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Corticotropin Stimulation Test

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81. CRF-R1 activation in the anterior-dorsal BNST induces maternal neglect in lactating rats via an HPA axis-independent central mechanism (PubMed)

CRF-R1 activation in the anterior-dorsal BNST induces maternal neglect in lactating rats via an HPA axis-independent central mechanism Adequate maternal behavior in rats requires minimal corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF-R) activation in the medial-posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (mpBNST). Based on the architectural heterogeneity of the BNST and its distinct inter-neural connectivity, we tested whether CRF-R manipulation in another functional part, the anterior-dorsal (...) manipulation. Furthermore, under basal and stress conditions, activation of adBNST CRF-R1 increased plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations, whereas stimulation of adBNST CRF-R2 increased basal plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations, but blocked the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone secretion. Moreover, both the CRF-R1 and -R2 antagonists prevented the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone secretion. Importantly, elevated levels of circulating corticosterone induced

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2016 Psychoneuroendocrinology

82. The effect of sex and irritable bowel syndrome on HPA axis response and peripheral glucocorticoid receptor expression (PubMed)

to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and on GR mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).Rome III+ IBS patients and healthy controls underwent CRF (1μg/kg ovine) and ACTH (250μg) stimulation tests with serial plasma ACTH and cortisol levels measured (n=116). GR mRNA levels were measured using quantitative PCR (n=143). Area under the curve (AUC) and linear mixed effects models were used to compare ACTH and cortisol response measured across time

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2016 Psychoneuroendocrinology

83. Repeated restraint stress lowers the threshold for response to third ventricle CRF administration (PubMed)

Repeated restraint stress lowers the threshold for response to third ventricle CRF administration Rats and mice exposed to repeated stress or a single severe stress exhibit a sustained increase in energetic, endocrine, and behavioral response to subsequent novel mild stress. This study tested whether the hyper-responsiveness was due to a lowered threshold of response to corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) or an exaggerated response to a standard dose of CRF. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were (...) subjected to 3h of restraint on each of 3 consecutive days (RRS) or were non-restrained controls. RRS caused a temporary hypophagia but a sustained reduction in body weight. Eight days after the end of restraint, rats received increasing third ventricle doses of CRF (0-3.0μg). The lowest dose of CRF (0.25μg) increased corticosterone release in RRS, but not control rats. Higher doses caused the same stimulation of corticosterone in the two groups of rats. Fifteen days after the end of restraint, rats

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2016 Hormones and behavior

84. LW-AFC, a new formula derived from Liuwei Dihuang decoction, ameliorates behavioral and pathological deterioration via modulating the neuroendocrine-immune system in PrP-hAβPPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice (PubMed)

alleviated the neuron loss in the hippocampus, suppressed Aβ deposition in the brain, and reduced the concentration of Aβ1-42 in the hippocampus and plasma of APP/PS1 mice. LW-AFC treatment also significantly decreased the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus, and adrenocorticotropic hormone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone in the pituitary. Moreover, LW-AFC increased CD8+CD28+ T cells, and reduced CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T (...) were compared using a Student's t test. Comparison of the data from multiple groups against one group was performed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a Dunnett's post hoc test or a two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Tukey multiple comparisons test.LW-AFC ameliorated the cognitive impairment observed in APP/PS1 mice, including the impairment of object recognition memory, spatial learning and memory, and active and passive avoidance. In addition, LW-AFC

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2016 Alzheimer's research & therapy

85. Skin Exposure to Ultraviolet B Rapidly Activates Systemic Neuroendocrine and Immunosuppressive Responses (PubMed)

Skin Exposure to Ultraviolet B Rapidly Activates Systemic Neuroendocrine and Immunosuppressive Responses The back skin of C57BL/6 mice was exposed to a single 400 mJ cm-2 dose of ultraviolet B (UVB), and parameters of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in relation to immune activity were tested after 30-90 min following irradiation. Levels of brain and/or plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), β-endorphin, ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) were enhanced by UVB. Hypophysectomy had (...) mice suppressed T-cell mitogen-induced IFNγ production as compared to sera from sham-treated mice. IFNγ production was inhibited in splenocytes isolated from UVB-treated animals with intact pituitary, while stimulated in splenocytes from UVB-treated hypophysectomized mice. Thus, cutaneous exposure to UVB rapidly stimulates systemic CRH, ACTH, β-endorphin and CORT production accompanied by rapid immunosuppressive effects in splenocytes that appear to be independent of the HPA axis.© 2016

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2016 Photochemistry and photobiology

86. Overexpression of CRF in the BNST diminishes dysphoria but not anxiety-like behavior in nicotine withdrawing rats (PubMed)

-releasing factor (CRF) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) diminishes nicotine withdrawal symptoms in rats. The effect of nicotine withdrawal on brain reward function was investigated with an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure. Anxiety-like behavior was investigated in the elevated plus maze test and a large open field. An adeno-associated virus (AAV) pseudotype 2/5 vector was used to overexpress CRF in the lateral BNST and nicotine dependence was induced using minipumps (...) Overexpression of CRF in the BNST diminishes dysphoria but not anxiety-like behavior in nicotine withdrawing rats Smoking cessation leads to dysphoria and anxiety, which both increase the risk for relapse. This negative affective state is partly mediated by an increase in activity in brain stress systems. Recent studies indicate that prolonged viral vector-mediated overexpression of stress peptides diminishes stress sensitivity. Here we investigated whether the overexpression of corticotropin

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2016 European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology

87. Prospective analysis of adrenal function in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD: The REDUCE* trial (*Reduction in the Use of Corticosteroids in Exacerbated COPD).

days in a placebo-controlled manner. The HPA axis was longitudinally assessed with the 1 μg corticotropin test and a clinical hypocortisolism score at baseline, on day 6 before blinded treatment, at hospital discharge, and for up to 180 days of follow-up. Prednisone was stopped abruptly, irrespective of the test results. Patients discharged with pathological test results received instructions about emergency hydrocortisone treatment.A total of 311 patients were included in the analysis. Mean basal (...) and stimulated serum total cortisol levels were highest on admission (496±398 and 816±413 nmol/l respectively) and lowest on day 6 (235±174 and 453±178 nmol/l respectively). Pathological stimulation tests were found in 63, 38, 9, 3, and 2% of patients on day 6, at discharge, and on days 30, 90, and 180 respectively, without significant difference between treatment groups. Clinical indicators of hypocortisolism did not correlate with stimulation test results, but cortisol levels were inversely associated

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2015 European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies

88. Adrenocortical Sensitivity, Moderated by Ongoing Stress, Predicts Drinking Intensity in Alcohol-Dependent Men (PubMed)

corticotropin releasing factor (oCRH) and cosyntropin]. Following treatment discharge, drinking outcomes (primary outcome: drinks per drinking day (DDD); secondary outcomes: total drinks and drinking days) were assessed weekly and ongoing life stress was assessed biweekly for 24 weeks following treatment discharge. Generalized estimating equation models of drinking severity were fit with basal and stimulated ACTH and cortisol concentrations as predictors and ongoing life stress as the moderator. Greater (...) contributions upon drinking severity have not been assessed. To investigate the combined contribution of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) reactivity and environmental stressors (e.g., ongoing life stress) to relapse severity in alcohol-dependent men following treatment, plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol were obtained in 4-6 weeks abstinent alcohol-dependent men (n=41) following a psychosocial stressor [the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)] and two pharmacological provocations [ovine

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2016 Psychoneuroendocrinology

89. CORTICUS: The end of unconditional love for steroid use?

requirement for at least one hour. All patients underwent a corticotropin stimulation test. Somewhat surprisingly, the use of low-dose hydrocortisone had no significant effect on 28-day mortality, regardless of the patients' adrenal responsiveness to corticotropin. The proportion of patients in whom reversal of shock was achieved was similar in the two groups, though this goal was achieved earlier in patients who received hydrocortisone. New infection, hypernatremia and hyperglycemia occurred more (...) in patients with septic shock, even though a survival benefit has been reported only in patients who remained hypotensive after fluid and vasopressor resuscitation and whose plasma cortisol levels did not rise appropriately after the administration of corticotropin. Methods Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-dose hydrocortisone therapy in a broad population of patients with septic shock — in particular, patients who had had a response to a corticotropin test, in whom a benefit

2009 Critical Care - EBM Journal Club

90. Buserelin treatment to rats causes enteric neurodegeneration with moderate effects on CRF-immunoreactive neurons and Enterobacteriaceae in colon, and in acetylcholine-mediated permeability in ileum (PubMed)

Buserelin treatment to rats causes enteric neurodegeneration with moderate effects on CRF-immunoreactive neurons and Enterobacteriaceae in colon, and in acetylcholine-mediated permeability in ileum The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog buserelin causes enteric neuronal loss. Acute stress or injection of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) affects motility, secretion, and barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the study was to characterize the CRF immunoreactivity (...) in Ussing chambers and the reaction to stressful events was measured by behavior tests. Buserelin treatment reduced the number of neurons along the entire gastrointestinal tract, with increased relative numbers of CRF-immunoreactive submucosal and myenteric neurons in colon (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The overall microbial diversity and relative abundance did not differ between groups, but Enterobacteriaceae was decreased in colon in buserelin-treated rats (p = 0.020). Basal intestinal

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2015 BMC research notes

91. Androgen Reduction in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, Phase 1

is a cytochrome P450 enzyme located in the endoplasmic reticulum. It catalyzes conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) to 11-deoxycortisol, a precursor for cortisol, and progesterone to deoxycorticosterone, a precursor for aldosterone. Aldosterone deficiency may lead to salt wasting with consequent failure to thrive, hypovolemia, shock and if untreated, death in the first few weeks of life. Because patients cannot synthesize cortisol efficiently, the adrenal cortex is stimulated by corticotropin (ACTH (...) Concentration (Cmax) [ Time Frame: 7 days ] Sparse PK will be derived from peak and trough abiraterone levels. Number of adverse events [ Time Frame: 7 days ] Safety monitoring in Phase 1 will include liver function tests (AST, ALT, bilirubin) and possible mineralocorticoid effects (blood pressure, plasma renin). Eligibility Criteria Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members

2015 Clinical Trials

92. Androgen Reduction in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

-OHP) to 11-deoxycortisol, a precursor for cortisol, and progesterone to deoxycorticosterone, a precursor for aldosterone. Aldosterone deficiency may lead to salt wasting with consequent failure to thrive, hypovolemia, shock and if untreated, death in the first few weeks of life. Because patients cannot synthesize cortisol efficiently, the adrenal cortex is stimulated by corticotropin (ACTH) and overproduces cortisol precursors. Some of these precursors are diverted to sex hormone biosynthesis (...) . Abnormal liver function tests (transaminases>3X ULN). Abnormal renal function tests (BUN or creatinine >1.5 ULN). Significant anemia (hemoglobin < 12 g/dl). Clinically significant ECG abnormality A history of a malabsorption syndrome. Evidence of active malignancy. Co-existent disease that may interfere with linear growth or that requires concomitant therapy that is likely to interfere with study procedures or results. Treatment with potentially hepatotoxic medications, CYP2D6, strong inhibitors

2015 Clinical Trials

93. Critical Illness-Related Corticosteroid Insufficiency in Cirrhotic Patients With Acute Gastroesophageal Variceal Bleeding: Risk Factors and Association With Outcome. (PubMed)

Critical Illness-Related Corticosteroid Insufficiency in Cirrhotic Patients With Acute Gastroesophageal Variceal Bleeding: Risk Factors and Association With Outcome. Critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency can adversely influence the prognosis of critically ill patients. However, its impact on the outcomes of patients with cirrhosis and acute gastroesophageal variceal bleeding remains unknown. We evaluated adrenal function using short corticotropin stimulation test in patients (...) with cirrhosis and gastroesophageal variceal bleeding. The main outcomes analyzed were 5-day treatment failure and 6-week mortality.Prospective observational study.Ten-bed gastroenterology-specific medical ICU at a 3,613-bed university teaching hospital in Taiwan.Patients with liver cirrhosis and acute gastroesophageal variceal bleeding.None.We evaluated adrenal function using short corticotropin stimulation test in 157 episodes of gastroesophageal variceal bleeding in 143 patients with cirrhosis. Critical

2014 Critical Care Medicine

94. The contribution of serine 194 phosphorylation to steroidogenic acute regulatory protein function. (PubMed)

The contribution of serine 194 phosphorylation to steroidogenic acute regulatory protein function. The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) facilitates the delivery of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane, where the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme catalyzes the initial step of steroid hormone biosynthesis. StAR was initially identified in adrenocortical cells as a phosphoprotein, the expression and phosphorylation of which were stimulated by corticotropin. A number (...) StAR, S194A StAR did not rescue the neonatal lethality and only partially rescued the sex reversal in male mice observed uniformly in StAR KO mice. Like the StAR KO mice, the adrenal cortex and testicular Leydig cells contained abundant lipid deposits when stained with oil red O. Adrenal StAR from S194A rescue animals lacks an acidic species, which appears upon corticotropin stimulation in animals rescued with WT StAR, consistent with defective StAR phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate

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2014 Molecular Endocrinology

95. Ultraviolet B (UVB) Activates Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis in C57BL/6 Mice. (PubMed)

Ultraviolet B (UVB) Activates Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis in C57BL/6 Mice. To test the hypothesis that UVB can activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the shaved back skin of C57BL/6 mice was exposed to 400 mJ cm(-2) of UVB or was sham irradiated. After 12 and 24 hours of exposure, plasma, skin, brain, and adrenals were collected and processed to measure corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin (Ucn), β-endorphin (β-END), ACTH, and corticosterone (CORT (...) ) or the brain was fixed for immunohistochemical detection of CRH. UVB stimulated plasma levels of CRH, Ucn, β-END, ACTH, and CORT and increased skin expression of Ucn, β-END, and CORT at the gene and protein/peptide levels. UVB stimulated CRH gene and protein expression in the brain that was localized to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. In adrenal glands, it increased mRNAs of melanocortin receptor type 2, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and gene coding of steroid 11β

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2014 Journal of Investigative Dermatology

96. Relative adrenal insufficiency in chronic liver disease: its prevalence and effects on long-term mortality. (PubMed)

hepatitis (n = 17) were evaluated prospectively. A short stimulation test (SST) with 250 μg of corticotrophin was performed to detect RAI. RAI was defined as an increase in serum cortisol of <9 μg/dL in patients with a basal total cortisol of <35 μg/dL.RAI was observed in only 13 (24.1%) of 54 patients with cirrhosis. Compared to those without RAI, cirrhotic patients with RAI had significantly higher Child-Turcotte-Pugh score (10.3 ± 1.7 vs. 7.1 ± 1.8, mean ± s.d., P < 0.001) and Model for End-Stage (...) Liver Disease score (14.5 ± 6.6 vs. 9.4 ± 3.7, P = 0.017). The cortisol response to corticotropin was negatively correlated with the severity of cirrhosis (P < 0.05). In addition, the mortality rate was higher in cirrhotic patients with RAI (69.2%) than in those without RAI (4.9%; P < 0.001) during the follow-up period of 20.1 ± 13.5 months (range, 5.8-51.1 months). The cumulative 1-year survival rates in cirrhotic patients with and without RAI were 69.2% and 95.0%, respectively (P = 0.05), while

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2014 Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

97. ACTHar in the Treatment of Lupus Nephritis

melanocortin receptors (MCRs). Specifically, ACTH binding to melanocortin 2 receptor subtype (MC2R) on the adrenal cortex stimulates the production of cortisol that reduces inflammation in the kidney. In addition to binding to melanocortin 1-5 receptor subtype (MC1-5R) and acting directly on kidney tissues, ACTH may bind to MCRs on various cell types, such as immune cells, and activate processes to protect the kidney. This study will evaluate the most effective dose of ACTHar gel in proliferative LN (Class (...) , oral, from Week 0-24 CellCept 2 grams daily, oral, from Week 25-144 Other Name: Mycophenolate Mofetil Drug: ACTHar gel Arm 1: 80 U biw, subcutaneous, for 3 months. Optionally additional 3 months of 80 U biw if a patient has partial response. Other Names: ACTHar H.P. ACTHar Gel Repository corticotropin Active Comparator: CellCept daily & ACTHar gel qod Patients will be treated with CellCept 3 grams daily for 3 months, and ACTHar gel 80 U qod for the first month and ACTHar gel 80 U biw

2014 Clinical Trials

98. A Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol (GWP42003-P; CBD) as Adjunctive Treatment for Seizures Associated With Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome in Children and Adults

-and-wave pattern in an EEG prior to the enrollment into the baseline period. Participant had at least 2 drop seizures each week during the first 28 days of the baseline period. Participant was refractory; that is having documented failures on more than 1 antiepileptic drug (AED). Participant was taking 1 or more AEDs at a dose which had been stable for at least 4 weeks prior to screening. All medications or interventions for epilepsy (including ketogenic diet and vagus nerve stimulation [VNS]) were (...) of the study and for 3 months thereafter. Female participant was pregnant (positive pregnancy test), lactating or planning pregnancy during the course of the study and for 3 months thereafter. Participant had been part of a clinical study involving another IMP in the previous 6 months. Patient had significantly impaired hepatic function at screening (Day -28) or randomization (Day 1), defined as any of the following: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) > 5 × upper limit

2014 Clinical Trials

99. Inhaled Corticosteroids and Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency (PubMed)

between ICS and AI particularly in children and patients using high doses. However, there have also been reports of AI in adults as well as in patients using low to moderate doses of ICS. To conclude, we recommend screening for AI in select patient groups with an initial early morning serum cortisol. If results are abnormal, more definitive testing such as the low dose corticotropin stimulation test may be done to confirm the diagnosis.

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2014 The open respiratory medicine journal

100. Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer

of medical care.[ ] 31.5% reported receiving care that focused on their previous cancer (survivor-focused care).[ ] 17.8% reported receiving survivor-focused care that included advice about risk reduction and discussion or ordering of screening tests.[ ] Surveillance for new cases of cancer was very low in survivors at the highest risk of colon, breast, or skin cancer, suggesting that survivors and their physicians need education about the risk of subsequent neoplasms and recommended surveillance (...) ) have been correlated with reductions in breast cancer risk, underscoring the potential contribution of hormonal stimulation on breast carcinogenesis.[ , , ] Most data describing the risk of radiation-associated breast cancer are based on patients treated for HL, with doses ranging from 15 Gy to 50 Gy. However, the risk of breast cancer was also increased in the following studies that used lower radiation doses to treat cancer metastatic to the chest/lung (e.g., Wilms tumor, sarcoma) and exposed

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

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