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Cough fracture

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61. Vertebral Compression Fractures

. There may be no preceding trauma or only minimal trauma (eg, a minor fall, sudden bending, lifting, coughing). Patients who have had an osteoporotic vertebral fracture are at higher risk of other vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. Occasionally, compression or other vertebral fractures result from significant force (eg, a motor vehicle crash, a fall from a height, a gunshot wound). In such cases, a is often also present, and the spine may be fractured in > 1 place. If the cause was a fall or jump from (...) Vertebral Compression Fractures Vertebral Compression Fractures - Injuries; Poisoning - MSD Manual Professional Edition Brought to you by The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases The trusted provider of medical information since 1899 SEARCH SEARCH MEDICAL TOPICS Common Health Topics Resources QUIZZES & CASES Quizzes Cases / / / / IN THIS TOPIC OTHER TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER Test your knowledge

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

62. Suspected cancer: recognition and referral

with unexplained haemoptysis. [2015] [2015] 1.1.2 Offer an urgent chest X-ray (to be performed within 2 weeks) to assess for lung cancer in people aged 40 and over if they have 2 or more of the following unexplained symptoms, or or if they have ever smoked and have 1 or more of the following unexplained symptoms: • cough • fatigue • shortness of breath • chest pain • weight loss • appetite loss. [2015] [2015] Suspected cancer: recognition and referral (NG12) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice (...) unexplained symptoms and have been exposed to asbestos: - cough - fatigue - shortness of breath - chest pain - weight loss - appetite loss. [2015] [2015] 1.1.6 Consider an urgent chest X-ray (to be performed within 2 weeks) to assess for mesothelioma in people aged 40 and over with either: Suspected cancer: recognition and referral (NG12) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Last updated 11 September 2020 Page 13

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

63. Perioperative care in adults

/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 11 of 30(including pain after dental surgery) unless the person has had surgery for hip fracture (see the recommendations on analgesia in the NICE guideline on hip fracture). 1.6.8 Do not offer an intravenous NSAID to manage immediate postoperative pain (including pain after dental surgery) unless the person cannot take oral medicine. 1.6.9 If offering an intravenous NSAID to manage immediate postoperative pain, choose a traditional NSAID rather than (...) a COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2) inhibitor. Opioids Opioids 1.6.10 Offer an oral opioid only if immediate postoperative pain is expected to be moderate to severe. When giving an oral opioid: • give the opioid as soon as the person can eat and drink after surgery • adjust the dose to help the person achieve functional recovery (such as coughing and mobilising) as soon as possible. 1.6.11 For people who cannot take oral opioids, offer a choice of PCA (patient- controlled analgesia) or a continuous epidural

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

64. Venous thromboembolic diseases: diagnosis, management and thrombophilia testing

For people who present with signs or symptoms of PE, such as chest pain, shortness of breath or coughing up blood, assess their general medical history, do a physical examination and offer a chest X-ray to exclude other causes. [2012] [2012] Pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (the PERC rule) Pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (the PERC rule) 1.1.16 If clinical suspicion of PE is low [1] , consider using the pulmonary embolism rule- Venous thromboembolic diseases: diagnosis, management

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

65. Cerebral palsy in adults

outcomes. Osteopor Osteoporosis and fr osis and fractur acture risk e risk 1.4.2 Be aware that low bone mineral density is common in adults with cerebral palsy, particularly in people: with reduced mobility or reduced weight bearing taking anticonvulsants or proton pump inhibitors who have had a previous low-impact fracture. 1.4.3 Consider assessing for risk of fractures secondary to osteoporosis in adults with cerebral palsy. Risk factors to assess include: needing help with moving or having (...) to be moved, for example, hoisting history of falls low BMI history of low-impact fractures other medical factors, for example steroid use, that may adversely affect bone health. Cerebral palsy in adults (NG119) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 20 of 64For more information about assessment of fracture risk, see NICE's guideline on osteoporosis: assessing the risk of fragility fracture. 1.4.4 Consider a dual

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

66. Ivacaftor (combination with ivacaftor/tezacaftor, cystic fibrosis, 12 years and older, with F508del mutation, homozygous) - Addendum to Commission A19-70

of bronchiectasis 0 (0) 1 (0.5) Lung infection 0 (0) 1 (0.5) Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders 8 (4.4) 2 (1.1) Haemoptysis 5 (2.7) 2 (1.1) Cough 1 (0.5) 0 (0) Lung disorder 1 (0.5) 0 (0) Pneumomediastinum 1 (0.5) 0 (0) Pneumothorax 1 (0.5) 0 (0) Gastrointestinal disorders 4 (2.2) 3 (1.6) Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome 2 (1.1) 2 (1.1) Constipation 1 (0.5) 1 (0.5) Lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage 1 (0.5) 0 (0) Investigations 2 (1.1) 1 (0.5) Forced expiratory volume decreased 1 (0.5) 0 (0 (...) ) 0 (0) Acarodermatitis 0 (0) 1 (0.4) Bronchitis 0 (0) 1 (0.4) Bronchopulmonary aspergillosis allergic 0 (0) 1 (0.4) Gastroenteritis viral 0 (0) 1 (0.4) Influenza 0 (0) 1 (0.4) Nervous system disorders 3 (1.2) 1 (0.4) Benign intracranial hypertension 1 (0.4) 0 (0) Generalized tonic-clonic seizure 1 (0.4) 0 (0) Migraine 1 (0.4) 0 (0) Headache 0 (0) 1 (0.4) Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders 3 (1.2) 5 (1.9) Haemoptysis 3 (1.2) 3 (1.2) Cough 0 (0) 1 (0.4) Paranasal cyst 0 (0) 1 (0.4

2020 Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare (IQWiG)

67. Therapeutic guidelines for antiretroviral (ARV) treatment of adult HIV infection

Intermediate PI Darunavir/cobicistat + emtricitabine/tenofovir DF 2 Y Intermediate Drugs in bold italics are generic products aabacavir use contraindicated if HLA-B*5701 allele positive bregimen acceptable if baseline HIV plasma viral load 30 and 3 months (TAF is not licensed for individuals with eGFR 3 mg/mmol) • Persistent moderate to severe hypophosphatemia (serum phosphate 30 mg/mmol) • Documented osteoporosis (at least one T-score 10%) 10-year risk of major osteoporotic fracture as determined by FRAX (...) score (https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/FRAX/tool.aspx?country=19) • Fragility fracture (atraumatic fracture or fracture resulting from minimal trauma) • Documented osteomalacia (laboratory and/or imaging) THERAPEUTIC GUIDELINES FOR ANTIRETROVIRAL TREATMENT OF ADULT HIV INFECTION VI VERSION: DEC 2019 This page has been purposely left blank THERAPEUTIC GUIDELINES FOR ANTIRETROVIRAL TREATMENT OF ADULT HIV INFECTION 1 VERSION: DEC 2019 RETURN TO TABLE OF CONTENTS THERAPEUTIC GUIDELINES FOR ANTIRETROVIRAL

2020 CPG Infobase

68. Computed Tomography (CT) Prioritization

) Significant acute traumatic event immediately preceding onset of symptoms Suspected compression fracture or pathological fracture (risk factors include long term steroid use) Suspected cancer, cancer related complication, or history of cancer (e.g. night sweats or night pain) Suspected infection (e.g. discitis/osteomyelitis, epidural abscess), risk factors include history of IV drug use, history of fever or chills Suspected spinal epidural hematoma Older age with first episode of back pain Low back pain (...) lasting greater than six months Note: Back pain may be due to conditions other than spinal and may warrant imaging of the abdomen or pelvis. Musculoskeletal/Extremity Musculoskeletal/Extremity: Overview P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 Immediately to 24 hours Max 7 calendar days Max 30 calendar days Max 60 calendar days Acute fractures with inconclusive plain X-rays, or for preoperative evaluation by an Orthopedic surgeon Necrotizing fasciitis Acute vascular insufficiency to extremity Fractures without neurovascular

2020 Clinical Practice Guidelines and Protocols in British Columbia

70. Preparing for a challenging winter 2020/21

indoors for longer periods during winter. In addition, people are more likely to drive or use public transport than walk or cycle, and people are more likely to favour social activities that are inside, increasing the chance of close interactions with more people. Transmission risk of respiratory infections increases exponentially the closer two people are, and increases with the duration of exposure. 102 Coughing, sneezing and activities such as singing, increase the rate of droplet and aerosol (...) generation. 103,104 Concurrent winter viral infections (influenza, common cold, norovirus, etc.) can increase the risk of sneezing and coughing to provide more vectors for COVID-19 transmission. 2. Aerosol transmission: Poor ventilation and overcrowding increases the density of virus particles accumulating in a room, both in the air and on surfaces leading to greater risk of transmission. Concentration of viral particles in the air is inversely proportional to the ventilation rate in a room. 105 A large

2020 Academy of Medical Sciences

71. How can healthcare workers adapt non-pharmacological treatment – whilst maintaining safety – when treating people with COVID-19 and delirium?

be used with particular caution to avoid effects on cardiac conduction. End of life Some people showing delirium may recover and careful clinical judgement should be exercised before commencing end of life care. In this context supportive treatment for delirium may include “correctable” causes. For example, antibiotic treatment for a secondary bacterial infection may improve fever, cough, breathlessness and delirium. Comprehensive international guidance on palliative care in the context of coronavirus (...) in hospitalized older patients with hop fracture. International Psychogeriatrics 2018; 4: 481-492. Rivosecchi et al. Nonpharmacological interventions to prevent delirium: an evidence-based systematic review. Critical Care Nurse. 2015; 35: 39-50. Rossom et al. Delirium: Screen, prevention and diagnosis. VA-ESP Project 2011; 09-009 Salvi et al. Non-pharmacological approaches in the prevention of delirium. European Geriatric Medicine 2020; 11: 71-81. Shelton et al. Evaluating the effects of the pharmacological

2020 Oxford COVID-19 Evidence Service

72. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Nicotine Cessation Guideline for recommendations on helping patients quit smoking. Screening Screening for COPD is not recommended in asymptomatic adults. COPD Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline 3 Diagnosis and Assessment COPD should be considered in any patient who has persistent dyspnea that worsens with exercise, chronic cough, wheezes, or sputum production, and/or a history of exposure to risk factors for the disease such as smoking and occupational or environmental exposures. Diagnosis of COPD (...) 0.70 or lower 80% or higher GOLD stage 2 = moderate 0.70 or lower 50–79.9% GOLD stage 3 = severe 0.70 or lower 30–49.9% GOLD stage 4 = very severe 0.70 or lower Lower than 30% 1 Patients who may be at risk of developing COPD include those who smoke or are exposed to pollutants; have cough, sputum, or dyspnea; and/or have a family history of respiratory disease. Methods for assessing symptoms COPD Assessment Test (CAT) The CAT is a validated tool for assessing the impact on COPD on wellbeing

2020 Kaiser Permanente Clinical Guidelines

73. Clinical care of severe acute respiratory infections – Tool kit

of fever, cough Pneumonia, infection Pesticide exposure Poisoning Recent fall or other trauma Rib fracture, ail chest, pneumothorax, contusion, tamponade Known allergies, allergen exposure, bite or sting Allergic reaction Recent medication or dose change Allergic reaction or side e ect History of opioid or sedative drug use Overdose History of wheezing Asthma or COPD History of diabetes DKA History of tuberculosis or malignancy Pericardial tamponade, pleural e usion History of heart failure Pulmonary (...) technical guidance can be found at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical- guidance Transmission • The COVID-19 virus is a zoonotic virus, meaning that it can be transmitted between animals and humans. The intermediary animal host has not yet been identified. • The COVID-19 virus is spread between people mainly via inhalation of respiratory droplets from coughing or sneezing, but can also be passed through fomite/contact. • Nosocomial transmission can occur where

2020 WHO Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Pandemic

74. Covid-19: Management of emergency department patients

/analgesia alone Upper limb fracture Fracture of the lower limb except femur, tibia, calcaneum Dislocation following reduction Minor stable vertebral fractures General surgery Renal biliary colic in whom pain is controlled Abdominal pain with normal CT and pain controlled Abscess not showing signs of sepsis Haematuria without clot retention, hypotension or anaemia 6 | Clinical guide for the management of emergency department patients during the coronavirus pandemic Bacterial infection News cough) have not improved in 7 days. They should seek help via the NHS 111 online coronavirus service or call 111 if they cannot

2020 Covid-19 Ad hoc guidelines

75. Guidance for maternal medicine in the evolving coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic

be ‘shielded’. 2 Where possible, pregnant women with all other respiratory conditions should be offered remote consultation. Pregnant women with underlying respiratory conditions who develop fever or cough should initially be reviewed remotely to assess the severity of their illness. Those considered to not be coping at home should be assessed in hospital for COVID-19 and other common differential diagnoses (See section 4). 3.5 Haematological Authors: Jahnavi Daru, Sue Pavord, Beverley Hunt, Susan Robinson (...) women presenting to acute services with symptoms which might be indicative of COVID-19 During the pandemic women will continue to present with symptoms warranting medical input, but medical teams may not be able to provide a prompt review. The investigation of potential COVID-19 in a pregnant woman should follow national guidelines for adults. 22 Women presenting with fever, cough, headache, shortness of breath or any other symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 should still be fully investigated according

2020 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

76. Acute pain management: scientific evidence (5th Edition)

tool chosen should be appropriate to the individual patient; developmental, cognitive, emotional, language and cultural factors should be considered (U). ? Scoring should incorporate different components of pain including the functional capacity of the patient. In the postoperative patient this should include static (rest) and dynamic (eg pain on sitting, coughing) pain ( U). ? Uncontrolled or unexpected pain requires a reassessment of the diagnosis and consideration of alternative causes

2020 National Health and Medical Research Council

77. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium and vilanterol (Trelegy)

steroid effects were more common in the fluticasone furoate/vilanterol/umeclidinium and fluticasone furoate/vilanterol groups (8% and 7% respectively) compared with the umeclidinium/vilanterol group (5%), however no statistical analysis was conducted. However, the incidence of decreased bone mineral density and associated fractures was the same in all 3 groups (2% in each group). Lower respiratory tract infections (excluding pneumonia) had the same frequency of incidence in all 3 groups (5% in each

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

78. The Vest for delivering high-frequency chest wall oscillation in people with complex neurological needs

for people with rib fractures, poor bone density or surgical sites or lines that would be affected by the position of The Vest on the chest wall. One specialist highlighted that HFCWO is a technique to help mobilisation of secretions and still needs an effective cough to clear secretions. If a person has an ineffective cough effort, The Vest would have to be used with assisted cough techniques and suction to clear the secretions. The specialists identified specific patient populations needing airway (...) (available in different styles and sizes), which gently compresses and releases the chest wall. This action is designed to mobilise mucus from smaller to larger airways, which can then be coughed up or removed by suction. The Vest has 3 programmes with different combinations of frequency, pressure and treatment time. A treatment session usually takes 10 to 30 minutes. The system can be used by the person having treatment, but people who are immobile may need help from a carer. Specialist commentators

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Advice

80. Glinides and glitazones in the treatment of type 2 diabetes

OR starlix) AND (diabetes mellitus OR type 2 diabetes OR type ii diabetes) AND (mortality OR morbidity OR cardiac OR heart OR cardiovascular OR fracture OR malignancy OR cancer OR stroke OR renal OR kidney OR microvascular OR macrovascular OR retinopathy OR nephropathy OR neuropathy OR myocardial infarction OR adverse event OR adverse events OR safety OR death OR blood pressure OR weight) 791 Embase (glinide OR glinides OR meglitinide OR meglitinides OR repaglinide OR nateglinide OR prandin OR GlucoNorm (...) OR Surepost OR EIPICO OR NovoNorm OR starlix) AND ('diabetes mellitus' OR 'type 2 diabetes' OR 'type ii diabetes') AND (mortality OR morbidity OR cardiac OR heart OR cardiovascular OR fracture OR malignancy OR cancer OR stroke OR renal OR kidney OR microvascular OR macrovascular OR retinopathy OR nephropathy OR neuropathy OR 'myocardial infarction' OR 'adverse event' OR 'adverse events' OR safety OR death OR blood pressure OR weight) AND [embase]/lim NOT ([embase]/lim AND [medline]/lim) NOT ('conference

2020 Swiss Federal Office of Public Health HTA

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