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Corticotropin Stimulation Test

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141. Diagnosis and Treatment of Non-Neurogenic Overactive Bladder (OAB) in Adults: an AUA/SUFU Guideline

-counseled patient who has been refractory to first- and second-line OAB treatments. The patient must be able and willing to return for frequent post-void residual evaluation and able and willing to perform self- catheterization if necessary. Standard (Evidence Strength Grade B) 19. Clinicians may offer peripheral tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) as third-line treatment in a carefully selected patient population. Recommendation (Evidence Strength Grade C) 20. Clinicians may offer sacral neuromodulation (...) were also added to the database. Given that the AHRQ report included limited information regarding use of neuromodulation therapies, including sacral neuromodulation (SNS) and peripheral tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) (also known as posterior tibial nerve stimulation) and limited information regarding the use of intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA to treat non-neurogenic OAB patients, additional searches were performed to capture this literature and relevant data were added to the database. The AUA

2019 American Urological Association

142. Diagnosis and Treatment of Non-Neurogenic Overactive Bladder (OAB) in Adults

-line treatment in the carefully-selected and thoroughly-counseled patient who has been refractory to first- and second-line OAB treatments. The patient must be able and willing to return for frequent post-void residual evaluation and able and willing to perform self-catheterization if necessary. Standard (Evidence Strength Grade B) 19. Clinicians may offer peripheral tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) as third-line treatment in a carefully selected patient population. Recommendation (Evidence Strength (...) to the database. Given that the AHRQ report included limited information regarding use of neuromodulation therapies, including sacral neuromodulation (SNS) and peripheral tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) (also known as posterior tibial nerve stimulation) and limited information regarding the use of intravesical onabotulinumtoxinA to treat non-neurogenic OAB patients, additional searches were performed to capture this literature and relevant data were added to the database. The AUA update literature review

2019 American Urological Association

143. An International Consortium Update: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of PCOS in Adolescence Full Text available with Trip Pro

of adrenal androgens, may herald PCOS in childhood [ ]. However, PA does not precede PCOS in all girls [ ] and not all girls with PA will develop PCOS [ , ]. Persistent hyperandrogenemia in girls with PA may lead to PCOS, especially if accompanied by obesity [ ]. Continued prospective monitoring of girls with PA should be performed. The diagnosis of non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia should be excluded based on history, examination, and hormone levels including ACTH stimulation tests if warranted (...) An International Consortium Update: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of PCOS in Adolescence An International Consortium Update: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Adolescence - FullText - Hormone Research in Paediatrics 2017, Vol. 88, No. 6 - Karger Publishers a,b " /> c " /> d " /> e " /> f " /> g " /> h " /> i " /> j " /> k " /> l " /> m " /> n " /> o " /> p " /> q " /> r " /> s " /> t " /> u " /> v " /> w " /> x " /> y " /> z

2019 Pediatric Endocrine Society

144. Pharmacologic and Nonpharmacologic Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

mental health disorders associated with PTSD, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, and ketamine. 13,14 Whereas recent CPGs and reviews exist, providing a single, updatable source of PTSD treatment studies would be useful for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to systematically identify and abstract data from RCTs of PTSD interventions to support development of a new data repository of PTSD treatment research. These data, when available (...) . Pradhan B, Kluewer D'Amico J, Makani R, et al. Nonconventional interventions for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder: Ketamine, repetitive trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and alternative approaches. J Trauma Dissociation. 2016;17(1):35-54. doi: 10.1080/15299732.2015.1046101. PMID: 26162001. 14. Rasmusson AM, Marx CE, Jain S, et al. A randomized controlled trial of ganaxolone in posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2017 Aug;234(15):2245-57. doi: 10.1007/s00213- 017

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

145. Emergency management of adrenal insufficiency in children: advocating for treatment options in outpatient and field settings

hypoplasia), nystagmus PROP1 LHX4 OTX2 Anophthalmia, developmental delay SOX3 X linked, mental retardation, ectopic posterior pituitary Isolated ACTH deficiency TPIT (TBX19) Continued Condition Affected gene Clinical phenotype Proopiomelanocortin deficiency POMC Severe early-onset hyperphagic obesity, red hair Proprotein convertase 1 mutation PCSK1 Hypoglycemia, malabsorption, gonadotropin deficiency ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone; CAH, congenital adrenal hyperplasia; CRH, corticotropin-releasing (...) . Due to clinical and biochemical features suggestive of primary adrenal insuffi- ciency (AI), blood was drawn for measurement of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels prior to administering 75 mg of intravenous hydrocortisone sodium succinate (Solu-Cortef). He was admitted and diagnosis confirmed. Treatment was initiated with hydro- cortisone and fludrocortisone. The patient and family received education for the management of primary AI and prevention of adrenal crises. Two years

2019 Pediatric Endocrine Society

146. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

., 2010. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, stress and human reproduction: an update. Journal of reproductive immunology, 85(1), pp.33–39. Kessler, L.M. et al., 2013. Infertility evaluation and treatment among women in the United States. Fertility and sterility, 100(4), pp.1025–1032. Khedr, N.F., 2015. Protective effect of mirtazapine and hesperidin on cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative damage and infertility in rat ovaries. Experimental biology and medicine , 240(12), pp.1682– 1689. Kim, J.H., Shin (...) journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 105(2), pp.136–139. Shahine, L.K. & Lathi, R.B., 2006. Night sweats and elevated follicle-stimulating hormone levels while taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Obstetrics and gynecology, 108(3 Pt 2), pp.741–742. Shani, C. et al., 2016. Suicidal risk among infertile women undergoing in-vitro fertilization: Incidence and risk factors. Psychiatry research, 240, pp.53–59

2019 American Psychiatric Association

147. Sepsis Management

to detect, but in the course of time, not having been either detected or treated in the beginning, it becomes easy to detect but difficult to cure”. A full history and examination with appropriate blood tests and radiological examinations will aid in making the diagnosis. A 2010 report by the Scottish Trauma Audit Group of sepsis management in Scotland reported that 1.7% of new patient hospitals attendances developed the criteria for sepsis within two days of initial attendance, 34% of patients

2019 National Clinical Guidelines (Ireland)

148. Statin Safety and Associated Adverse Events: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Full Text available with Trip Pro

to the pharmacological properties of the drug. Most clinical trials report the numbers of patients stopping the study medication because of any adverse event. The difference between the test agent and placebo is a good measure of the overall tolerability of the agent, provided that the blind remains secure throughout the trial. 1.2. Randomized Controlled Trials In the evaluation of the safety of a drug used long term, the most reliable data are derived from properly designed and conducted large, long-term, double (...) -blind, placebo-controlled randomized trials. The great advantage of this form of investigation is that bias is controlled by random allocation to treatment. There can still be random error, and sometimes other issues within the control of the investigator such as inadequate follow-up or ineffective blinding, but in a well-planned and executed RCT, the results are determined solely by allocation to the test treatment or the control. Most statin RCTs, especially the largest of such trials, were

2019 American Gastroenterological Association Institute

149. Pediatric Post–Cardiac Arrest Care: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

and the proximal cause of arrest and management of critical abnormalities. Monitoring in the field continues through transport and includes ECG, pulse oximetry, capnography, noninvasive blood pressure measurement, and point-of-care glucose testing. General Intensive Care Monitoring General intensive care monitoring includes continuous cardiac telemetry, pulse oximetry, continuous capnography, continuous temperature monitoring, and measurement of blood pressure and urine output. Monitoring includes laboratory

2019 American Heart Association

150. Screening and Management of the Hyperandrogenic Adolescent

ofnonclassiccongenitaladrenalhyperplasia.Supplemen- tal testing includes a corticotropin (formerly adrenocor- ticotropic hormone [ACTH]) stimulation test for confirmation of nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperpla- sia and DHEAS to rule out adrenal neoplasm; this may be appropriate in cases of rapid onset of virilization (15). Computed tomography scans to evaluate the adrenal glands should be obtained for patients with markedly elevated DHEAS levels. Alternatively, adrenal ultraso- nography can be offered if adrenal glands can be visual- ized (...) ), location, and quality (comedonal, inflammatory [including erythematous papules and pustules or nodules], or mixed). There is no universally agreed upon grading scale (8). Figure 1. Evaluation and Management of Clinical Hyperandrogenism. Abbreviations: BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pres- sure;CAH,congenitaladrenalhyperplasia;DHEAS, dehydroepiandrosteronesulphate; FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone; HA, hyperandrogenism; LH, luteinizing hormone; 17OHP, 17-a-hydroxyprogesterone; PCOS, polycystic ovary

2019 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

151. AACE/ACE Guidelines for Management of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults and Patients Transitioning from Pediatric to Adult Care

of considering test- ing patients with a reasonable level of clinical suspicion of GHD using appropriate growth hormone (GH) cut-points for various GH–stimulation tests to accurately diagnose adult GHD, and to exercise caution interpreting serum GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels, as various GH and IGF-1 assays are used to support treatment deci- sions. The intention to treat often requires sound clinical judgment and careful assessment of the benefits and risks specific to each individual (...) and Drug Administration; FD-GST = fixed-dose glucagon stimulation test; GeNeSIS = Genetics and Neuroendocrinology of Short Stature International Study; GH = growth hormone; GHD = growth hormone deficiency; GHRH = growth hormone–releasing hormone; GST = glucagon stimula- tion test; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; HypoCCS = Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study; IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor-1; IGFBP = insulin-like growth factor–binding protein; IGHD = isolated growth hormone deficiency; ITT

2019 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

152. Chronic Pelvic Pain

Impot Res, 1998. 10 Suppl 2: S117. 146. Ambler, N., et al. Sexual difficulties of chronic pain patients. Clin J Pain, 2001. 17: 138. 147. Loving, S., et al. Pelvic floor muscle dysfunctions are prevalent in female chronic pelvic pain: A cross-sectional population-based study. Eur J Pain, 2014. 18: 1259. 148. Chiarioni, G., et al. Biofeedback is superior to electrogalvanic stimulation and massage for treatment of levator ani syndrome. Gastroenterology, 2010. 138: 1321. 149. Rao, S.S., et al. ANMS (...) urinary tract. J Urol, 1998. 159: 2185. 170. Parsons, C.L., et al. Cyto-injury factors in urine: a possible mechanism for the development of interstitial cystitis. J Urol, 2000. 164: 1381. 171. Chelimsky, G., et al. Autonomic Testing in Women with Chronic Pelvic Pain. J Urol, 2016. 196: 429. 172. Charrua, A., et al. Can the adrenergic system be implicated in the pathophysiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis? A clinical and experimental study. Neurourol Urodyn, 2015. 34: 489. 173

2019 European Association of Urology

153. Paediatric Urology

as ten injections in the treatment of cryptorchidism. Horm Res, 1988. 30: 193. 69. Hagberg, S., et al. Treatment of undescended testes with intranasal application of synthetic LH-RH. Eur J Pediatr, 1982. 139: 285. 70. Hadziselimovic, F., et al. Treatment with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue after successful orchiopexy markedly improves the chance of fertility later in life. J Urol, 1997. 158: 1193. 71. Schwentner, C., et al. Neoadjuvant gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy before (...) surgery may improve the fertility index in undescended testes: a prospective randomized trial. J Urol, 2005. 173: 974. 72. Cortes, D., et al. Hormonal treatment may harm the germ cells in 1 to 3-year-old boys with cryptorchidism. J Urol, 2000. 163: 1290. 73. Ritzen, E.M. Undescended testes: a consensus on management. Eur J Endocrinol, 2008. 159 Suppl 1: S87. 74. Kollin, C., et al. Surgical treatment of unilaterally undescended testes: testicular growth after randomization to orchiopexy at age 9 months

2019 European Association of Urology

154. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

analysis rapid ACTH stimulation test karyotype or fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) for X and Y chromosome detection plasma renin activity pelvic and adrenal ultrasound Treatment algorithm INITIAL ACUTE ONGOING Contributors Authors Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai School New York NY Disclosures MY declares that she has no competing interests. Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai School New York NY Disclosures AK

2017 BMJ Best Practice

155. Ambiguous genitalia in neonates

hormone (FSH) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) stimulation test Müllerian-inhibiting substance (MIS) or anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) urine steroid profile Treatment algorithm INITIAL ACUTE ONGOING Contributors Authors Consultant Paediatric Endocrinologist Honorary Senior Lecturer University of Southampton Southampton UK Disclosures JD declares that he has no competing interests. Specialist Registrar in Paediatric Endocrinology Department (...) in a phenotypic male clitoris >1 cm in a phenotypic female hypospadias and undescended testes or separation of scrotal sacs urethral opening at base of phallus hypotension and vomiting dysmorphic facial features family history Diagnostic investigations chromosome analysis (karyotype) serum electrolytes and glucose pelvic ultrasound serum 17 hydroxyprogesterone plasma renin activity serum 11 deoxycortisol and 11 deoxycorticosterone serum testosterone serum dihydrotestosterone serum LH and follicle-stimulating

2017 BMJ Best Practice

156. Effects of Hormone Stimulation on Brain Scans for Cushing s Disease

the tumors more active. Objectives: - To test the use of hormone stimulation to improve brain scans for Cushing s disease tumors. Eligibility: - Individuals at least 8 years of age who will be having surgery to remove Cushing s disease tumors. Design: Participants will be screened with a medical history, physical exam, blood and urine tests, and imaging studies. They will have three brain scans before surgery. The first scan is a magnetic resonance imaging scan to show a full picture of the brain (...) failure compared to cases associated with adenomas visible on MR-imaging. Because ACTH-adenomas are metabolically active compared to the surrounding pituitary gland, (18)F-fludeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-imaging in CD patients could be used to detect adenomas not detectable on MR-imaging. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) can be given to selectively increase the metabolic activity of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas to increase the likelihood

2011 Clinical Trials

157. Adrenal Cell Aldosterone Production Is Stimulated by Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL). Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Herein, we used primary cultures of human and bovine adrenal cells and the adrenocortical cell line H295R as models to determine the effects of VLDL on adrenal steroidogenesis. Our studies revealed that VLDL significantly increased aldosterone synthesis in all of the models tested. This increase was largely due to VLDL's stimulation of the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). VLDL increased CYP11B2 mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent (...) Adrenal Cell Aldosterone Production Is Stimulated by Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein (VLDL). Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) are a class of large lipoprotein synthesized in the liver. The key function of VLDL, in vivo, is to carry triglyceride from the liver to adipose tissue. As a steroidogenic organ, the adrenal gland mainly uses lipoproteins as sources of cholesterol. Although VLDL receptors have been detected in the human adrenal, the function of VLDL in the adrenal gland remains unknown

2011 Endocrinology

158. Scleroderma Morphea

disorders 117 Clinical course 118 Diagnostic procedures 119 Histopathology 119 Diagnostic criteria 119 Patient history 120 Physical examination 120 Skin biopsy 120 Complementary investigations 120 Additional tests 121 Differential diagnosis 121 Treatment 123 Prognosis and follow-up 124 Summary and recommendation 125 References 129 7 List of abbreviations ACA Anti-centromere antibodies ACE Angiotensin-converting enzyme ACR American College of Rheumatology ANA Antinuclear antibodies CARRA Childhood (...) Forced vital capacity GBCA Gadolinium-based contrast agents GFR Glomerular filtration rate HR-CT High-resolution computed tomography ILD Interstitial lung disease IVIg Intravenous immunoglobulin LFT Lung function test LoSCAT Localized Scleroderma Cutaneous Assessment Tool LoSDI Modified Localized Scleroderma Skin Severity Index LS Localized scleroderma MCTD Mixed connective tissue disease mLoSSI Modified Localized Scleroderma Skin Severity Index MMF Mycophenolate mofetil MMP Matrix metalloproteinases

2018 European Dermatology Forum

159. Paediatric Urology

as ten injections in the treatment of cryptorchidism. Horm Res, 1988. 30: 193. 69. Hagberg, S., et al. Treatment of undescended testes with intranasal application of synthetic LH-RH. Eur J Pediatr, 1982. 139: 285. 70. Hadziselimovic, F., et al. Treatment with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue after successful orchiopexy markedly improves the chance of fertility later in life. J Urol, 1997. 158: 1193. 71. Schwentner, C., et al. Neoadjuvant gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy before (...) surgery may improve the fertility index in undescended testes: a prospective randomized trial. J Urol, 2005. 173: 974. 72. Cortes, D., et al. Hormonal treatment may harm the germ cells in 1 to 3-year-old boys with cryptorchidism. J Urol, 2000. 163: 1290. 73. Ritzen, E.M. Undescended testes: a consensus on management. Eur J Endocrinol, 2008. 159 Suppl 1: S87. 74. Kollin, C., et al. Surgical treatment of unilaterally undescended testes: testicular growth after randomization to orchiopexy at age 9 months

2018 European Association of Urology

160. Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

initiation of apalutamide treatment, and were managed with medical therapy. Particular attention should be paid to monitoring thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in individuals with known hypothyroidism given observed changes in thyroid function with apalutamide treatment. Enzalutamide: Enzalutamide is a novel AR signaling inhibitor. It is a competitive inhibitor of androgen binding and also inhibits nuclear translocation of the AR, DNA binding and coactivator recruitment. 18 This drug binds AR with a five (...) deprivation, treatments were administered solely for palliation. Landmark articles by Tannock et al. 4 and Petrylak et al. 5 demonstrated that docetaxel improved survival for these patients with mCRPC. Since the approval of docetaxel, six additional agents that show a survival benefit have been FDA-approved on the basis of randomized clinical trials. These have included enzalutamide, abiraterone and apalutamide, agents designed specifically to affect the androgen axis; 6-8 sipuleucel-T, which stimulates

2018 American Urological Association

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