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Corticotropin Stimulation Test

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121. Osteoporosis (Secondary) (Treatment)

and patients" can lead to increased bone mineral density (BMD) testing and greater use of osteoporosis medications. [ ] In addition, a physician reminder in conjunction with a patient risk assessment strategy apparently can result in a reduction in patient fractures and an increase in osteoporosis therapy. The authors concluded that multicomponent tools aimed at doctors and patients may support clinical decision making in the management of osteoporosis. A 2009 study indicated that the use of a case manager (...) modalities such as moist hot packs and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation should also be considered. During this period, monitoring the patient carefully for signs of constipation, urinary retention, and respiratory depression, which can occur with the use of narcotic analgesics, is essential. A comfortable mechanical support for the spine and, in some cases, a thoracic orthosis may need to be prescribed. The primary reason for the application of a thoracic orthosis is to limit motion

2014 eMedicine.com

122. Osteoporosis (Primary) (Treatment)

and patients" can lead to increased bone mineral density (BMD) testing and greater use of osteoporosis medications. [ ] In addition, a physician reminder in conjunction with a patient risk assessment strategy apparently can result in a reduction in patient fractures and an increase in osteoporosis therapy. The authors concluded that multicomponent tools aimed at doctors and patients may support clinical decision making in the management of osteoporosis. A 2009 study indicated that the use of a case manager (...) modalities such as moist hot packs and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation should also be considered. During this period, monitoring the patient carefully for signs of constipation, urinary retention, and respiratory depression, which can occur with the use of narcotic analgesics, is essential. A comfortable mechanical support for the spine and, in some cases, a thoracic orthosis may need to be prescribed. The primary reason for the application of a thoracic orthosis is to limit motion

2014 eMedicine.com

123. Oral Manifestations of Systemic Diseases (Treatment)

loss and loosening of the teeth, as well as mucosal scarring. [ ] Although lifelong morbidity is a feature of cyclic neutropenia, mortality due to severe infections is relatively uncommon. [ ] Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can be used to improve neutrophil counts and reduce morbidity. [ ] Patients should also be diligent about oral hygiene to reduce the risk of intraoral infection. Langerhans cell histiocytosis Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), formerly known as histiocytosis X (...) (or >2-fold the reference range if tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) Anti-Sm: Presence of antibody to Sm nuclear antigen Antiphospholipid antibody positivity as determined by any of the following: Positive test result for lupus anticoagulant False-positive test result for rapid plasma reagin Medium- or high-titer anticardiolipin antibody level (IgA, IgG, or IgM) Positive test result for anti–β 2 -glycoprotein I (IgA, IgG, or IgM) Low complement Low C3 Low C4 Low CH50 Direct Coombs

2014 eMedicine.com

124. Primary Insomnia (Treatment)

insomnia Idiopathic insomnia Paradoxical insomnia [ , ] Next: Treatment Goals and Considerations The pathophysiology of primary insomnia is not well understood, and essential features assist in diagnosis. The focus of management is on symptoms. [ ] However, findings have strengthened the evidence that primary insomnia may be linked with mood disorders and is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis overactivity and excess secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF (...) as well. Previous Next: Differentials in Primary Insomnia The exclusion of common causes of insomnia is required to make the diagnosis of primary insomnia. Medical causes of insomnia include the following: Chronic pain, especially neuropathic pain Primary sleep disorders (eg, sleep apnea, periodic limb movements, restless legs syndrome) Dyspnea from any cause Pregnancy Drug use or withdrawal (eg, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, stimulants, antihistamines, caffeine, diet pills, herbal

2014 eMedicine.com

125. Oral Malignant Melanoma (Treatment)

cavity. They can be extensive in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and are perioral or intraoral. In Addisonian pigmentation and pigmentation caused by certain medications, the etiology involves the activity of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Bronzing associated with adrenal insufficiency is diffuse and commonly uniform. When the adrenal cortex does not respond to pituitary-released corticotropin, the continued release depletes corticotropin. A precursor protein to corticotropin and MSH is released (pro (...) , and alarming in appearance. Blood and melanin coloration Coloration imparted by blood can result from the pooling of red blood cells (RBCs) in vessels (eg, hyperemia, sludging, presence of a thrombus), increased vascularity, or extravasation after an injury. The red, blue, or purple color due to intravascular blood can be blanched during diascopy, in which pressure is placed on the mucosa by using a glass slide or a test tube. This examination can be used to identify telangiectasias, varicosities

2014 eMedicine.com

126. Osteoporosis (Treatment)

and patients" can lead to increased bone mineral density (BMD) testing and greater use of osteoporosis medications. [ ] In addition, a physician reminder in conjunction with a patient risk assessment strategy apparently can result in a reduction in patient fractures and an increase in osteoporosis therapy. The authors concluded that multicomponent tools aimed at doctors and patients may support clinical decision making in the management of osteoporosis. A 2009 study indicated that the use of a case manager (...) modalities such as moist hot packs and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation should also be considered. During this period, monitoring the patient carefully for signs of constipation, urinary retention, and respiratory depression, which can occur with the use of narcotic analgesics, is essential. A comfortable mechanical support for the spine and, in some cases, a thoracic orthosis may need to be prescribed. The primary reason for the application of a thoracic orthosis is to limit motion

2014 eMedicine.com

127. Shock, Distributive (Treatment)

patients receiving hydrocortisone had an earlier reversal of shock. Also in contrast to prior work, this study did not find that a corticotropin stimulation test predicted response to hydrocortisone. Additional studies are required to address these discrepancies. The SSC recommendations acknowledge this controversy and support giving hydrocortisone only to hypotensive patients poorly responsive to fluid resuscitation and vasopressors. Given findings that suggest the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH (...) ) stimulation test does not predict response to steroids, this test is no longer recommended. Hydrocortisone, rather than dexamethasone or fludrocortisone, is the steroid of choice; it is not yet clear if adding fludrocortisone to hydrocortisone provides added benefit. [ ] Previous Next: Glucose Protocol-driven management of glucose (target < 150-180 mg/dL) is recommended, with monitoring every 1-2 hours until glucose levels are stable and then every 4 hours thereafter. This SSC recommendation is based

2014 eMedicine.com

128. Conn Syndrome (Treatment)

benefit. [ ] Next: Pharmacologic Therapy Calcium channel blockers By inhibiting the intracellular calcium flux in the adrenocortical cells, the dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers reduce the production of aldosterone in response to a variety of stimulants, including potassium, corticotropin, and angiotensin-II. Nifedipine is the most extensively studied of these medications; however, although nifedipine causes a significant improvement in patients with hypertension (HTN), it does not address (...) following chronic corticotropin suppression by exogenous steroids. However, if significant develops, potassium supplements should be discontinued, and the patient can be started on furosemide at doses of 80-160 mg daily. Previous Next: Diet A low-salt diet, although helpful in achieving blood pressure control in primary aldosteronism, may be associated with false-negative results on biochemical testing. A high-salt diet makes the achievement of blood pressure control more difficult and may cause false

2014 eMedicine.com

129. Carney Syndrome (Treatment)

See for more detail. Diagnosis Laboratory studies used in the diagnosis of Carney complex include the following: Complete blood count (CBC) Glucose/electrolytes Erythrocyte sedimentation rate Thyroxine/thyroid-stimulating hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone Growth hormone Twenty-four–hour urinary cortisol excretion test and dexamethasone stimulation test: To evaluate for primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) as part of Carney complex [ ] Echocardiography is the investigation (...) . (See Pathophysiology and Etiology.) Endocrine overactivity is one of the characteristics of this syndrome. [ ] In fact, corticotropin hormone–independent due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease is an important characteristic of Carney complex. (See Workup and Treatment.) Patient education The family should be aware that this is an autosomal dominant disorder with a 50% chance that the offspring of an affected individual will have the disorder. Previous Next: Pathophysiology Carney

2014 eMedicine.com

130. Hyperaldosteronism, Primary (Treatment)

benefit. [ ] Next: Pharmacologic Therapy Calcium channel blockers By inhibiting the intracellular calcium flux in the adrenocortical cells, the dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers reduce the production of aldosterone in response to a variety of stimulants, including potassium, corticotropin, and angiotensin-II. Nifedipine is the most extensively studied of these medications; however, although nifedipine causes a significant improvement in patients with hypertension (HTN), it does not address (...) following chronic corticotropin suppression by exogenous steroids. However, if significant develops, potassium supplements should be discontinued, and the patient can be started on furosemide at doses of 80-160 mg daily. Previous Next: Diet A low-salt diet, although helpful in achieving blood pressure control in primary aldosteronism, may be associated with false-negative results on biochemical testing. A high-salt diet makes the achievement of blood pressure control more difficult and may cause false

2014 eMedicine.com

131. Tourette Syndrome and Other Tic Disorders (Treatment)

dyskinesia. Dopamine agonist therapy Paradoxically, several mixed dopamine agonists have also been proven effective in reducing tic frequency. [ , , ] To date, they have been tested exclusively in relatively low doses, partly because of a theory that, at these doses, they must antagonize dopamine function by selective action at presynaptic receptors. Accumulating evidence suggests that this rationale is faulty, however, and trials with higher doses may be expected. Habit reversal therapy Five RCTs have (...) demonstrated the efficacy of a specific form of behavior therapy for tics. [ , , , , , ] The originally tested treatment consisted of a package of interventions called habit reversal therapy, [ ] which comprises monitoring, relaxation, and other nonspecific elements of behavior therapy. The most important element is application of a competing response whenever the patient notices either a tic or the urge to tic. Initially, heavy effort on the part of the patient may be needed. However, in all 4 reported

2014 eMedicine.com

132. Pituitary Disease and Pregnancy (Treatment)

. The ACTH stimulation test cannot be used for at least 3 months, because the adrenal cortex needs time to atrophy and lose responsiveness to low-dose ACTH. In the 3-month postpartum period, -induced hypoglycemia or other stimulation tests, such as glucagon, would be needed for definitive diagnosis of ACTH (and GH) deficiency. Even if a clear temporal association exists with parturition, imaging with MRI (preferably) or CT scanning is indicated to exclude mass lesions. In long-standing Sheehan syndrome (...) are started on therapy for hyperprolactinemia, mechanical contraception can be advised for the first 2-3 cycles so that an intermenstrual period can be established. By doing this, the woman will know when she has missed a period when unprotected intercourse is resumed. As soon as this occurs, a pregnancy test can be obtained and dopamine agonist stopped. This approach limits dopamine agonist exposure to a maximum of 3-4 weeks. In practice, this delay is usually not done. appears to be safe in pregnancy

2014 eMedicine.com

133. Pseudo-Cushing Syndrome (Treatment)

cortisol with an automated immunoassay system. Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine . 2006. 44(12):1441-5. . Alwani RA, Schmit Jongbloed LW, de Jong FH, van der Lely AJ, de Herder WW, Feelders RA. Differentiating between Cushing's disease and pseudo-Cushing's syndrome: comparison of four tests. Eur J Endocrinol . March/2014. 170(4):477-86. . Yanovski JA, Cutler GB Jr, Chrousos GP, Nieman LK. Corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation following low-dose dexamethasone administration. A new test (...) cortisol concentrations. [ ] PCS can occur at any age; it can develop in infants exposed to alcohol in breast milk. [ ] Next: Causes and Complications Etiology The mechanism behind PCS is unclear. Most evidence suggests central stimulation of a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), either at the hypothalamic or suprahypothalamic level. [ , ] Rats given 15% alcohol for 3 months showed a greater number of corticotropin-producing cells with increased secretory activity. [ ] A two-hit hypothesis has been

2014 eMedicine.com

134. Pseudohypoparathyroidism (Overview)

PHP type 1a Several other peptide hormones, including thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotropin), antidiuretic hormone, gonadotropins, glucagons, adrenocorticotropin, and growth hormone–releasing hormone, use the α subunit of stimulatory G protein to enhance cAMP production. Patients with PHP-1a can present with resistance to the effects of any of these hormones, although in most patients, responses to corticotropin and glucagon are clinically unaffected. The dominant pattern of inheritance of PHP (...) (AHO). These features included short stature, rounded face, shortened fourth metacarpals and other bones of the hands and feet, obesity, dental hypoplasia, and soft-tissue calcifications/ossifications. In addition, administration of PTH failed to produce the expected phosphaturia or to stimulate renal production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). However, the AHO phenotype is not a feature of PHP-1b or PHP-2. The molecular defects in the gene ( GNAS1 ) encoding the α subunit

2014 eMedicine.com

135. Pseudo-Cushing Syndrome (Overview)

cortisol with an automated immunoassay system. Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine . 2006. 44(12):1441-5. . Alwani RA, Schmit Jongbloed LW, de Jong FH, van der Lely AJ, de Herder WW, Feelders RA. Differentiating between Cushing's disease and pseudo-Cushing's syndrome: comparison of four tests. Eur J Endocrinol . March/2014. 170(4):477-86. . Yanovski JA, Cutler GB Jr, Chrousos GP, Nieman LK. Corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation following low-dose dexamethasone administration. A new test (...) cortisol concentrations. [ ] PCS can occur at any age; it can develop in infants exposed to alcohol in breast milk. [ ] Next: Causes and Complications Etiology The mechanism behind PCS is unclear. Most evidence suggests central stimulation of a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), either at the hypothalamic or suprahypothalamic level. [ , ] Rats given 15% alcohol for 3 months showed a greater number of corticotropin-producing cells with increased secretory activity. [ ] A two-hit hypothesis has been

2014 eMedicine.com

136. Primary Insomnia (Overview)

insomnia Idiopathic insomnia Paradoxical insomnia [ , ] Next: Treatment Goals and Considerations The pathophysiology of primary insomnia is not well understood, and essential features assist in diagnosis. The focus of management is on symptoms. [ ] However, findings have strengthened the evidence that primary insomnia may be linked with mood disorders and is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis overactivity and excess secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF (...) as well. Previous Next: Differentials in Primary Insomnia The exclusion of common causes of insomnia is required to make the diagnosis of primary insomnia. Medical causes of insomnia include the following: Chronic pain, especially neuropathic pain Primary sleep disorders (eg, sleep apnea, periodic limb movements, restless legs syndrome) Dyspnea from any cause Pregnancy Drug use or withdrawal (eg, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, stimulants, antihistamines, caffeine, diet pills, herbal

2014 eMedicine.com

137. Pituitary Disease and Pregnancy (Overview)

. The ACTH stimulation test cannot be used for at least 3 months, because the adrenal cortex needs time to atrophy and lose responsiveness to low-dose ACTH. In the 3-month postpartum period, -induced hypoglycemia or other stimulation tests, such as glucagon, would be needed for definitive diagnosis of ACTH (and GH) deficiency. Even if a clear temporal association exists with parturition, imaging with MRI (preferably) or CT scanning is indicated to exclude mass lesions. In long-standing Sheehan syndrome (...) are started on therapy for hyperprolactinemia, mechanical contraception can be advised for the first 2-3 cycles so that an intermenstrual period can be established. By doing this, the woman will know when she has missed a period when unprotected intercourse is resumed. As soon as this occurs, a pregnancy test can be obtained and dopamine agonist stopped. This approach limits dopamine agonist exposure to a maximum of 3-4 weeks. In practice, this delay is usually not done. appears to be safe in pregnancy

2014 eMedicine.com

138. Pheochromocytoma (Overview)

hypotension: From volume contraction Hypertensive retinopathy Weight loss Pallor Fever Tremor Neurofibromas Tachyarrhythmias Pulmonary edema Cardiomyopathy Ileus Café au lait spots See for more detail. Diagnosis Diagnostic tests for pheochromocytoma include the following: Plasma metanephrine testing: 96% sensitivity, 85% specificity [ ] 24-hour urinary collection for catecholamines and metanephrines: 87.5% sensitivity, 99.7% specificity [ ] Test selection criteria include the following: Use plasma (...) metanephrine testing in patients at high risk (ie, those with predisposing genetic syndromes or a family or personal history of pheochromocytoma) Use 24-hour urinary collection for catecholamines and metanephrines in patients at lower risk Imaging studies should be performed only after biochemical studies have confirmed the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Studies are as follows: Abdominal CT scanning: Has accuracy of 85-95% for detecting adrenal masses with a spatial resolution of 1 cm or greater MRI

2014 eMedicine.com

139. Pregnancy Diagnosis (Overview)

feasible tests that use these hormones have been made available to aid in the diagnosis of pregnancy. Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin hCG is a glycoprotein similar in structure to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and thyrotropin. hCG is composed of alpha and beta subunits. The alpha subunit of hCG is similar to the alpha subunit of FSH, LH, and thyrotropin. The free beta subunit of hCG differs from the others in that it has a 30–amino acid tailpiece at the COOH terminus (...) dilutions to look for linearity, and testing using a different method. The five potential sources of positive hCG results outside of pregnancy are described below: [ , ] Phantom hCG Caused by heterophilic antibodies that bind the capture and labeled antibodies together without hCG being present Antibody production results from exposure to animals used to produce antibodies used in assay Rule out with sensitive urine assay, as these antibodies do not cross into urine Pituitary hCG Stimulated

2014 eMedicine.com

140. Fibromyalgia (Overview)

-stimulating hormone level 25-hydroxy vitamin D level Vitamin B12 level Iron studies, including iron level, total iron binding capacity, percent saturation, and serum ferritin level Magnesium level Erythrocyte sedimentation rate Antipolymer antibody assay: May provide conclusive evidence for a subgroup of people with fibromyalgia; about 50% of fibromyalgia patients have antipolymer antibodies Patient self-report forms, clinical psychometric testing Self-report forms, for assessing patients’ pain, fatigue (...) be explained if platelet ATP levels are also low. ATP is necessary to move and then hold serotonin in platelets. More investigation into ATP and the link to serotonin is needed. Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis Studies of the neuroendocrine aspects of fibromyalgia have found dysfunction of the HPA axis. [ ] The HPA axis is a critical component of the stress-adaptation response. The sequence of HPA action is that corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus stimulates

2014 eMedicine.com

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