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Cough

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22661. Double-blind study of glaucine in chronic cough. (Abstract)

Double-blind study of glaucine in chronic cough. Thirty-eight patients, affected by chronic cough and hospitalized in 14 different rooms, entered a double-blind cross-over trial aimed at evaluating efficacy and tolerance of single oral doses of glaucine (eo mg) versus single oral doses of codeine (30 mg) and placebo. Patients occupying the same room were administered on 3 consecutive nights, and an objective evaluation of efficacy was ensured by means of a tape recorded. The mean cough counts (...) during the 8-h interval after drug administration were 269.3 after placebo, 241.8 after glaucine, and 201.9 after codeine (p less than 0.05). The antitussive effects of glaucine and codeine were practically superimposable up to the 6th h, when glaucine effect declined. Treatments were well tolerated by all the patients, they themselves were not able to detect any difference in cough suppression among the three treatments.

1981 International journal of clinical pharmacology, therapy, and toxicology

22662. Clearance by voluntary coughing and its relationship to subjective assessment and effect of intravenous bromhexine. (Abstract)

Clearance by voluntary coughing and its relationship to subjective assessment and effect of intravenous bromhexine. The elimination of 6 micrometers radioactively tagged teflon particles by 1-2 min of voluntary coughing was studied by profile scanning in 12 patients with tracheobronchial hypersecretion. The patients were tested on 2 different days 40-50 min after receiving 8 mg bromhexine (4 mg in two patients) and placebo intravenously according to a double blind cross-over design. Bromhexine (...) did not influence the elimination of test particles in the nine patients in whom the measurements were technically satisfactory. When asked to identify the day they received bromhexine, the patients failed to do so. However, eight of the nine patients, in whom clearance measurements could be performed, believed they had received bromhexine on the day when most particles were eliminated (P less than 0.01), which coincided with the day on which coughing was easiest. It is suggested that self

1981 European journal of respiratory diseases

22663. Inhaled furosemide inhibits cough induced by low chloride content solutions but not by capsaicin. (Abstract)

Inhaled furosemide inhibits cough induced by low chloride content solutions but not by capsaicin. Inhaled furosemide prevents bronchoconstriction induced by nebulized distilled water, exercise, and antigen challenge. We examined the effect of furosemide on cough induced by low chloride content solutions and by capsaicin in double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. A group of eight nonsmoking normal subjects was given furosemide (3.75 mg/ml inhaled for 8 min) and placebo (saline) immediately (...) before consecutive 1-min inhalations of four isosmolar solutions with decreasing chloride content every 5 min from an ultrasonic nebulizer. Decreasing concentrations of chloride induced dose-related coughing, which was inhibited by furosemide. Thus, chloride-free solution induced 13.1 +/- 1.6 coughs after placebo and 8.4 +/- 1.9 coughs after furosemide (p less than 0.005). In a separate study, six of the same normal subjects were given inhaled furosemide or placebo before inhaling one breath

1990 The American review of respiratory disease

22664. The opioid agonist codeine and antagonist naltrexone do not affect voluntary suppression of capsaicin induced cough in healthy subjects. (Abstract)

The opioid agonist codeine and antagonist naltrexone do not affect voluntary suppression of capsaicin induced cough in healthy subjects. Opioids exert an analgesic action by mimicking the effects of endogenous neurotransmitter substances in the central nervous system. Opioids are widely used as antitussives, and it is reasonable to assume that endogenous opioids are involved in the control of cough. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a parallel design study was carried out to examine (...) the effects of 50 mg codeine (opioid agonist), 50 mg naltrexone (opioid antagonist) and placebo on capsaicin-induced cough in 80 healthy volunteers (mean age 25 yrs). Volunteers received two capsaicin challenge units (each consisting of five inhalations of different concentrations of capsaicin, 0.00-3.33 x 10(-4) M). On one challenge unit subjects were instructed to suppress cough, and on the other challenge unit subjects coughed freely. Coughs were recorded on a tape cassette player and later played back

1994 The European respiratory journal : official journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology

22665. Increased bronchial reactivity and potentiated skin responses in hypertensive subjects suffering from coughs during ACE-inhibitor therapy. (Abstract)

Increased bronchial reactivity and potentiated skin responses in hypertensive subjects suffering from coughs during ACE-inhibitor therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ACE-inhibitors could influence bronchial reactivity and interfere with inflammatory skin responses. Ten hypertensive subjects, who had reacted with coughs during ACE-inhibitor therapy, were treated in a double-blind crossover fashion for two weeks with enalapril and with placebo. Enalapril reduced the PC20 (...) -elicited coughs. It is suggested that coughing during ACE-inhibitor therapy is due to an increased inflammatory state in the airways.

1989 Chest

22666. The natural history of acute cough in children aged 0 to 4 years in primary care: a systematic review. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The natural history of acute cough in children aged 0 to 4 years in primary care: a systematic review. Professional and parental uncertainty regarding the natural history of cough and respiratory tract infection (R77) in pre-school children may in part be responsible for the high consultation, reconsultation, and antibiotic prescribing rates in this age group. The aim of the study was to review the evidence about the natural history of acute cough in children aged between 0 and 4 years (...) presenting to primary care in terms of illness duration and complications. The study was a systematic review, with qualitative and quantitative data synthesis, of control and placebo arms of systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and cohort studies set in primary care. Searches were done of MEDLINE (between 1966 and June 1998), EMBASE (between 1988 and September 1998), and the Cochrane Library databases, using the MeSH terms 'respiratory tract infection, 'cough, and 'bronchitis

2002 British Journal of General Practice

22667. Effect of acetazolamide on cough induced by low-chloride-ion solutions in normal subjects: comparison with furosemide. (Abstract)

Effect of acetazolamide on cough induced by low-chloride-ion solutions in normal subjects: comparison with furosemide. The antitussive activity of inhaled furosemide has been attributed to its blocking effect on the Na(+)-2Cl(-)-K+ cotransporter. It is likely that the antitussive activity of inhaled diuretics is more complex because amiloride, a diuretic that has no effect on the Na(+)-2Cl(-)-K+ cotransporter, also shows a significant effect against cough induced by low-chloride-ion solutions (...) . Apart from pharmacokinetics of inhaled diuretics, this activity could also depend on the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase.We therefore studied the effect of inhaled acetazolamide, a selective inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase activity, on cough induced by the inhalation of different chloride ion solutions in a group of normal subjects. This was compared with the antitussive effect of furosemide. In addition, we attempted to determine whether the effect of acetazolamide is dose-dependent.Cough

1996 The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology

22668. Are beta2-agonists effective treatment for acute bronchitis or acute cough in patients without underlying pulmonary disease? A systematic review. (Abstract)

Are beta2-agonists effective treatment for acute bronchitis or acute cough in patients without underlying pulmonary disease? A systematic review. Our goal was to determine whether beta2-agonists improve the symptoms of acute bronchitis or acute cough in patients who do not have underlying pulmonary disease.We performed a systematic review including meta-analysis.We included randomized controlled trials comparing beta2-agonists with placebo or alternative therapies identified from the Cochrane (...) Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, conference proceedings, Science Citation Index, the System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe, and letters to manufacturers of beta2-agonists.We measured duration, persistence, severity or frequency of cough, productive cough, and night cough; duration of activity limitations; and adverse effects.Two trials in children with cough and no obvious airway obstruction did not find any benefits from beta2-agonists. Five trials in adults with cough and with or without

2001 Journal of Family Practice

22669. Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptophan infusion on the human cough reflex. (Abstract)

Effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxytryptophan infusion on the human cough reflex. In some species serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to act as a central modulator of the cough reflex. To investigate whether serotonergic mechanisms influence the control of the human cough reflex, we have induced cough responses before and during infusions of 5-HT; its precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), which, in contrast to 5-HT, crosses the blood-brain barrier; and saline control. At the start of each (...) study day, eight normal male volunteers were challenged with a single inhalation of a solution lacking chloride ions (0.15 M sodium bicarbonate) and a single breath of capsaicin during a sham infusion. After 3 h they received repeat cough challenges during experimental infusions of 5-HT, 5-HTP, or saline control, which were given randomly and single blind. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were measured before, during, and after each infusion. Both 5-HT and 5-HTP reduced cough

1993 Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22670. Theophylline in the inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced cough. (Abstract)

Theophylline in the inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced cough. Preliminary reports suggest that some pharmacologic agents may be effective in ameliorating angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-induced cough and, perhaps, allowing continuing use of ACE inhibitors in patients for whom this class of medication is important. We examined the effect of a once-a-day theophylline formulation on ACE inhibitor-induced cough and on the sensitivity of the cough reflex (...) to capsaicin in 10 hypertensive patients who had developed cough during treatment with an ACE inhibitor. Theophylline did not induce bronchodilation but induced complete remission of clinical symptoms in 8 and attenuated the capsaicin-induced cough number in 7 subjects when compared with placebo. Theophylline may thus be effective in preventing ACE inhibitor-induced cough.

1993 Respiration; international review of thoracic diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22671. Erythromycin treatment is beneficial for longstanding Moraxella catarrhalis associated cough in children. (Abstract)

Erythromycin treatment is beneficial for longstanding Moraxella catarrhalis associated cough in children. The benefits of antibiotic treatment and a nasopharyngeal culture in children with longstanding cough were analysed in a prospective randomized open study. Clinically suspected pertussis was excluded. Of 40 children given erythromycin for 7 days, 35 (88%) recovered in one week, compared with 17/47 (36%) untreated (p < 0.0001). Erythromycin eliminated Moraxella catarrhalis from (...) the isolation of Haemophilus influenzae or Streptococcus pneumoniae and the clinical outcome. Children with persistent cough > 10 days may benefit from erythromycin treatment. M. catarrhalis in the nasopharynx indicates prolonged symptoms and increased risk of bacterial complications.

1993 Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22672. Intravenous lidocaine as a suppressant of coughing during tracheal intubation in elderly patients. (Abstract)

Intravenous lidocaine as a suppressant of coughing during tracheal intubation in elderly patients. The effects of intravenously administered lidocaine on cough suppression in elderly patients over the age of 60 yr during tracheal intubation under general anesthesia were evaluated in two studies. In the first study, 100 patients received a placebo of either 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously 1 min before tracheal intubation. All visible coughs were classified as coughing (...) . The incidence of coughing decreased as the dose of lidocaine increased. A dose of 1.5 mg/kg or more of intravenous lidocaine suppressed the cough reflex significantly (P < 0.01). In the second study, 108 patients received 2 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously or a placebo 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, or 15 min before intubation. The same criteria for determining whether a patient did or did not cough during tracheal intubation were used as in Study 1. The incidence of coughing decreased significantly (P < 0.01) when 2 mg/kg

1993 Anesthesia and analgesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22673. Effects of systematic patient education about cough on the consulting behaviour of a general practice population. (Abstract)

Effects of systematic patient education about cough on the consulting behaviour of a general practice population. In four general practices the effects of systematic patient education on cough were compared with four control practices. Intended and unintended contacts for cough were defined. In two successive autumn-winter periods, in 62% of 5890 contacts for cough the intervention could be applied. In spite of the better baseline situation in the experimental practices, the percentage

1993 Patient education and counseling Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22674. The effect of anticholinergic bronchodilator therapy on cough during upper respiratory tract infections. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The effect of anticholinergic bronchodilator therapy on cough during upper respiratory tract infections. 1. Oxitropium bromide (Oxivent), an anticholinergic bronchodilator, inhibits coughing induced by hypotonic aerosols in both asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals. We have now extended this work to investigate whether this antitussive activity is reproducible in cough associated with viral infection. 2. The effect of oxitropium bromide (200 micrograms three times daily) on cough (...) and pulmonary function has been studied in 56 non-asthmatic volunteers with upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in a double-blind, randomised, parallel group, placebo controlled study over 10 days. 3. Lung function, symptom questionnaire and cough response to ultrasonically nebulised distilled water (UNDW) inhalation were initially recorded within 72 h of development of cough and again after the 10 day treatment period. By use of a diary card at home, frequency and severity of cough, nocturnal

1994 British journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22675. Airway inflammation in nonasthmatic subjects with chronic cough. (Abstract)

Airway inflammation in nonasthmatic subjects with chronic cough. The physiopathology of chronic cough remains obscure. We evaluated the possibility that chronic cough in nonasthmatic subjects is associated with airway inflammation, and if this is so, what the relationship between this inflammation and the possible etiology of cough might be, as well as its response to inhaled steroids. Nineteen nonsmoking, nonasthmatic subjects referred for a persistent cough (mean: 3.8 yr) were evaluated (...) ) and a placebo for 1 mo each. Four groups of subjects were identified according to the presence of postnasal discharge (n = 4), gastroesophageal reflux (n = 6), both conditions (n = 5), or neither (n = 4). Subjects with chronic cough had an increased number of inflammatory cells in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), but there was no significant difference between the four subgroups of coughers. As compared with control subjects, the bronchial biopsies of subjects with chronic cough showed increased

1994 American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22676. The low-chloride cough response is not inhibited by a single, high dose of aspirin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The low-chloride cough response is not inhibited by a single, high dose of aspirin. The effect of a single, high dose of aspirin has been assessed against low chloride cough challenge. The drug does not affect the cough response, suggesting that airway prostaglandin generation is not responsible for the tussive activity of low chloride solution.

1992 British journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22677. [Cough during treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors is gender related]. (Abstract)

[Cough during treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors is gender related]. In a Norwegian, double-blind, double-dummy multicenter study, 828 patients with mild to moderate hypertension were randomized to treatment by either lisinopril or nifedipine. One of the aims of the study was to specifically investigate the frequency of side effects. Spontaneously reported coughing reached 8.5% for lisinopril, as against 3.1% for nifedipine. In two patients coughing led to withdrawal from (...) the study, and in another three it contributed partially to discontinuation of the treatment. A significant sex difference was found for spontaneously reported coughing among patients on lisinopril; 12.6% of the women and 4.4% of the men. A similar difference between the sexes was found for specific questioning about coughing. Use of a visual analogue scale by both patient and spouse revealed similar frequency of coughing as when reported spontaneously. The reason for sex being an important determinant

1992 Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22678. Clinical trial examining effectiveness of three cough syrups. (Abstract)

Clinical trial examining effectiveness of three cough syrups. Cough is one of the most common symptoms of respiratory infections for which patients seek relief. This study was done to assess the effectiveness of three commonly prescribed cough syrups.In this multipractice, office-based, randomized clinical trial, guaifenesin was compared with guaifenesin plus codeine or guaifenesin plus dextromethorphan in patients with uncomplicated respiratory tract infections. Family physicians enrolled 97 (...) patients between February 1988 and April 1990. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment and were interviewed by telephone at 2, 4, and 10 days to assess cough relief, treatment adherence, and side effects. There were no statistically significant differences among treatment groups at base line.At day 2 there were no statistically significant differences among treatment groups for any of the outcome measures. At day 4 five of the outcome measures of cough quality, frequency, sleep disturbances

1993 The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice / American Board of Family Practice Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22679. Chronic cough due to gastroesophageal reflux. Clinical, diagnostic, and pathogenetic aspects. (Abstract)

Chronic cough due to gastroesophageal reflux. Clinical, diagnostic, and pathogenetic aspects. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common cause of chronic cough. Moreover, chronic cough can be the sole presenting manifestation of GER disease (GERD). It has been suggested recently that GER most often causes chronic cough by stimulating the distal esophagus. To gain further diagnostic and pathophysiologic knowledge, we prospectively evaluated a group of patients with chronic cough likely to be due (...) to GER with extensive gastrointestinal and respiratory studies and then observed their response to antireflux therapy.We prospectively characterized 12 subjects whose chronic cough was likely to be due to GER by chest radiographs, barium esophagography, 24-h esophageal pH monitoring (EPM) with probes in the distal and proximal esophagus, esophagoscopy, and bronchoscopy. Then, prior to instituting antireflux therapy, we objectively counted coughs during the distal esophageal infusion of 0.1 N HCl

1993 Chest Controlled trial quality: uncertain

22680. Airway responsiveness and cough induced by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition. (Abstract)

Airway responsiveness and cough induced by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition. Dry cough is one of the most common side-effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The mechanism of cough induced by ACE inhibitors is not completely understood and may be related to bronchial hyperreactivity and/or an accumulation of kinins. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind randomised study, the effect of captopril on lung function and bronchial reactivity to histamine and bradykinin (...) was investigated in eight asthmatic and 12 hypertensive patients (six with and six without cough during previous ACE inhibition). Lung function did not change in any patient after a single (25 mg) or short-term (2 x 25 mg for two weeks) administration of captopril. Bronchial reactivity to histamine and bradykinin remained unaltered in all groups. In hypertensive patients with cough, reactivity to histamine tended to be more pronounced and bronchial hyperreactivity to be more frequent than in those without

1992 Journal of human hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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