the ocular and facial musculature. Its diagnosis could be facilitated by the development of high resolution thin-section magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this review is to describe the method to visualize cranial (...) nerves III, IV, and VI and to present the imaging findings of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders including congenital oculomotor nerve palsy, congenital trochlear nerve palsy, Duane retraction syndrome, Möbius syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, synergistic divergence, and synergistic convergence.© 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society.

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2017 Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO

13. Nerve Compression Syndromes in the Posterior Cranial Fossa. (PubMed)

Nerve Compression Syndromes in the Posterior Cranial Fossa. Nerve compression syndromes in the posterior cranial fossa can severely impair patients' quality of life. There is often uncertainty about the best treatment. In this article, we provide an overview of these conditions and the corresponding treatment strategies.This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and on a scientific analysis of the authors' patient collective.These syndromes (...) are caused by compression of a cranial nerve by an artery or vein at the zone of the nerve's entry to or exit from the brainstem. The best-known neurovascular compression syndrome is trigeminal neuralgia, followed by hemifacial spasm. Less well known are glossopharyngeal neuralgia, nervus intermedius neuralgia, and vestibular paroxysmia. The initial treatment of trigeminal neuralgia is medical: the first line of treatment is with sodium-blocking anticon- vulsants, such as carbamazepine. For patients

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2019 Deutsches Arzteblatt international

14. Full tractography for detecting the position of cranial nerves in preoperative planning for skull base surgery: technical note. (PubMed)

Full tractography for detecting the position of cranial nerves in preoperative planning for skull base surgery: technical note. OBJECTIVEDiffusion imaging tractography has allowed the in vivo description of brain white matter. One of its applications is preoperative planning for brain tumor resection. Due to a limited spatial and angular resolution, it is difficult for fiber tracking to delineate fiber crossing areas and small-scale structures, in particular brainstem tracts and cranial nerves (...) , the cerebellum, and cranial nerves was performed using the software DSI Studio, generalized-q-sampling reconstruction, orientation distribution function (ODF) of fibers, and a quantitative anisotropy-based generalized deterministic algorithm. No ROI or extensive manual filtering of spurious fibers was used. Tractography rendering was displayed in a tridimensional space with directional color code. This approach was also tested on diffusion data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) database.RESULTSThe

2019 Journal of Neurosurgery

15. Cranial nerve non-invasive neuromodulation improves gait and balance in stroke survivors: A pilot randomised controlled trial. (PubMed)

Cranial nerve non-invasive neuromodulation improves gait and balance in stroke survivors: A pilot randomised controlled trial. 28923502 2019 11 20 1876-4754 10 6 2017 Nov - Dec Brain stimulation Brain Stimul Cranial nerve non-invasive neuromodulation improves gait and balance in stroke survivors: A pilot randomised controlled trial. 1133-1135 S1935-861X(17)30891-4 10.1016/j.brs.2017.08.011 Galea Mary P MP Department of Medicine (Royal Melbourne Hospital), University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC

2019 Brain stimulation Controlled trial quality: predicted high

16. Combined hyperactive dysfunction syndrome of the cranial nerves complicated by essential hypertension: A case report. (PubMed)

Combined hyperactive dysfunction syndrome of the cranial nerves complicated by essential hypertension: A case report. Combined hyperactive dysfunction syndrome (HDS) refers to a special type of HDS characterized by a combination of trigeminal neuralgia (TN), hemi facial spasm (HFS), and/or gloss pharyngeal neuralgia (GPN). Rostra ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) plays a crucial role in central cardiovascular regulation, and neurovascular compression of the RVLM has been identified as a contributor (...) to essential hypertension.A 65-year-old female with a facial tic and pain located in the root of the tongue and throat on the same side; the systolic and diastolic blood pressure was approximately 170 and 100 mmHg.The patient was diagnosed with combined HDS (HFS-GPN) and essential hypertension. Brain magnetic resonance 3-dimensional time-of-flight imaging and digital subtraction angiography revealed vertebrobasilar artery compressed the left RVLM and contacted with the root entry zones of multiple cranial

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2019 Medicine

17. Cranial nerve outcomes in regionally recurrent head & neck melanoma after sentinel lymph node biopsy. (PubMed)

Cranial nerve outcomes in regionally recurrent head & neck melanoma after sentinel lymph node biopsy. Characterize long-term cranial nerve (CN) outcomes following sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) based management for head and neck cutaneous melanoma (HNCM).Longitudinal review of HNCM patients undergoing SLNB from 1997-2007.Three hundred fifty-six patients were identified, with mean age 53.5 ± 19.0 years, mean Breslow depth 2.52 ± 1.87 mm, and 4.9 years median follow-up. One hundred five (29.4 (...) without parotidectomy, and the remaining 12 parotid recurrences had negative extraparotid SLNBs. Parotid recurrences were multiple (4.9 mean recurrent nodes) and advanced (n = 4 extracapsular extension), and all required salvage dissection including parotidectomy. Immediate parotidectomy/iCLND led to no permanent CN injuries. Delayed regional HNCM macrometastasis precipitated 16 total permanent CN injuries in 13 patients: 10 CN VII, five CN XI, and one CN XII deficits. Fifty percent (n = 10

2019 Laryngoscope

18. MRI-guided definition of cerebrospinal fluid distribution around cranial and sacral nerves: implications for brain tumors and craniospinal irradiation. (PubMed)

MRI-guided definition of cerebrospinal fluid distribution around cranial and sacral nerves: implications for brain tumors and craniospinal irradiation. Background: The SIOPE-Brain Tumor Group recently published a guideline on craniospinal target volume delineation for highly conformal radiotherapy. In order to spare critical structures like e.g., the lens or cochlea, highly conformal techniques can underdose the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the dural reflections around cranial and sacral nerves (...) . The purpose of this study is to generate evidence for CSF extension within the dural sheaths of the cranial and sacral nerves in order to improve accuracy in target volume delineation. Material and methods: Ten healthy volunteers, age 21 till 41 years, underwent an MRI-scan of the skull-base and sacral plexus. To evaluate CSF extension, cT2-weighted images with fat suppression, low signal to noise ratio and little to no motion-related artifacts were used. Two observers measured the extension of CSF from

2019 Acta Oncologica

19. Clinical applications for diffusion MRI and tractography of cranial nerves within the posterior fossa: a systematic review

Clinical applications for diffusion MRI and tractography of cranial nerves within the posterior fossa: a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence (...) , language, journal. ">Data to be extracted: other as well as a to meta-analysis of pre-clinical studies are available. Example: A meta‐analysis will be performed for all outcome measures reported in 10 or more articles. For subgroup analysis a minimum of 8 studies per subgroup is required. If meta‐analysis is not possible, data will be reported through a descriptive summary. ">Planned approach Example: number of metastases: standardized mean difference; incidence of metastasis: risk ratio. ">Effect

2018 PROSPERO

20. Anatomical and surgical factors associated with cranial nerves injuries in le fort i osteotomy: a systematic review

Anatomical and surgical factors associated with cranial nerves injuries in le fort i osteotomy: a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence (...) , language, journal. ">Data to be extracted: other as well as a to meta-analysis of pre-clinical studies are available. Example: A meta‐analysis will be performed for all outcome measures reported in 10 or more articles. For subgroup analysis a minimum of 8 studies per subgroup is required. If meta‐analysis is not possible, data will be reported through a descriptive summary. ">Planned approach Example: number of metastases: standardized mean difference; incidence of metastasis: risk ratio. ">Effect

2018 PROSPERO

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