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1. Correction: Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn. (PubMed)

Correction: Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn. [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169115.].

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2017 PLoS ONE

2. Fortification of maize flour and corn meal with vitamins and minerals

Fortification of maize flour and corn meal with vitamins and minerals WHO GUIDELINE: FORTIFICATION OF MAIZE FLOUR AND CORN MEAL WITH VITAMINS AND MINERALSWHO GUIDELINE: FORTIFICATION OF MAIZE FLOUR AND CORN MEAL WITH VITAMINS AND MINERALSWHO guideline: fortification of maize flour and corn meal with vitamins and minerals. ISBN 978-92-4-154993-6 © World Health Organization 2016 Some rights reserved. This work is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 IGO (...) CITATION WHO guideline: fortification of maize flour and corn meal with vitamins and minerals. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.v WHO GUIDELINE: FORTIFICATION OF MAIZE FLOUR AND CORN MEAL WITH VITAMINS AND MINERALS CONTENTS Publication history vii Acknowledgements vii Financial support viii Executive summary 1 Purpose of the guideline 1 Guideline development methodology 2 Available evidence 2 Recommendations 3 Remarks 3 Research gaps 4 Scope and purpose 5 Background

2017 World Health Organisation Guidelines

3. Cornstarch is less allergenic than corn flour in dogs and cats previously sensitized to corn (PubMed)

Cornstarch is less allergenic than corn flour in dogs and cats previously sensitized to corn Corn appears to be an uncommon food source of allergens in dogs and cats. There is limited information on the nature of the corn allergens in dogs and cats and their presence in the various foodstuffs used in commercial pet foods. The aim of this study was to determine if serum IgE from corn-sensitized dogs and cats recognized proteins in corn flour and cornstarch, which are common sources (...) of carbohydrates in pet foods.We selected archived sera from allergy-suspected dogs (40) and cats (40) with either undetectable, low, medium or high serum levels of corn-specific IgE. These sera were tested then by ELISA on plates coated with extracts made from corn kernels, corn flour, cornstarch and the starch used in the commercially-available extensively-hydrolyzed pet food Anallergenic (Royal Canin). Immunoblotting was then performed on the same extracts with some of the sera from moderate-to-high corn

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2018 BMC veterinary research

4. Comparing isolated soy protein with flaxseed oil vs isolated soy protein with corn oil and wheat flour with corn oil consumption on muscle catabolism, liver function, blood lipid, and sugar in burn patients: a randomized clinical trial (PubMed)

Comparing isolated soy protein with flaxseed oil vs isolated soy protein with corn oil and wheat flour with corn oil consumption on muscle catabolism, liver function, blood lipid, and sugar in burn patients: a randomized clinical trial There is controversy regarding whether increasing isolated soy protein (ISP) with or without flaxseed oil (FO), as functional foods, would lead to reduce muscle catabolism and cachexia in burn patients.One hundred and eighty-eight patients were assessed (...) for eligibility in this randomized controlled trial. Of these, seventy-three eligible patients (total burn surface area 20-50%) were randomly assigned to three groups, labeled as Control (wheat flour [WF] + corn oil [CO]), ISP + FO, and ISP + CO, to receive these nutrients for three weeks. Weight, body mass index (BMI), serum hepatic enzymes (alanine transaminase [ALT], aspartate transaminase [AST], alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), 24-h urinary urea nitrogen

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2018 Trials

5. Distribution Analysis of Twelve Mycotoxins in Corn and Corn-Derived Products by LC-MS/MS to Evaluate the Carry-Over Ratio during Wet-Milling (PubMed)

Distribution Analysis of Twelve Mycotoxins in Corn and Corn-Derived Products by LC-MS/MS to Evaluate the Carry-Over Ratio during Wet-Milling This study investigated the distribution of twelve mycotoxins (aflatoxins B₁, B₂, G₁, and G₂; ochratoxin A; fumonisins B₁ and B₂; deoxynivalenol; nivalenol; zearalenone; T-2 toxin; and HT-2 toxin) in corn and corn by-products (corn bran, cornstarch, corn gluten, corn gluten feed, corn germ, light steep water, and corn steep liquor) produced by wet-milling (...) in Korea. Fifty-two samples were collected from three factories producing cornstarch and other corn by-products. The samples were pretreated on an immunoaffinity column (IAC), and then the levels of the 12 mycotoxins were analyzed simultaneously by liquid chromatography-coupled triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Fusarium mycotoxins were mainly found in raw corn and corn gluten feed samples. Other mycotoxins-such as aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, and HT-2 toxin-were detected in tiny amounts

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2018 Toxins

6. Net energy content of rice bran, corn germ meal, corn gluten feed, peanut meal, and sunflower meal in growing pigs (PubMed)

Net energy content of rice bran, corn germ meal, corn gluten feed, peanut meal, and sunflower meal in growing pigs The objective of this experiment was to determine the net energy (NE) content of full-fat rice bran (FFRB), corn germ meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), solvent-extracted peanut meal (PNM), and dehulled sunflower meal (SFM) fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry or published prediction equations.Twelve growing barrows with an average initial body weight (BW) of 32.4±3.3 kg (...) and the lowest in the corn co-products and SFM. The average NE of the 5 ingredients measured by indirect calorimetry method in the current study was greater than values predicted from NE prediction equations (0.32 MJ/kg DM).

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2018 Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences

7. Methane emissions changed nonlinearly with graded substitution of alfalfa silage with corn silage and corn grain in the diet of sheep and relation with rumen fermentation characteristics in vivo and in vitro. (PubMed)

Methane emissions changed nonlinearly with graded substitution of alfalfa silage with corn silage and corn grain in the diet of sheep and relation with rumen fermentation characteristics in vivo and in vitro. Feeding grain and corn silage have been proposed as practices to reduce enteric methane (CH) emissions per unit of intake from ruminants, but the inclusion level required in the diet is normally not specified. The objectives of the current study were to determine the CH emission factor (g (...) /kg DMI) of sheep fed alfalfa silage substituted with increasing levels of corn silage or corn grain at a fixed DMI level (2% of BW) and determine its relationship with rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial community composition and with in vitro fermentation characteristics of the same diets incubated using a standard laboratory method. Romney ewe hoggets (approximately 14 mo old; = 64) were randomly allocated to 8 dietary treatments, which included chaffed alfalfa silage alone

2017 Journal of animal science

8. Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn. (PubMed)

Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn. Transgenic corn engineered with genes expressing insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) are now a major tool in insect pest management. With its widespread use, insect resistance is a major threat to the sustainability of the Bt transgenic technology. For all Bt corn expressing Cry toxins, the high dose requirement for resistance management is not achieved for corn (...) earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), which is more tolerant to the Bt toxins.We present field monitoring data using Cry1Ab (1996-2016) and Cry1A.105+Cry2Ab2 (2010-2016) expressing sweet corn hybrids as in-field screens to measure changes in field efficacy and Cry toxin susceptibility to H. zea. Larvae successfully damaged an increasing proportion of ears, consumed more kernel area, and reached later developmental stages (4th - 6th instars) in both types of Bt hybrids (Cry1Ab-event Bt11, and Cry1A.105

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2016 PLoS ONE

9. Evaluation of Bt Corn with Pyramided Genes on Efficacy and Insect Resistance Management for the Asian Corn Borer in China. (PubMed)

Evaluation of Bt Corn with Pyramided Genes on Efficacy and Insect Resistance Management for the Asian Corn Borer in China. A Bt corn hybrid (AcIe) with two Bt genes (cry1Ie and cry1Ac) was derived by breeding stack from line expressing Cry1Ie and a line expressing Cry1Ac. Efficacy of this pyramided Bt corn hybrid against the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, was evaluated. We conducted laboratory bioassays using susceptible and resistant ACB strains fed on artificial diet or fresh (...) plant tissues. We also conducted field trials with artificial infestations of ACB neonates at the V6 and silk stages. The toxin-diet bioassay data indicated that mixtures of Cry1Ac and Cry1Ie proteins had synergistic insecticidal efficacy. The plant tissue bioassay data indicated that Bt corn hybrids expressing either a single toxin (Cry1Ac or Cry1Ie) or two toxins had high efficacy against susceptible ACB. Damage ratings in the field trials indicated that the Bt corn hybrids could effectively

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2016 PLoS ONE

10. Effects of Electron Beam Irradiation on Zearalenone and Ochratoxin A in Naturally Contaminated Corn and Corn Quality Parameters (PubMed)

Effects of Electron Beam Irradiation on Zearalenone and Ochratoxin A in Naturally Contaminated Corn and Corn Quality Parameters Zearalenone (ZEN) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are secondary toxic metabolites widely present in grains and grain products. In this study, the effects of electron beam irradiation (EBI) on ZEN and OTA in corn and the quality of irradiated corn were investigated. Results indicated that EBI significantly affected ZEN and OTA. The degradation rates of ZEN and OTA at 10 kGy (...) in solution were 65.6% and 75.2%, respectively. The initial amounts significantly affected the degradation rate. ZEN and OTA in corn were decreased by the irradiation dose, and their degradation rates at 50 kGy were 71.1% and 67.9%, respectively. ZEN and OTA were more easily degraded in corn kernel than in corn flour. Moisture content (MC) played a vital role in ZEN and OTA degradation. High MC was attributed to high ZEN and OTA degradation. The quality of irradiated corn was evaluated on the basis

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2017 Toxins

11. Agronomic performance of insect-protected and herbicide-tolerant MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278–9 corn is equivalent to that of conventional corn (PubMed)

Agronomic performance of insect-protected and herbicide-tolerant MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278–9 corn is equivalent to that of conventional corn Agronomic characteristics of genetically modified (GM) MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278-9 (PowerCore™ Enlist™), MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 (PowerCore™), and DAS-40278-9 (Enlist™) corn, a non-GM near-isogenic hybrid, and 2 commercial non-GM hybrids were assessed in a field study to determine if the agronomic performance of the GM (...) corn hybrids is equivalent to that of non-transgenic hybrid corn. The MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278-9 hybrid corn was developed through stacking of 4 individual transgenic events, MON 89034, TC1507, NK603, and DAS-40278-9 by traditional breeding and contains the cry1A.105 and cry2Ab2 (MON 89034), cry1F and pat (TC1507), cp4 epsps (NK603) and aad-1 (DAS-40278-9) transgenes. These transgenes encode the proteins Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, and Cry1F, which confer insect resistance, PAT, CP4 EPSPS

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2017 GM crops & food

12. Host Recognition Responses of Western (Family: Chrysomelidae) Corn Rootworm Larvae to RNA Interference and Bt Corn (PubMed)

Host Recognition Responses of Western (Family: Chrysomelidae) Corn Rootworm Larvae to RNA Interference and Bt Corn Western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important pest of corn whose larvae exhibit particular quantifiable patterns of locomotion after exposure to, and removal from, host roots and nonhost roots. Using EthoVision software, the behavior and locomotion of the western corn rootworm larvae was analyzed to determine the level of host recognition (...) to germinated roots of differing corn hybrids containing either rootworm targeted Bt genes, RNA interference (RNAi) technology, the stack of both Bt and RNAi, or the isoline of these. The behavior of the rootworm larvae indicated a significant host preference response to all corn hybrids (with or without insecticidal traits) compared to the filter paper and oat roots. A weaker host response to the RNAi corn roots was observed in the susceptible larvae when compared to the resistant larvae

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2017 Journal of Insect Science

13. Climate change, transgenic corn adoption and field-evolved resistance in corn earworm (PubMed)

Climate change, transgenic corn adoption and field-evolved resistance in corn earworm Increased temperature anomaly during the twenty-first century coincides with the proliferation of transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) (Bt) to express insecticidal Cry proteins. Increasing temperatures profoundly affect insect life histories and agricultural pest management. However, the implications of climate change on Bt crop-pest interactions and insect resistance (...) to Bt crops remains unexamined. We analysed the relationship of temperature anomaly and Bt adoption with field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ab Bt sweet corn in a major pest, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Increased Bt adoption during 1996-2016 suppressed H. zea populations, but increased temperature anomaly buffers population reduction. Temperature anomaly and its interaction with elevated selection pressure from high Bt acreage probably accelerated the Bt-resistance development. Helicoverpa zea damage

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2017 Royal Society Open Science

14. Influence of substituting steam-flaked corn for dry rolled corn on feedlot cattle growth performance when cattle are allowed either ad libitum or restricted access to the finishing diet (PubMed)

Influence of substituting steam-flaked corn for dry rolled corn on feedlot cattle growth performance when cattle are allowed either ad libitum or restricted access to the finishing diet The influence of substituting steam-flaked corn (SFC) for dry rolled corn (DRC) on feedlot cattle growth performance and dietary net energy when cattle are allowed either ad libitum or 2-h restricted access to the finishing diet was evaluated.Treatment effects were tested using 96 crossbred steers (251±2 kg (...) ) during the initial 56 d of the finishing phase. Cattle were blocked by weight and randomly assigned within blocks to 16 pens (4 pens/treatment). Bunk space was sufficient (41 cm/head) to allow all steers access to the feed bunk at the same time. Treatments consisted of two finishing diets containing (dry matter basis) 77.1% corn grain processed by dry rolling (density = 0.50 kg/L) or steam flaking (density = 0.36 kg/L). Cattle were fed twice daily at 06:00 and 14:00 h, allowing for approximately 5

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2017 Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences

15. A potential and novel type transgenic corn plant for control of the Corn Borer (PubMed)

A potential and novel type transgenic corn plant for control of the Corn Borer The corn borer is a world-wide agricultural pest. In this study, a full-length neuropeptide F (npf) gene in Ostrinia furnacalis was sequenced and cloned from a cDNA library, in which the npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants - npf1 and npf2 (with a 120 bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence to generate npf2). A spatio-temporal expression analysis showed that the highest expression level of npf (...) was in the midgut of 5th instar larvae (the gluttony period), and their npf expression and food consumption were significantly promoted after food deprivation for 6 h. When npf was knocked down by double-stranded RNA for NPF, larval food intake, weight and body size were effectively inhibited through changes of a biosynthesis and metabolism pathway; i.e. gene silencing of NPF causes decreases of total lipid and glycogen and increases of trehalose production. Moreover, we produced transgenic corn plants

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2017 Scientific reports

16. Antifeedant and ovicidal activities of ginsenosides against Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee). (PubMed)

Antifeedant and ovicidal activities of ginsenosides against Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee). Ginsenosides, including protopanaxdiol (PPD) and protopanaxtriol (PPT) type ginsenosides, have been identified as natural insecticidess. This study aimed to investigate the antifeedant and ovicidal activities of total ginsenosides, protopanaxdiol saponins (PDS) and protopanaxtriol saponins (PTS) against Asian corn borer, O. furnacalis (Guenee).O. furnacalis egg masses (> 40 eggs) at 0-, 1

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2019 PLoS ONE

17. Molecular characterization of the insecticidal activity of double-stranded RNA targeting the smooth septate junction of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera). (PubMed)

Molecular characterization of the insecticidal activity of double-stranded RNA targeting the smooth septate junction of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera). The western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) gene, dvssj1, is a putative homolog of the Drosophila melanogaster gene, snakeskin (ssk). This gene encodes a membrane protein associated with the smooth septate junction (SSJ) which is required for the proper barrier function of the epithelial lining (...) of insect intestines. Disruption of DVSSJ integrity by RNAi technique has been shown previously to be an effective approach for corn rootworm control, by apparent suppression of production of DVSSJ1 protein leading to growth inhibition and mortality. To understand the mechanism that leads to the death of WCR larvae by dvssj1 double-stranded RNA, we examined the molecular characteristics associated with SSJ functions during larval development. Dvssj1 dsRNA diet feeding results in dose-dependent

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2019 PLoS ONE

18. Assimilating MODIS data-derived minimum input data set and water stress factors into CERES-Maize model improves regional corn yield predictions. (PubMed)

Assimilating MODIS data-derived minimum input data set and water stress factors into CERES-Maize model improves regional corn yield predictions. Crop growth models and remote sensing are useful tools for predicting crop growth and yield, but each tool has inherent drawbacks when predicting crop growth and yield at a regional scale. To improve the accuracy and precision of regional corn yield predictions, a simple approach for assimilating Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS (...) ) products into a crop growth model was developed, and regional yield prediction performance was evaluated in a major corn-producing state, Illinois, USA. Corn growth and yield were simulated for each grid using the Crop Environment Resource Synthesis (CERES)-Maize model with minimum inputs comprising planting date, fertilizer amount, genetic coefficients, soil, and weather data. Planting date was estimated using a phenology model with a leaf area duration (LAD)-logistic function that describes

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2019 PLoS ONE

19. Corn gluten meal induces enteritis and decreases intestinal immunity and antioxidant capacity in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) at high supplementation levels. (PubMed)

Corn gluten meal induces enteritis and decreases intestinal immunity and antioxidant capacity in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) at high supplementation levels. Corn gluten meal (CGM) is an important alternative protein source in aquafeed production. However, in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), CGM could not be effectively utilized because of its low digestibility, the reason for which is still unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate and elucidate the cause for the poor

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2019 PLoS ONE

20. Effects of larval density on dispersal and fecundity of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). (PubMed)

Effects of larval density on dispersal and fecundity of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of corn in the northern United States. Some populations have developed resistance to management strategies including transgenic corn that produces insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt (...) ). Knowledge of insect dispersal is of critical importance for models of resistance evolution. Larval density affects survival in the field, and stress from crowding often affects facultative long-distance dispersal of adult insects. In this study, we used laboratory flight mills to characterize western corn rootworm flight performance as a function of larval rearing density. Larvae were reared under three densities and the resulting adult females were either allowed to fly voluntarily for 22 h or forced

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2019 PLoS ONE

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