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Corneal Reflex

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701. Primary sensory neurones and naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Primary sensory neurones and naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. 1. The C-fibre-evoked depressor reflex following i.a. injection of capsaicin and the wiping movements following chemical irritation of the cornea by capsaicin were both found to be augmented in the naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal phase. 2. The in vitro capsaicin-evoked release of substance P from central terminals of C-fibre afferents in the spinal cord was decreased in morphine-treated rats. Following naloxone (...) , the release in the morphine-treated group was as large as in the control group. 3. The C-fibre mediated plasma extravasation in the rat paw after naloxone was found to be the same in morphine-treated and control rats. 4. It is concluded that C-fibre-evoked reflex reactions are augmented during morphine withdrawal, but that the mechanisms responsible are either located postsynaptically to the primary sensory neurone or further centrally.

1989 British journal of pharmacology

702. Guaifenesin alone or in combination with ketamine or sodium pentobarbital as an anesthetic in rabbits. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Guaifenesin alone or in combination with ketamine or sodium pentobarbital as an anesthetic in rabbits. Guaifenesin was administered alone and in combination with ketamine or sodium pentobarbital to adult New Zealand white rabbits. A solution of 5% guaifenesin in 5% dextrose given intravenously at a dosage of 200 mg/kg, abolished the pedal, palpebral and corneal reflexes for up to 15 minutes with little influence on cardiopulmonary function. Guaifenesin (200 mg/kg, intravenously) and ketamine

1987 Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research

703. Results of levator-advancement blepharoptosis repair using a standard protocol: effect of epinephrine-induced eyelid position change. Full Text available with Trip Pro

levator aponeurosis advancement. The distance between the upper eyelid margin and the central corneal light reflex was measured preoperatively with the patient in both the upright and the supine position, 10 minutes after injection of 1.0 mL of anesthetic solution (2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 12 U hyaluronidase per mL) in the supine position, intraoperatively after skin closure in the supine position, and 1 week or more postoperatively in the upright position. The ptotic lid

1996 Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society

704. Thiopental requirements may be increased in children reanesthetized at least one year after recovery from extensive thermal injury. (Abstract)

Thiopental requirements may be increased in children reanesthetized at least one year after recovery from extensive thermal injury. Clinical observations suggested that children long recovered from burn injury required larger doses of thiopental for a smooth anesthetic induction. A prospective randomized study examined children 6-16 yr old, with greater than 15% burn, and more than 1 year after injury, for loss of lid reflex (LR), corneal reflex (CR), and acceptance of the anesthesia mask (AM

1985 Anesthesia and analgesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

705. [Comparison of propofol and propanidid administered at a constant rate]. (Abstract)

anaesthetic parameters were monitored at induction, during surgery, and during recovery. Consciousness was lost more quickly with propofol (p less than 0.05), but the corneal reflex returned more rapidly in group PD (p less than 0.02). The time required for a full return to normal consciousness was identical in both groups. The fall, during induction, and the increase, during recovery, of Pasys were greater in group PD (p less than 0.05 and less than 0.001 respectively). Padia and heart rate were lower

1988 Annales francaises d'anesthesie et de reanimation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

706. A comparison of proparacaine and tetracaine eye anesthetics. (Abstract)

. This procedure was then repeated in the right eye with the other study solution. Pain scales were quantified by making measurements to the nearest millimeter from the point of scale origin to the point marked by the patient. The time interval until return of the corneal blink reflex was determined using a cotton wisp. Pain scores and the time to return of corneal reflex were analyzed by the Sign test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test, respectively, with significance defined as p < 0.05.Twenty-three subjects were

1995 Academic Emergency Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

707. The Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study. Relationship between clinical presentation and microbiologic spectrum. (Abstract)

performed on aqueous and vitreous specimens obtained at presentation were categorized as follows: gram-positive coagulase-negative micrococci, "other" gram-positive, gram-negative, and equivocal/no growth.Eleven features of the initial clinical presentation were associated with significant differences in the microbiologic spectrum (P < 0.05). Baseline factors correlating with higher rates of both gram-negative and other gram-positive isolates were: corneal infiltrate, cataract wound abnormalities (...) , afferent pupillary defect, loss of red reflex, initial light perception-only vision, and symptom onset within 2 days of surgery. Gram-negative organisms did not grow in any eyes in which a retinal vessel could be visualized, and 61.9% of these eyes had equivocal or no growth. Diabetes mellitus was associated with a higher yield of gram-positive, coagulase-negative micrococci. Eye pain was not a discriminator for culture results.The presenting characteristics of acute endophthalmitis after cataract

1997 Ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

708. An Evaluation of a Combination of Injectable Anesthetic Agents for Use in Pigs Full Text available with Trip Pro

was determined which would reliably and safely produce a satisfactory level of anesthesia. Following treatment, animals were monitored and the time taken to produce an effect was recorded. The degree of anesthesia as measured by the corneal reflex and the cutaneous response to a needle prick or actual surgery and the time elapsed until signs of recovery were evident were also noted.We found a combination of atropine sulfate (0.05 mg/kg) intramuscularly and fentanyl/droperidol (1 mL/13.7 kg) intramuscularly

1984 The Canadian Veterinary Journal

709. Reconstruction of the lids of a child with microblepharon and multiple congenital anomalies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

because of their appearance. The child described in this case appears to be unique because his intelligence is normal, and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of penetrating keratoplasty after reconstruction of functional eyelids. The principal problems after corneal grafting appear to have been chronic partial exposure due to inadequate lid length and a poor Bell's reflex and the persistence of a rim of vascularized fibrous tissue around the corneal graft. Future reconstructive surgery (...) Reconstruction of the lids of a child with microblepharon and multiple congenital anomalies. The initial stages in the rehabilitation of a male child with severe microblepharon, corneal opacities, bilateral facial clefts, bilateral complete cleft lip and palate, and unilateral syndactyly are described. Review of the literature suggests that severe microblepharon is associated with other craniofacial anomalies, and often the child is stillborn or retarded. Surviving children have been abandoned

1988 Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society

710. Soluble Fas and Fas ligand in human tear fluid after photorefractive keratectomy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Soluble Fas and Fas ligand in human tear fluid after photorefractive keratectomy The Fas-Fas ligand system is thought to be involved in stromal cell apoptosis after corneal wounding. The aim was to measure changes in human tear fluid levels of soluble Fas (sFas) and Fas ligand (sFasL) following myopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK).Tear samples of 59 patients were collected preoperatively, and 1 or 2 days after PRK. Tear fluid sFas or sFasL concentrations were determined using sandwich (...) = 0.001) postoperatively, and the mean sFasL concentration (299.1 (28.8) ng/l) to 118.7 (15.9) ng/l (p = 0.000). However, the release of both substances increased significantly: sFas from 87.3 (29.4) mU/min to 229.4 (82.9) mU/min (p = 0.002) and sFasL from 1620.6 (226.4) fg/min to 4777.1 (596.1) fg/min (p = 0.000).Both sFas and sFasL are normal constituents of human tears. Despite a decrease in concentrations related to reflex tears, the release of sFas and sFasL increases significantly after excimer

1999 The British journal of ophthalmology

711. Primary capsulectomy, anterior vitrectomy, lensectomy, and posterior chamber lens implantation in children: limbal versus pars plana. (Abstract)

in the study and were divided into 2 equal groups for data analysis. All eyes had lensectomy and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL) implantation. Primary posterior capsulectomy and anterior vitrectomy were performed through the limbus in half of the eyes and the pars plana in the other half. Main outcome measures included visual acuity, estimated red reflex, postsurgical inflammatory reaction, corneal clarity, posterior synechias, iris capture, IOL position, capsulectomy size, glaucoma, cystoid

1999 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

712. Lens epithelial cell reaction after implantation of different intraocular lens materials: two-year results of a randomized prospective trial. (Abstract)

randomly assigned to receive one of four different foldable IOLs after phacoemulsification: Storz Hydroview H60M, Corneal ACR6D, AMO SI40NB, and Alcon AcrySof MA60BM. Examinations on days 7, 30, 90, 180, 360, and 720 after surgery included ophthalmologic examination, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and photography using red reflex and focal illumination of the anterior IOL surface.Best-corrected visual acuity was measured at each examination. In addition, the anterior capsule opacification and the membrane (...) growth on the anterior IOL surface were graded according to a subjective method by the same researcher.The fibrosis of the anterior capsule was more frequently observed in the group using Corneal ACR6D and AMO SI40NB. The Hydroview and ACR6D groups showed a higher percentage of cases with membrane growth from the rhexis edge on the anterior IOL surface. AcrySof showed the lowest presence of fibrosis of the anterior capsule, and no membrane growth was noted.Anterior capsule opacification is an index

2003 Ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

713. Eye care for patients receiving neuromuscular blocking agents or propofol during mechanical ventilation. (Abstract)

Eye care for patients receiving neuromuscular blocking agents or propofol during mechanical ventilation. The presence of a corneal reflex and the ability to maintain eye closure are instrumental in protecting the cornea. Use of neuromuscular blocking agents or propofol can result in impaired eyelid closure and loss of corneal reflex, leading to corneal exposure. The cornea is then at risk for drying, infection, and scarring, which may lead to permanent visual loss.To determine whether applying (...) for the other eye (control eye).Nine patients had evidence of exposure keratitis in the untreated eye, and 2 had corneal abrasions in both the treated and the control eyes. The remaining 39 patients did not have corneal abrasions in either eye. Use of the artificial tear ointment was more effective in preventing corneal exposure than was passive eyelid closure (P = .004).Eye care with a lubricating ointment on a regular, set schedule can effectively reduce the prevalence of corneal abrasions in patients who

2000 American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Controlled trial quality: uncertain

714. The cavernous body of the human efferent tear ducts contributes to regulation of tear outflow. (Abstract)

with application of a foreign body alone.The cavernous body of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct plays an important role in the physiology of tear outflow regulation. It is subject to autonomic control and is integrated into a complex neuronal reflex feedback mechanism starting with the dense innervation of the cornea. Moreover, its function can be pharmacologically influenced.

2003 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

715. Tramadol encapsulated into polyhydroxybutyrate microspheres: in vitro release and epidural analgesic effect in rats. (Abstract)

flick tests performed at 52.5 +/- 0.5 degrees C before injection and at intervals up to 30 h after injection. Catalepsy and loss of corneal reflexes were considered as signs of supraspinal toxicity.In vitro drug release was observed for more than 6 days. Epidural analgesic effects of tramadol released from PHB microspheres were observed for 21 h, whereas an equal dose of free tramadol was effective for less than 5 h. No signs of toxicity were observed.Controlled release of tramadol from PHB

2003 Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica

716. corneal inflammation

corneal inflammation corneal inflammation - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search corneal inflammation Keratitis is inflammation of the cornea. This may result from a variety of bacterial, viral or fungal infections, or may be non-infective, for example due to trauma or associated with an auto-immune disease. Inflammation of the cornea commonly presents as a painful red eye with reduced visual acuity due (...) to cellular infiltration and later, corneal oedema blood vessel dilatation is typically concentrated around the limbus - circumcorneal injection often, the conjunctiva is also inflamed - keratoconjunctivitis discharge is usually present and may be watery, mucoid or purulent; notably, it is absent in keratoconjunctivitis sicca pupil may be small due to reflexive miosis; photophobia is common fluorescein readily demonstrates any ulceration (an epithelial breach) Keratitis an cause significant loss of vision

2010 GP Notebook

717. corneal ulceration

corneal ulceration corneal ulceration - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search corneal ulceration Keratitis is inflammation of the cornea. This may result from a variety of bacterial, viral or fungal infections, or may be non-infective, for example due to trauma or associated with an auto-immune disease. Inflammation of the cornea commonly presents as a painful red eye with reduced visual acuity due to cellular (...) infiltration and later, corneal oedema blood vessel dilatation is typically concentrated around the limbus - circumcorneal injection often, the conjunctiva is also inflamed - keratoconjunctivitis discharge is usually present and may be watery, mucoid or purulent; notably, it is absent in keratoconjunctivitis sicca pupil may be small due to reflexive miosis; photophobia is common fluorescein readily demonstrates any ulceration (an epithelial breach) Keratitis an cause significant loss of vision from (1

2010 GP Notebook

718. visual reflexes (anatomical basis)

visual reflexes (anatomical basis) visual reflexes (anatomical basis) - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search visual reflexes (anatomical basis) There are several quite distinct neuronal pathways involved in the following visual reflexes: the accommodation reflex the direct and consensual light reflexes the corneal reflex the visual body reflex the pupillary skin reflex Links: General Practice Notebook General

2010 GP Notebook

719. inflammation of the cornea

acuity due to cellular infiltration and later, corneal oedema blood vessel dilatation is typically concentrated around the limbus - circumcorneal injection often, the conjunctiva is also inflamed - keratoconjunctivitis discharge is usually present and may be watery, mucoid or purulent; notably, it is absent in keratoconjunctivitis sicca pupil may be small due to reflexive miosis; photophobia is common fluorescein readily demonstrates any ulceration (an epithelial breach) Keratitis an cause (...) inflammation of the cornea inflammation of the cornea - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search inflammation of the cornea Keratitis is inflammation of the cornea. This may result from a variety of bacterial, viral or fungal infections, or may be non-infective, for example due to trauma or associated with an auto-immune disease. Inflammation of the cornea commonly presents as a painful red eye with reduced visual

2010 GP Notebook

720. corneal reflex

corneal reflex corneal reflex - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search corneal reflex The corneal reflex that is dependent on the integrity of the Vth and the VIIth cranial nerves. Method: distract the patient by asking them to gaze upwards. lightly touch the cornea with a wisp of cotton wool, bringing the wool from the side of the eye. Interpretation of results: reflex blinking of both eyes - normal patient can (...) feel the touch of the cotton wool - via the ophthalamic division of the trigeminal nerve - but there is no reflex blink - via facial nerve innervation of orbicularis oculi muscles. This indicates facial nerve palsy. unable to feel touch of cotton wool - indicates trigeminal nerve palsy. Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted

2010 GP Notebook

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