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Corneal Reflex

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121. Harvoni - sofosbuvir / ledipasvir

observations. No statistically significant findings were noted for forelimb grip strength, hindlimb grip strength, nociceptive reflex, or body temperature in animals given 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg. In the rat respiratory study animals given 10 or 30 mg/kg displayed statistically significant overall increases in covariate-adjusted mean minute volume compared with controls across the measured timepoints. The low magnitude of the effect and lack of statistically significant effect at 100 mg/kg suggested

2014 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

122. Anoro (umeclidinium bromide / vilanterol trifenatate)

At 36, 612 and 34399 mcg/kg: Decrease in motor activity at time points up to 9 hours following start of exposure. At 34399 mcg/kg: Decreased body temperature (up to 1.6°C) at 1.25 hours following start of exposure. Rat Conscious male Sprague Dawley rats were intravenously administered with single dose of vehicle or GW642444H. Animals were observed for peripheral and central nervous systems activities (e.g. motor activity, behaviour, co-ordination, somatic sensory/motor reflex responses and automatic

2014 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

125. Evolocumab (Repatha)

by Background Therapy and Investigational Product Study 20110109 82 Table 12: Analysis of Percent Change from Baseline in Ultracentrifugation LDL-C at Week 52 by Background Therapy in Trial 20110109 (Full Analysis Set) 84 Table 13: Treatment Effects (EvoMab vs Placebo) of Week 12 and Week 52 in Trial 20110109 (Full Analysis Set) 86 Table 14: Treatment Differences in the Percent Change From Baseline at Week 52 Compared With Placebo Using UC LDL-C, Calculated LDL-C, or Reflexive LDL-C in Trial 20110109 (Full (...) ’ and HeFH. Of note, participants who were not on concomitant statin therapy included individuals at low CV risk that did not warrant any lipid-lowering therapy as well as individuals at increased CV risk who did need to be on lipid-lowering therapy but had not tolerated statins in the past. The integrated analyses from the four phase 3 12-week trials demonstrated statistically significant reductions in reflexive 2 LDL-C for both dosing regimens (evolocumab 140 mg Q2W and 420 mg QM dosing) (multiplicity

2014 FDA - Drug Approval Package

126. Vyndaqel (tafamidis meglumine)

thyroid stimulating hormone decreased; blood thyroid stimulating hormone increased; blood thyroid stimulating hormone; thyroid releasing hormone challenge test abnormal; and thyroid releasing hormone challenge test. 12) Events in the MedDRA SMQ “lacrimal disorders” and PTs: dry eye; lacrimation decreased; lacrimal disorder; keratomalacia; xerophthalmia; vitamin A deficiency; vitamin A deficiency related corneal disorder; vitamin A deficiency eye disorder; vitamin A deficiency related conjunctival (...) disorder; night blindness; corneal deposits; corneal leukoma; corneal lesion; corneal degeneration; and dry skin. 13 ) Events in the MedDRA SMQ “hyperglycaemia/new onset diabetes mellitus”, HLGT “diabetic complications”, and HLTs “hyperglycaemic conditions NEC”, “diabetes mellitus (incl subtypes)”, and “carbohydrate tolerance analyses (incl diabetes)” (excluding “decreased” PTs under the HLT “carbohydrate tolerance analyses (incl diabetes)”). 16 3.(ii) Summary of pharmacokinetic studies 3.(ii

2013 Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan

127. Decentration following femtosecond laser small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in eyes with high astigmatism and its impact on visual quality. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, China.. Patients with myopic astigmatism < 1.5D served as controls (low astigmatism group, LA). Decentration was measured using a Scheimpflug camera with a difference map of the tangential curvature at 12 months postoperatively. Also the associations between decentration from the coaxial sighted corneal light reflex (CSCLR) and the visual outcomes, correction efficacy of astigmatism, wavefront aberrations and objective scatter index (OSI) were analyzed.No significant differences were observed

2019 BMC Ophthalmology

128. The effect of etomidate or propofol on brainstem function during anesthesia induction: a bispectral index-guided study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The effect of etomidate or propofol on brainstem function during anesthesia induction: a bispectral index-guided study. To compare the effect of etomidate versus propofol infusion on hemodynamic profiles, spontaneous breathing, and corneal reflex during the induction of anesthesia.Adult patients (n=80) were randomized to receive etomidate (Group E, n=40) or propofol (Group P, n=40) infusion during anesthesia induction. Throughout induction, mean blood pressure and heart rate were monitored (...) . Time to loss of consciousness (LOC), bispectral index (BIS), existence of spontaneous breathing, and corneal reflex at LOC were recorded.Fewer changes in hemodynamic profile occurred in Group E compared with Group P during induction of anesthesia. The mean time to LOC was shorter with etomidate than propofol (129.5 s vs 189.5 s, P<0.0001). BIS was lower in Group E compared with Group P at LOC (46.3 vs 52.9, P=0.0141). More patients exhibited spontaneous breathing in Group E compared with Group P

2019 Drug design, development and therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

129. Quantitative measurement of horizontal strabismus with digital photography. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to the light reflex (RD) and corneal diameter (CD). The RD/CD ratio of each gaze angle was recorded. To estimate the eyes' gaze angle, an equation to determine the best-fit line for the gaze angle data according to each RD/CD ratio was created. In a second clinical analysis, this equation was applied to photographs of real strabismus patients (n = 72), and the results were compared with measurements taken by a double-masked strabismus specialist. Separately, an equation was created to calculate the imaging (...) Quantitative measurement of horizontal strabismus with digital photography. To develop a method to calculate the gaze angle in photographs and to determine its validity and reliability in real strabismus patients.Photographs of eyes from 15 orthophoric subjects (n = 1,022) with known gaze angle and imaging distance were investigated with the help of a smartphone application developed by the authors. The application provided measurements of the distance from the geometrical center of the cornea

2019 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

132. Local anaesthesia for ophthalmic surgery

monitoring and management of complications are met. For surgical procedures using topical local anaesthesia, protocols should be locally agreed. Non-medical staff should not administer LA blocks for complex procedures such as difficult cataracts, strabismus, vitreoretinal, glaucoma, oculoplastic and corneal transplant surgery. These patients often have significant co-morbidities and the procedures are generally more prolonged. These patients may also have higher risk of ocular and systemic complications

2012 Royal College of Anaesthetists

133. Local Anaesthesia in Ophthalmic Surgery

monitoring and management of complications are met. For surgical procedures using topical local anaesthesia, protocols should be locally agreed. Non-medical staff should not administer LA blocks for complex procedures such as difficult cataracts, strabismus, vitreoretinal, glaucoma, oculoplastic and corneal transplant surgery. These patients often have significant co-morbidities and the procedures are generally more prolonged. These patients may also have higher risk of ocular and systemic complications

2012 Royal College of Ophthalmologists

134. Retrobulbar vs peribulbar regional anesthesia techniques using bupivacaine in dogs. Full Text available with Trip Pro

ventrolateral and dorsomedial sites). The contralateral eye acted as control. Injectate distribution was evaluated by computed tomography. Following intramuscularly administered atipamezole, corneal and periocular skin sensation, intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular reflexes, and appearance were evaluated for 24 hours. Comparisons were performed with mixed-effects linear regression (IOP) or the exact Wilcoxon signed rank test (scores). Significance was set at P ≤ .05.Injectate distribution was intraconal (...) in 2/6 RBA- and 4/6 PBA-injected eyes. Eyes undergoing PBA had significantly reduced lateral, ventral, and dorsal periocular skin sensation for 2-3 hours, and significantly reduced corneal sensitivity for 4 hours, relative to control eyes. Chemosis and exophthalmos occurred in 33%-40% of eyes undergoing RBA and 83%-100% eyes undergoing PBA but resolved within 14 hours. Anterior uveitis developed in 2/6 and 1/6 eyes of RBA and PBA, respectively, of them corneal ulcer developed in one eye of each

2018 Veterinary ophthalmology

135. Effect of sedation with butorphanol on variables pertaining to the ophthalmic examination in dogs. (Abstract)

: menace response, dazzle reflex, corneal blink reflex, phenol red thread tear test (PRT), Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1), pupil size (PS) measurement, and rebound tonometry. Then, butorphanol was injected intramuscularly at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg and these procedures were repeated 10, 20, 30, and 45 min postadministration. A sedation score graded 0 to 3 was also established at these time points. Statistical analyses were performed on quantitative data using ANOVA.The sedative effect was not associated (...) with any changes in globe and nictitating membrane position; did not affect the results of the menace response, dazzle reflex, and corneal blink reflex; and had no significant effect on PRT values. However, butorphanol administration was associated with a statistically significant decrease in STT-1 and PS values (P < 0.005), and a statistically significant increase in IOP (P < 0.05). All these variations remained in the range of normal values.Butorphanol administered intramuscularly at 0.2 mg/kg

2018 Veterinary ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

136. Influence of sedation on onset and quality of euthanasia in sheep. (Abstract)

was accomplished with a pentobarbital/phenytoin overdose given IV. The time to apnea, asystole, cessation of audible heartbeat, and absence of corneal reflex were recorded by two blinded investigators. If any muscle spasms, contractions, vocalization, and/or dysrhythmias were noted, the time was recorded and type of ECG abnormality was described. An overall score of the euthanasia event was assigned using a numeric rating scale (NRS) after the animal was declared dead. The time to loss of corneal reflex

2018 Research in veterinary science Controlled trial quality: uncertain

137. Early Electroencephalography Findings in Cardiogenic Shock Patients Treated by Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. (Abstract)

electroencephalography, was performed in consecutive cardiogenic shock patients requiring venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Associations between electroencephalography findings and outcome, defined as a composite of acute brain injury or death at 14 days, were investigated.Twenty-two patients with a median Full Outline of Unresponsiveness score of 4 (interquartile range, 3-6) were studied. Pupillary light reflex, corneal reflex, and cough reflex were preserved in 20 (90%), 17 (77%), and 17 (77

2018 Critical Care Medicine

138. Feline dry eye syndrome of presumed neurogenic origin: a case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

(STT-1) and tear film breakup time revealed corneal hypoesthesia, and quantitative and qualitative tear film deficiency OU. Noxious olfactory stimulation caused increased lacrimation relative to standard STT-1 values suggesting an intact nasolacrimal reflex. Various lacrimostimulants were administered in succession; namely, 1% pilocarpine administered topically (15 days) or orally (19 days), and topically applied 0.03% tacrolimus (47 days). Pilocarpine, especially when given orally, was associated (...) Feline dry eye syndrome of presumed neurogenic origin: a case report A 14-year-old female spayed Abyssinian cat, which about 1 year previously underwent thoracic limb amputation, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for an incompletely excised vaccine-related fibrosarcoma, was presented for evaluation of corneal opacity in the left eye (OS). The ocular surface of both eyes (OU) had a lackluster appearance and there was a stromal corneal ulcer OS. Results of corneal aesthesiometry, Schirmer tear test-1

2018 JFMS Open Reports

139. Upper eyelid levator-recession and anterior lamella repositioning through the grey-line: Avoiding a skin-crease incision Full Text available with Trip Pro

and symptom improvement.Eleven eyelids of eight patients were included in the study, and underwent the procedure described. Lid margin position measured as the marginal reflex distance lowered (improved) in 72.7% of patients. Lid margin eversion was achieved in all eyes (100%). Corneal punctate epithelial erosions markedly improved, being present in 72.7% of patients preoperatively, and only 9.1% of patients postoperatively. Eight of eleven eyes showed symptomatic improvement, with six (54.5%) being (...) completely asymptomatic and two achieving partial relief. An added observation was a pretarsal show asymmetry in some patients which improved in 36.4% of surgeries postoperatively.Upper eyelid LR with GLS and anterior lamella repositioning can all be performed through the plane of the split, avoiding a skin incision. Normal lid margin apposition was achieved in all eyes with 91% demonstrating a clear cornea and 72% having symptomatic improvement.

2018 Indian journal of ophthalmology

140. Suction Stability Management in SMILE: Development of a Decision Tree for Managing Eye Movements and Suction Loss. (Abstract)

movements. A decision tree protocol was developed to define the management in each scenario depending on the suction stability grading and the femtosecond laser cutting progress.Eight types of eye movement were identified: fixation light tracking, Bell's reflex, saccades, oscillations, anxiety/uncooperative patient, nociceptive reflex movement, false suction, and nystagmus. Type I eye movements were defined as small movements that shift the corneal position by a clinically negligible amount. The surgeon (...) may want to pause the femtosecond laser cutting, regain control of the patient, then continue. Type II eye movements were defined as large movements that shift the corneal position by a clinically relevant amount, in which case the surgeon may choose to release suction (ie, a surgeon-initiated suction loss). Type III eye movements were defined as those with sufficient force to break suction (ie, a patient-generated suction loss). A comprehensive decision tree was developed to cover all possible

2018 Journal of Refractive Surgery

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