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Cranial Nerve 1

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1. Assessment of cranial nerve mononeuropathy

Assessment of cranial nerve mononeuropathy Assessment of cranial nerve mononeuropathy - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of cranial nerve mononeuropathy Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: June 2018 Summary There are 12 paired cranial nerves, named and numbered according to the rostral-caudal order of attachment to the brain. They serve a variety of functions and predominantly provide (...) the motor and sensory innervation to the head. The effects of a mononeuropathy depend on where in its pathway the nerve is affected and the aetiology. The signs and symptoms of a cranial nerve mononeuropathy vary depending on which nerve is affected. Olfactory (I) Anatomy Olfaction begins with transduction of odorants from the air into the nasal mucosa. These odorants diffuse or are transported to bipolar receptor cells located in the olfactory neuroepithelium in the roof of the nasal chamber. Action

2018 BMJ Best Practice

2. Cranial Nerve Foramina: Part II – A Review of the Anatomy and Pathology of Cranial Nerve Foramina of the Posterior Cranial Fossa (PubMed)

Cranial Nerve Foramina: Part II – A Review of the Anatomy and Pathology of Cranial Nerve Foramina of the Posterior Cranial Fossa Cranial nerve foramina are integral exits from the confines of the skull. Despite their significance in cranial nerve pathologies, there has been no comprehensive anatomical review of these structures. Owing to the extensive nature of this topic we have divided our review into two parts; Part II, presented here, focuses on the foramina of the posterior cranial fossa

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2018 Cureus

3. CRACKCast E105 – Brain and Cranial Nerve Disorders

, a CT head +/- contrast or MRI). Why do we give anti-virals to treat viral neuropathy? Answer: From UptoDate Lessen the severity and duration of pain associated with acute neuritis Promote more rapid healing of skin lesions Prevent new lesion formation Decrease viral shedding to reduce the risk of transmission Prevent PHN [1] List the name, function and pathologic features of the cranial nerves Refer to figure 95.1 in Rosen’s 9 th Edition for a more comprehensive table summarizing cranial nerve (...) CRACKCast E105 – Brain and Cranial Nerve Disorders CRACKCast E105 - Brain and Cranial Nerve Disorders - CanadiEM CRACKCast E105 – Brain and Cranial Nerve Disorders In by Chris Lipp August 31, 2017 This episode of CRACKCast covers Rosen’s Chapter 105, Brain and Cranial Nerve Disorders. These can be the weird and wonderful in the ED, but subtle hints can clue us in that further investigation is needed for our patients. Having a high suspicion for these diagnoses can help you make an appropriate

2017 CandiEM

4. Cranial Nerve Foramina Part I: A Review of the Anatomy and Pathology of Cranial Nerve Foramina of the Anterior and Middle Fossa (PubMed)

Cranial Nerve Foramina Part I: A Review of the Anatomy and Pathology of Cranial Nerve Foramina of the Anterior and Middle Fossa Cranial nerve foramina are integral exits from the confines of the skull. Despite their significance in cranial nerve pathologies, there has been no comprehensive anatomical review of these structures. Owing to the extensive nature of this topic, Part I of our review, presented here, focuses on the foramina of the anterior and middle cranial fossae, discussing each

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2018 Cureus

5. Cranial Nerve Coactivation and Implication for Nerve Transfers to the Facial Nerve. (PubMed)

Cranial Nerve Coactivation and Implication for Nerve Transfers to the Facial Nerve. In reanimation surgery, effortless smile can be achieved by a nonfacial donor nerve. The underlying mechanisms for this smile development, and which is the best nonfacial neurotizer, need further clarification. The aim of the present study was therefore to further explore the natural coactivation between facial mimic muscles and muscles innervated by the most common donor nerves used in smile reanimation (...) . The study was conducted in 10 healthy adults. Correlation between voluntary facial muscle movements and simultaneous electromyographic activity in muscles innervated by the masseter, hypoglossal, and spinal accessory nerves was assessed. The association between voluntary movements in the latter muscles and simultaneous electromyographic activity in facial muscles was also studied. Smile coactivated the masseter and tongue muscles equally. During the seven mimic movements, the masseter muscle had fewer

2018 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

6. Sixth cranial nerve palsy and ipsilateral trigeminal neuralgia caused by vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (PubMed)

Sixth cranial nerve palsy and ipsilateral trigeminal neuralgia caused by vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia To report an unusual case of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia causing both trigeminal neuralgia and ipsilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy.A patient had undergone surgical decompression of trigeminal neuralgia caused by dolichoectatic vertebral and basilar arteries years before presenting with ipsilateral sixth nerve palsy. Brain MRI showed deviant vertebrobasilar arteries that presumably now (...) compressed the sixth cranial nerve. The unaffected left sixth cranial nerve was visible on MRI, but the affected right sixth cranial nerve was not. The central spinal fluid space in Dorello's canal on the affected side was relatively ample, suggesting atrophy of the affected sixth cranial nerve. On follow-up examination one year after presentation, the patient's diplopia was palliated with spectacle prism.This is the tenth reported case of dolichoectasia causing sixth cranial nerve palsy, but only

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2018 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

7. Severe localised granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) manifesting with extensive cranial nerve palsies and cranial diabetes insipidus: a case report and literature review. (PubMed)

Severe localised granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's granulomatosis) manifesting with extensive cranial nerve palsies and cranial diabetes insipidus: a case report and literature review. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, formerly Wegener's granulomatosis) is a multisystem vasculitis of small- to medium-sized blood vessels. Cranial involvement can result in cranial nerve palsies and, rarely, pituitary infiltration.We describe the case of a 32 year-old woman with limited but severe (...) GPA manifesting as progressive cranial nerve palsies and pituitary dysfunction. Our patient initially presented with localised ENT involvement, but despite treatment with methotrexate, she deteriorated. Granulomatous inflammatory tissue around the skull base resulted in cavernous sinus syndrome, facial nerve palsy, palsies of cranial nerves IX-XII (Collet-Sicard syndrome), and the rare complication of cranial diabetes insipidus due to pituitary infiltration. The glossopharyngeal, vagus

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2018 BMC Neurology

8. Ocular cranial nerve palsies secondary to sphenoid sinusitis (PubMed)

Ocular cranial nerve palsies secondary to sphenoid sinusitis The clinical presentation of sphenoid sinusitis can be highly variable. Rarely, sphenoid sinusitis may present with cranial nerve complications due to the proximity of these structures to the sphenoid sinus.A case series from Rabin Medical Center and all cases of cranial nerves palsies secondary to sphenoid sinusitis that have been reported in the literature were reviewed.Seventeen patients were identified. The abducent nerve (...) was the most common cranial nerve affected (76%), followed by the oculomotor nerve (18%). One patient had combined oculomotor, trochlear and abducent palsies. The most common pathology was isolated purulent sphenoid sinusitis in 64% followed by allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in 18%, and fungal infection in 18%. 94% had an acute presentation. The majority (85%) received a combined intravenous antibiotics and surgical treatment. The remainder received conservative treatment alone. Complete recovery

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2017 World journal of otorhinolaryngology - head and neck surgery

9. Electrical stimulation‐based nerve location prediction for cranial nerve VII localization in acoustic neuroma surgery (PubMed)

Electrical stimulation‐based nerve location prediction for cranial nerve VII localization in acoustic neuroma surgery Cranial nerve (CN) VII localization is a critical step during acoustic neuroma surgery because the nerve is generally hidden due to the tumor mass. The patient can suffer from Bell's palsy if the nerve is accidentally damaged during tumor removal. Surgeons localize CN VII by exploring the target area with a stimulus probe. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) are elicited (...) when the probe locates the nerve. However, false positives and false negatives are possible due to unpredictable tissue impedance in the operative area. Moreover, a single CMAP amplitude is not correlated with probe-to-nerve distance.This paper presents a new modality for nerve localization. The probe-to-nerve distance is predicted by the proposed nerve location prediction model.Input features are extracted from CMAP responses, tissue impedance, and stimulus current. The tissue impedance

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2018 Brain and behavior

10. Imaging of Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI in Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders (PubMed)

Imaging of Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI in Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders are a group of diseases caused by abnormal development of cranial nerve nuclei or their axonal connections, resulting in aberrant innervation of the ocular and facial musculature. Its diagnosis could be facilitated by the development of high resolution thin-section magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of this review is to describe the method to visualize cranial (...) nerves III, IV, and VI and to present the imaging findings of congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders including congenital oculomotor nerve palsy, congenital trochlear nerve palsy, Duane retraction syndrome, Möbius syndrome, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, synergistic divergence, and synergistic convergence.© 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society.

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2017 Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO

11. Potential Involvement of Draxin in the Axonal Projection of Cranial Nerves, Especially Cranial Nerve X, in the Chick Hindbrain (PubMed)

report that the distribution of the draxin protein and the location of 23C10-positive areas have a strong temporal and spatial correlation. The overexpression of draxin, especially transmembrane draxin, caused 23C10-positive axon bundles to misproject in the dorsal hindbrain. In addition, the overexpression of transmembrane draxin caused abnormal formation of the ganglion crest of the IX and X cranial nerves, misprojection of some anti-human natural killer-1 (HNK-1)-stained structures in the dorsal (...) Potential Involvement of Draxin in the Axonal Projection of Cranial Nerves, Especially Cranial Nerve X, in the Chick Hindbrain The appropriate projection of axons within the nervous system is a crucial component of the establishment of neural circuitry. Draxin is a repulsive axon guidance protein. Draxin has important functions in the guidance of three commissures in the central nervous system and in the migration of neural crest cells and dI3 interneurons in the chick spinal cord. Here, we

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2016 Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry

12. Nerve Compression Syndromes in the Posterior Cranial Fossa. (PubMed)

Nerve Compression Syndromes in the Posterior Cranial Fossa. Nerve compression syndromes in the posterior cranial fossa can severely impair patients' quality of life. There is often uncertainty about the best treatment. In this article, we provide an overview of these conditions and the corresponding treatment strategies.This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and on a scientific analysis of the authors' patient collective.These syndromes (...) are caused by compression of a cranial nerve by an artery or vein at the zone of the nerve's entry to or exit from the brainstem. The best-known neurovascular compression syndrome is trigeminal neuralgia, followed by hemifacial spasm. Less well known are glossopharyngeal neuralgia, nervus intermedius neuralgia, and vestibular paroxysmia. The initial treatment of trigeminal neuralgia is medical: the first line of treatment is with sodium-blocking anticon- vulsants, such as carbamazepine. For patients

2019 Deutsches Arzteblatt international

13. Full tractography for detecting the position of cranial nerves in preoperative planning for skull base surgery: technical note. (PubMed)

Full tractography for detecting the position of cranial nerves in preoperative planning for skull base surgery: technical note. OBJECTIVEDiffusion imaging tractography has allowed the in vivo description of brain white matter. One of its applications is preoperative planning for brain tumor resection. Due to a limited spatial and angular resolution, it is difficult for fiber tracking to delineate fiber crossing areas and small-scale structures, in particular brainstem tracts and cranial nerves (...) , the cerebellum, and cranial nerves was performed using the software DSI Studio, generalized-q-sampling reconstruction, orientation distribution function (ODF) of fibers, and a quantitative anisotropy-based generalized deterministic algorithm. No ROI or extensive manual filtering of spurious fibers was used. Tractography rendering was displayed in a tridimensional space with directional color code. This approach was also tested on diffusion data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) database.RESULTSThe

2019 Journal of Neurosurgery

14. The impact on post-operative shoulder function of intraoperative nerve monitoring of cranial nerve XI during modified radical neck dissection. (PubMed)

The impact on post-operative shoulder function of intraoperative nerve monitoring of cranial nerve XI during modified radical neck dissection. Intraoperative monitoring of the cranial nerve XI (CN XI) may decrease shoulder disability following modified radical neck dissection. Prospective study was designed comparing results of Constant Shoulder Score (CSS), Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and EMG score of the trapezius muscle (mT) before and after surgery. One side of the neck (...) was monitored during surgery with intraoperative nerve monitor. EMG scores of the mT 6 months postoperatively were statistically better on monitored as compared to the non-monitored side of the neck (p = 0.041), while the differences of the CSS and SPADI were not statistically significant. Patients with better EMG scores of the mT at 6 weeks recuperated better and with smaller decrease of the CSS. Intraoperative monitoring is beneficial at the beginning of the surgeon's learning curve and in the process

2017 European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

15. Nerves of Steel: a Low-Cost Method for 3D Printing the Cranial Nerves (PubMed)

Nerves of Steel: a Low-Cost Method for 3D Printing the Cranial Nerves Steady-state free precession (SSFP) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can demonstrate details down to the cranial nerve (CN) level. High-resolution three-dimensional (3D) visualization can now quickly be performed at the workstation. However, we are still limited by visualization on flat screens. The emerging technologies in rapid prototyping or 3D printing overcome this limitation. It comprises a variety of automated

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2017 Journal of Digital Imaging

16. Cranial Nerve 1

Cranial Nerve 1 Cranial Nerve 1 Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Cranial Nerve 1 Cranial Nerve 1 Aka: Cranial Nerve 1 (...) , Cranial Nerve I , Olfactory Nerve , CN 1 , Olfactory Bulb II. Anatomy Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) III. Course Olfactory tract divides into roughly 20 branches Perforates cribriform plate of the IV. Physiology Innervates olfactory mucosa Upper third of the nasal septum Superior nasal concha V. Exam Precautions Ensure nasal patency Test one

2018 FP Notebook

17. Isolated unilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy: A rare presentation of dengue fever (PubMed)

Isolated unilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy: A rare presentation of dengue fever Dengue fever is a common mosquito-borne viral infection endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. Neurological manifestations in dengue infection are relatively uncommon, and include encephalitis, encephalopathy, neuromuscular disorders and neuro-ocular disorders. Cranial mononeuropathy is a rare manifestation of dengue infection. A 40-year-old man was diagnosed with isolated, unilateral sixth cranial nerve (...) palsy complicating dengue infection. The patient was managed accordingly, and full ocular recovery was observed. This was the first reported case of isolated sixth cranial nerve palsy associated with dengue fever in Malaysia. It is important for clinicians to consider dengue as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with fever and sixth cranial nerve palsy.

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2016 Malaysian family physician : the official journal of the Academy of Family Physicians of Malaysia

18. Cranial nerve injuries in Le Fort I osteotomy: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Cranial nerve injuries in Le Fort I osteotomy: a systematic review. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the anatomical and surgical factors related to cranial nerve injuries in Le Fort I osteotomy. The protocol of this systematic review was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). Two independent reviewers performed an unrestricted electronic database search in the MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases (...) presented the highest incidence of cranial nerve damage. Cranial nerve damage after Le Fort I osteotomy is not rare. Anatomical and structural knowledge of the patient are necessary in order to minimize the risks of cranial nerve injury in Le Fort I osteotomy.Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

2018 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

19. Multiple cranial nerve injuries and neck abscesses caused by a transorally penetrating organic stick (PubMed)

Multiple cranial nerve injuries and neck abscesses caused by a transorally penetrating organic stick Foreign bodies cause a remarkable number of otolaryngological emergency visits and occasionally result in life-threatening conditions and later-emerging complications. Patient recovery depends on the detection and proper extraction of all foreign materials. Despite various obtainable diagnostic tools, adequate anamnesis forms the basis of clinical reasoning and should direct later examinations (...) and radiological imaging. This case report describes a challenging patient with a unique trauma mechanism: many pieces of a fragmented organic foreign body emerged within 1 year of the initial injury, leading to repeated operations, a long period in an intensive care unit and a long-term swallowing and speech dysfunction.© BMJ Publishing Group Limited 2018. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

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2018 BMJ case reports

20. Vagus nerve stimulation modulates the cranial trigeminal autonomic reflex. (PubMed)

Vagus nerve stimulation modulates the cranial trigeminal autonomic reflex. The trigeminal autonomic reflex plays an important role in primary headache syndromes. Noninvasive vagal nerve stimulation (nVNS) may be an effective modulator of this reflex.Twenty-two healthy volunteers underwent kinetic oscillation stimulation (KOS) of the left nostril as a reliable trigger of the trigeminal autonomic reflex. Previous to KOS, left cervical nVNS, sham simulation, or no stimulation was applied

2018 Annals of Neurology

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