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Corneal Reflex

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121. Vertigo

vision, and precipitation of angle-closure glaucoma (very rare). Skin and tissue disorders — photosensitization, contact sensitization, rashes, and purplish pigmentation of the skin. Hepatobiliary disorders — jaundice (including cholestatic). Eye disorders — corneal and lens opacities and purplish pigmentation of the cornea, conjunctiva, and retina. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (potentially fatal) — symptoms include changes in conscious level and mental status, unexplained fever, hyperthermia (...) and unpredictably, until satisfied as to the consistent presence or absence of the corrective saccade. A corrective saccade represents a positive test (disrupted vestibulo-ocular reflex) and implies moderate to severe loss of function of the horizontal semi-circular canal on the side to which the test is positive. Alternate cover test Alternate cover test Use the alternate cover test to examine for skew deviation. Ask the person to look at the examiner's nose, then alternately cover their right eye and left eye

2017 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

122. Vestibular neuronitis

effects — dry mouth, constipation, difficulty with micturition, blurred vision, and precipitation of angle-closure glaucoma (very rare). Skin and tissue disorders — photosensitization, contact sensitization, rashes, and purplish pigmentation of the skin. Hepatobiliary disorders — jaundice (including cholestatic). Eye disorders — corneal and lens opacities and purplish pigmentation of the cornea, conjunctiva, and retina. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (potentially fatal) — symptoms include changes (...) ), the eyes stay fixed on the examiner. If the eyes are dragged off target by the head turn, a corrective abnormal movement (saccade) occurs as the eyes move back to fix on the examiner. Repeat several times to the same or opposite side, randomly and unpredictably, until satisfied as to the consistent presence or absence of the corrective saccade. A corrective saccade represents a positive test (disrupted vestibulo-ocular reflex) and implies moderate to severe loss of function of the horizontal semi

2017 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

123. Local Anaesthesia in Ophthalmic Surgery

monitoring and management of complications are met. For surgical procedures using topical local anaesthesia, protocols should be locally agreed. Non-medical staff should not administer LA blocks for complex procedures such as difficult cataracts, strabismus, vitreoretinal, glaucoma, oculoplastic and corneal transplant surgery. These patients often have significant co-morbidities and the procedures are generally more prolonged. These patients may also have higher risk of ocular and systemic complications

2012 Royal College of Ophthalmologists

124. Local anaesthesia for ophthalmic surgery

monitoring and management of complications are met. For surgical procedures using topical local anaesthesia, protocols should be locally agreed. Non-medical staff should not administer LA blocks for complex procedures such as difficult cataracts, strabismus, vitreoretinal, glaucoma, oculoplastic and corneal transplant surgery. These patients often have significant co-morbidities and the procedures are generally more prolonged. These patients may also have higher risk of ocular and systemic complications

2012 Royal College of Anaesthetists

125. Retrobulbar vs peribulbar regional anesthesia techniques using bupivacaine in dogs. Full Text available with Trip Pro

ventrolateral and dorsomedial sites). The contralateral eye acted as control. Injectate distribution was evaluated by computed tomography. Following intramuscularly administered atipamezole, corneal and periocular skin sensation, intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular reflexes, and appearance were evaluated for 24 hours. Comparisons were performed with mixed-effects linear regression (IOP) or the exact Wilcoxon signed rank test (scores). Significance was set at P ≤ .05.Injectate distribution was intraconal (...) in 2/6 RBA- and 4/6 PBA-injected eyes. Eyes undergoing PBA had significantly reduced lateral, ventral, and dorsal periocular skin sensation for 2-3 hours, and significantly reduced corneal sensitivity for 4 hours, relative to control eyes. Chemosis and exophthalmos occurred in 33%-40% of eyes undergoing RBA and 83%-100% eyes undergoing PBA but resolved within 14 hours. Anterior uveitis developed in 2/6 and 1/6 eyes of RBA and PBA, respectively, of them corneal ulcer developed in one eye of each

2018 Veterinary ophthalmology

126. Influence of sedation on onset and quality of euthanasia in sheep. (Abstract)

was accomplished with a pentobarbital/phenytoin overdose given IV. The time to apnea, asystole, cessation of audible heartbeat, and absence of corneal reflex were recorded by two blinded investigators. If any muscle spasms, contractions, vocalization, and/or dysrhythmias were noted, the time was recorded and type of ECG abnormality was described. An overall score of the euthanasia event was assigned using a numeric rating scale (NRS) after the animal was declared dead. The time to loss of corneal reflex

2018 Research in veterinary science Controlled trial quality: uncertain

127. Effect of sedation with butorphanol on variables pertaining to the ophthalmic examination in dogs. (Abstract)

: menace response, dazzle reflex, corneal blink reflex, phenol red thread tear test (PRT), Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1), pupil size (PS) measurement, and rebound tonometry. Then, butorphanol was injected intramuscularly at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg and these procedures were repeated 10, 20, 30, and 45 min postadministration. A sedation score graded 0 to 3 was also established at these time points. Statistical analyses were performed on quantitative data using ANOVA.The sedative effect was not associated (...) with any changes in globe and nictitating membrane position; did not affect the results of the menace response, dazzle reflex, and corneal blink reflex; and had no significant effect on PRT values. However, butorphanol administration was associated with a statistically significant decrease in STT-1 and PS values (P < 0.005), and a statistically significant increase in IOP (P < 0.05). All these variations remained in the range of normal values.Butorphanol administered intramuscularly at 0.2 mg/kg

2018 Veterinary ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

128. Suction Stability Management in SMILE: Development of a Decision Tree for Managing Eye Movements and Suction Loss. (Abstract)

movements. A decision tree protocol was developed to define the management in each scenario depending on the suction stability grading and the femtosecond laser cutting progress.Eight types of eye movement were identified: fixation light tracking, Bell's reflex, saccades, oscillations, anxiety/uncooperative patient, nociceptive reflex movement, false suction, and nystagmus. Type I eye movements were defined as small movements that shift the corneal position by a clinically negligible amount. The surgeon (...) may want to pause the femtosecond laser cutting, regain control of the patient, then continue. Type II eye movements were defined as large movements that shift the corneal position by a clinically relevant amount, in which case the surgeon may choose to release suction (ie, a surgeon-initiated suction loss). Type III eye movements were defined as those with sufficient force to break suction (ie, a patient-generated suction loss). A comprehensive decision tree was developed to cover all possible

2018 Journal of Refractive Surgery

129. Repeatability and Reproducibility of the IOLMaster 700 Vers 1.70 and Agreement With IOLMaster 700 Vers. 1.50 and Pentacam

ocular infection or inflammation. Poor tear film/insufficient corneal reflex. Best corrected visual acuity worse than 20/200 in the study eye. Physical inability to be positioned at the slit-lamp biomicroscope or study devices (e.g. torticollis, head tremor, etc.). Insufficient eyelid opening or eyelashes which partially conceal alignment or keratometry reflections and prevent capture of all measurements. Inability to fixate (e.g. due to nystagmus, amblyopia or ocular disease, such as macular (...) and reproducibility of the IOLMaster 700 SW Vers 1.70. The following parameters will be evaluated for Total Keratometry, (TK) and Posterior Corneal Surface (PCS): cylinder (CYL), Axis (A) spherical equivalent (SE) Specific Objectives: To compare the agreement of SE between IOLMaster 700 SW Vers. 1.70 and IOLMaster 700 SW Vers. 1.50 (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany) To compare the agreement of Cylinder magnitude and axis between IOLMaster 700 SW Version 1.70 and Pentacam To evaluate the repeatability

2018 Clinical Trials

130. Astigmatism in Keratoconus Patients

Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Keratoconus is a bilateral (but usually asymmetrical) non-inflammatory progressive thinning process of the cornea. It manifests as characteristic cone-like ectasia of the cornea associated with irregular stromal thinning, resulting in a cone-like bulge , which causing irregular astigmatism and vision impairment. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Keratoconus Device: Pentacam Not Applicable Detailed Description: Keratoconus is the most common form (...) of corneal ectasia, with an incidence of 50-230 per 100,000 persons.Pentacam used diagnose & detect the progression in patients with keratoconus and also provide a detailed information about corneal tomography and topography. In the last few years, it has been shown that in healthy individuals the posterior corneal surface has not only a different amount of astigmatism but also a different alignment of the steep meridian. The aim of this research is to compare the amount and axis alignment of anterior

2018 Clinical Trials

131. Gabapentin as Preanesthetic Medication to Fast Procedures in Pediatric´s Oncology

will be submitted to the same general anesthesia protocol, receiving sevoflurane 8% plus N2O and oxygen prior to the procedure. We will record the time, in seconds, when patients lose their consciousness and corneal reflex. Levels of postoperative pain in children through Children and Infants Postoperative Pain Scale (CHIPPS). [ Time Frame: 1 hour ] After the procedure, all patients will be observed for changes in the Children and Infants Postoperative Pain Scale (CHIPPS) scores. Score changes will be assessed

2018 Clinical Trials

132. The Comparison of 50% AS Versus PFAT+ 0.05 % COE in Severe Dry Eye Syndrome

with or without preservatives) had low TBUT (< 5 s) (5μL of fluorescein sodium 2% eye drops was used) low Schirmer's test I score without topical anesthesia ( basic+reflex secretion), positive corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining (≥grade 1 according to the OXFORD Scale) (3) and an OSDI score > 40 OSDI was a reliable and valid test for quantifying the severity of dry eye symptoms Exclusion Criteria: active ocular infection or any other inflammation not associated with dry eye a severe associated (...) : Layout table for MeSH terms Syndrome Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca Dry Eye Syndromes Disease Pathologic Processes Keratoconjunctivitis Conjunctivitis Conjunctival Diseases Eye Diseases Keratitis Corneal Diseases Lacrimal Apparatus Diseases Cyclosporins Cyclosporine Ophthalmic Solutions Enzyme Inhibitors Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action Immunosuppressive Agents Immunologic Factors Physiological Effects of Drugs Antifungal Agents Anti-Infective Agents Dermatologic Agents Antirheumatic Agents

2018 Clinical Trials

133. Dry Eye After LASIK. Full Text available with Trip Pro

suggested that the loss of corneal innervation caused by flap-making is the major cause, affecting the corneal-lacrimal gland, corneal-blinking, and blinking-meibomian gland reflexes, resulting in decreased aqueous and lipid tear secretion and mucin expression. A new type of corneal refractive surgery, SMILE, which has less impact on corneal nerves, induces less postoperative dry eye, supporting the association between corneal denervation and postoperative dry eye. As LASIK enhancement by flap-lifting (...) Dry Eye After LASIK. Post-LASIK dry eye is the most common postoperative dry eye after ophthalmic surgeries. The clinical signs of post-LASIK dry eye include positive vital staining of the ocular surface, decreased tear breakup time and Schirmer test values, reduced corneal sensitivity, and decreased functional visual acuity. The symptoms and signs usually last for about 1 month after LASIK. A small number of patients continue to experience symptoms more than 1 year postoperatively. It has been

2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

134. Cerebral Malaria in a Patient with HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cerebral Malaria in a Patient with HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C Cerebral malaria is one of the most common causes of non-traumatic encephalopathy. A 25-year-old man who is a known intravenous and oral drug abuser presented to our clinic with fever and sore throat for two days prior and an altered level of consciousness for one day. On examination, the patient was icteric, and his Glasgow coma scale score on arrival was 10/15; he had dilated pupils reactive to light and a positive corneal (...) reflex. All cranial nerves were intact; however, signs of meningeal irritation were positive. Motor examination showed an increased tone and rigidity in all limbs, patellar reflex was 3+, plantars were down-going, and clonus was negative. A fundoscopic examination was unremarkable. Additional investigations revealed he was positive for Plasmodium falciparum, HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. In addition, a test of his cerebrospinal fluid revealed evidence of cerebral malaria. We initiated artemether

2018 Cureus

135. Feline dry eye syndrome of presumed neurogenic origin: a case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

(STT-1) and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU. Noxious olfactory stimulation caused increased lacrimation relative to standard STT-1 values suggesting an intact nasolacrimal reflex. Various lacrimostimulants were administered in succession; namely, 1% pilocarpine administered topically (15 days) or orally (19 days), and topically applied 0.03% tacrolimus (47 days). Pilocarpine, especially when given orally, was associated (...) Feline dry eye syndrome of presumed neurogenic origin: a case report A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS). The ocular surface of both eyes (OU) had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1

2018 JFMS Open Reports

136. A Case of Neurotrophic Keratopathy Concomitant to Brain Metastasis Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Case of Neurotrophic Keratopathy Concomitant to Brain Metastasis We report a case of a 63-year-old Caucasian female referred to the cornea service of Clinica Oculistica with a neurotrophic corneal ulcer, decreased corneal sensitivity, absent corneal reflex, and decreased lacrimation. The medical record review was relevant for mastectomy and adjuvant therapy for breast cancer complicated by pontocerebellar angle metastasis. Eye patching and application of antibiotic and vitamin ointments were (...) prescribed at first, without a significant improvement. Thus, treatment with autologous serum was started. In about two weeks, the cornea recovered and visual acuity improved with a residual corneal scarring. Finally, we should mention that, in our case, the main cause of the neurotrophic corneal ulcer could be identified in the previous trigeminal damage at the pontocerebellar angle and trigeminal ganglion. Sensory nerves play an important regulatory role via neuro-mediators on corneal wound healing

2018 Cureus

137. Prognostication after cardiac arrest Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prognostication after cardiac arrest Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury (HIBI) is the main cause of death in patients who are comatose after resuscitation from cardiac arrest. A poor neurological outcome-defined as death from neurological cause, persistent vegetative state, or severe neurological disability-can be predicted in these patients by assessing the severity of HIBI. The most commonly used indicators of severe HIBI include bilateral absence of corneal and pupillary reflexes, bilateral

2018 Critical Care

138. TRPV1 and TRPM8 Channels and Nocifensive Behavior in a Rat Model for Dry Eye. Full Text available with Trip Pro

TRPV1 and TRPM8 Channels and Nocifensive Behavior in a Rat Model for Dry Eye. Persistent ocular surface pain occurs in moderate to severe dry eye disease (DE); however, the mechanisms that underlie this symptom remain uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine if the transient receptor potential vanilloid ion channels play a role in hypertonic saline (HS)-evoked corneal reflexes in a model for aqueous tear deficient DE.Eye wipe behavior and orbicularis oculi muscle activity (OOemg) were (...) to target specific transducer molecules on corneal nerves may prove beneficial as adjunct therapies in managing ocular pain in moderate to severe cases of DE.

2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

139. Early Electroencephalography Findings in Cardiogenic Shock Patients Treated by Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. (Abstract)

electroencephalography, was performed in consecutive cardiogenic shock patients requiring venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Associations between electroencephalography findings and outcome, defined as a composite of acute brain injury or death at 14 days, were investigated.Twenty-two patients with a median Full Outline of Unresponsiveness score of 4 (interquartile range, 3-6) were studied. Pupillary light reflex, corneal reflex, and cough reflex were preserved in 20 (90%), 17 (77%), and 17 (77

2018 Critical Care Medicine

140. The Use of 3D Printing in Orbital Fractures

groups are recorded Number of subjects with a difference of more than 2 mm between the two orbits between the treatment and control groups [ Time Frame: 1 week, 3 weeks, and 6 weeks postoperatively. ] A difference of more than 2 mm between the two orbits is diagnostic for enophthalmos. Enophthalmos is assessed by clinical examination using a Hertel exophthalmometer. The measurement is taken from the lateral orbital rim to the corneal apex. The normal range is 12-21 mm. Upper normal limit for people (...) incarceration and a positive forced duction test. Immediate correction in a symptomatic patient with orbital floor ( trapdoor) fracture that has elicited the oculocardiac reflex. At least 18 years of age. Unilateral orbital floor fracture. No history of orbital trauma. Healthy contralateral orbit. Underwent orbital reconstruction. Admitted to GMH. Returned for the 6-week follow-up. Exclusion Criteria: Refuse study enrollment. Are younger than 18 years. Pregnant women. Prisoner Unable to obtain consent

2018 Clinical Trials

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