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Corneal Reflex

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641. Eye care for patients receiving neuromuscular blocking agents or propofol during mechanical ventilation. (PubMed)

Eye care for patients receiving neuromuscular blocking agents or propofol during mechanical ventilation. The presence of a corneal reflex and the ability to maintain eye closure are instrumental in protecting the cornea. Use of neuromuscular blocking agents or propofol can result in impaired eyelid closure and loss of corneal reflex, leading to corneal exposure. The cornea is then at risk for drying, infection, and scarring, which may lead to permanent visual loss.To determine whether applying (...) for the other eye (control eye).Nine patients had evidence of exposure keratitis in the untreated eye, and 2 had corneal abrasions in both the treated and the control eyes. The remaining 39 patients did not have corneal abrasions in either eye. Use of the artificial tear ointment was more effective in preventing corneal exposure than was passive eyelid closure (P = .004).Eye care with a lubricating ointment on a regular, set schedule can effectively reduce the prevalence of corneal abrasions in patients who

2000 American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Controlled trial quality: uncertain

642. Primary capsulectomy, anterior vitrectomy, lensectomy, and posterior chamber lens implantation in children: limbal versus pars plana. (PubMed)

in the study and were divided into 2 equal groups for data analysis. All eyes had lensectomy and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL) implantation. Primary posterior capsulectomy and anterior vitrectomy were performed through the limbus in half of the eyes and the pars plana in the other half. Main outcome measures included visual acuity, estimated red reflex, postsurgical inflammatory reaction, corneal clarity, posterior synechias, iris capture, IOL position, capsulectomy size, glaucoma, cystoid

1999 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

643. A comparison of proparacaine and tetracaine eye anesthetics. (PubMed)

. This procedure was then repeated in the right eye with the other study solution. Pain scales were quantified by making measurements to the nearest millimeter from the point of scale origin to the point marked by the patient. The time interval until return of the corneal blink reflex was determined using a cotton wisp. Pain scores and the time to return of corneal reflex were analyzed by the Sign test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test, respectively, with significance defined as p < 0.05.Twenty-three subjects were

1995 Academic Emergency Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

644. Anesthésie du lapin de Nouvelle-Zélande utilisant les combinaisons tilétamine-zolazépam et kétamine-midazolam avec ou sans xylazine. (Full text)

Anesthésie du lapin de Nouvelle-Zélande utilisant les combinaisons tilétamine-zolazépam et kétamine-midazolam avec ou sans xylazine. In this study, anesthesia levels obtained with tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) and ketamine-midazolam (KM) with or without xylazine (X) were compared in rabbits. Reflexes (corneal, palpebral and withdrawal), blood parameters (PaO2, PaCO2, pH and ions HCO3-), cardiovascular function (heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure) and body temperature were evaluated (...) before and after the injections of the anesthetic combination in the same rabbits (n = 10). With KM and TZ, no suppression of reflexes occurred. The body temperature and pH decreased and HCO3- increased similarly to KMX et TZX. Some physiological and blood parameters were less (PAM, PaCO2) and not (PaO2) affected comparatively to KMX et TZX. These protocols were of short duration of action and did not offer any anesthesia or analgesia. Therefore, their utilization should be restricted to short

2001 The Canadian Veterinary Journal

645. An Evaluation of a Combination of Injectable Anesthetic Agents for Use in Pigs (Full text)

was determined which would reliably and safely produce a satisfactory level of anesthesia. Following treatment, animals were monitored and the time taken to produce an effect was recorded. The degree of anesthesia as measured by the corneal reflex and the cutaneous response to a needle prick or actual surgery and the time elapsed until signs of recovery were evident were also noted.We found a combination of atropine sulfate (0.05 mg/kg) intramuscularly and fentanyl/droperidol (1 mL/13.7 kg) intramuscularly

1984 The Canadian Veterinary Journal

646. Confocal microscopy in cornea guttata and Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy (Full text)

microscopy was precluded by corneal oedema in one eye. In the remaining six eyes, it demonstrated typical changes including pleomorphism, polymegathism, and the presence of guttae appearing as dark bodies, some with a central bright reflex. In all seven eyes, confocal microscopy revealed the presence of round hyporeflective images with an occasional central highlight at the level of the endothelium. Changes in cell morphology and size were readily appreciated.By comparison with specular microscopy (...) Confocal microscopy in cornea guttata and Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy To report the appearances of cornea guttata and Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy from white light confocal microscopy.Seven eyes of four consecutive patients with cornea guttata were prospectively examined. Of the seven eyes, three also had corneal oedema (Fuchs' dystrophy). In vivo white light tandem scanning confocal microscopy was performed in all eyes. Results were compared with non-contact specular microscopy.Specular

1999 The British journal of ophthalmology

647. Soluble Fas and Fas ligand in human tear fluid after photorefractive keratectomy (Full text)

Soluble Fas and Fas ligand in human tear fluid after photorefractive keratectomy The Fas-Fas ligand system is thought to be involved in stromal cell apoptosis after corneal wounding. The aim was to measure changes in human tear fluid levels of soluble Fas (sFas) and Fas ligand (sFasL) following myopic photorefractive keratectomy (PRK).Tear samples of 59 patients were collected preoperatively, and 1 or 2 days after PRK. Tear fluid sFas or sFasL concentrations were determined using sandwich (...) = 0.001) postoperatively, and the mean sFasL concentration (299.1 (28.8) ng/l) to 118.7 (15.9) ng/l (p = 0.000). However, the release of both substances increased significantly: sFas from 87.3 (29.4) mU/min to 229.4 (82.9) mU/min (p = 0.002) and sFasL from 1620.6 (226.4) fg/min to 4777.1 (596.1) fg/min (p = 0.000).Both sFas and sFasL are normal constituents of human tears. Despite a decrease in concentrations related to reflex tears, the release of sFas and sFasL increases significantly after excimer

1999 The British journal of ophthalmology

648. Tramadol encapsulated into polyhydroxybutyrate microspheres: in vitro release and epidural analgesic effect in rats. (PubMed)

flick tests performed at 52.5 +/- 0.5 degrees C before injection and at intervals up to 30 h after injection. Catalepsy and loss of corneal reflexes were considered as signs of supraspinal toxicity.In vitro drug release was observed for more than 6 days. Epidural analgesic effects of tramadol released from PHB microspheres were observed for 21 h, whereas an equal dose of free tramadol was effective for less than 5 h. No signs of toxicity were observed.Controlled release of tramadol from PHB

2003 Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica

649. Topical cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2, reduces cornea-evoked trigeminal brainstem activity in the rat. (PubMed)

at the Vi/Vc transition was reduced significantly by topical WIN-2, while activity at the Vc/C1 junction region displayed only minor decreases. These findings were consistent with the hypothesis that CB1 receptors affect the activity of corneal-responsive neurons that preferentially contribute to homeostasis of the anterior eye and/or reflexive aspects of nociception rather than the sensory-discriminative aspects of corneal nociception. (...) Topical cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2, reduces cornea-evoked trigeminal brainstem activity in the rat. Cannabinoids act at receptors on peripheral and central neurons to modulate diverse physiological functions and produce analgesia. Corneal sensory nerves express the CB1 cannabinoid receptor and project to two spatially discrete regions of the lower brainstem, the trigeminal interpolaris/caudalis (Vi/Vc) transition and subnucleus caudalis/upper cervical cord (Vc/C1) junction region

2002 Pain

650. corneal ulceration

infiltration and later, corneal oedema blood vessel dilatation is typically concentrated around the limbus - circumcorneal injection often, the conjunctiva is also inflamed - keratoconjunctivitis discharge is usually present and may be watery, mucoid or purulent; notably, it is absent in keratoconjunctivitis sicca pupil may be small due to reflexive miosis; photophobia is common fluorescein readily demonstrates any ulceration (an epithelial breach) Keratitis an cause significant loss of vision from (1 (...) corneal ulceration corneal ulceration - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search corneal ulceration Keratitis is inflammation of the cornea. This may result from a variety of bacterial, viral or fungal infections, or may be non-infective, for example due to trauma or associated with an auto-immune disease. Inflammation of the cornea commonly presents as a painful red eye with reduced visual acuity due to cellular

2010 GP Notebook

651. corneal inflammation

to cellular infiltration and later, corneal oedema blood vessel dilatation is typically concentrated around the limbus - circumcorneal injection often, the conjunctiva is also inflamed - keratoconjunctivitis discharge is usually present and may be watery, mucoid or purulent; notably, it is absent in keratoconjunctivitis sicca pupil may be small due to reflexive miosis; photophobia is common fluorescein readily demonstrates any ulceration (an epithelial breach) Keratitis an cause significant loss of vision (...) corneal inflammation corneal inflammation - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search corneal inflammation Keratitis is inflammation of the cornea. This may result from a variety of bacterial, viral or fungal infections, or may be non-infective, for example due to trauma or associated with an auto-immune disease. Inflammation of the cornea commonly presents as a painful red eye with reduced visual acuity due

2010 GP Notebook

652. visual reflexes (anatomical basis)

visual reflexes (anatomical basis) visual reflexes (anatomical basis) - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search visual reflexes (anatomical basis) There are several quite distinct neuronal pathways involved in the following visual reflexes: the accommodation reflex the direct and consensual light reflexes the corneal reflex the visual body reflex the pupillary skin reflex Links: General Practice Notebook General

2010 GP Notebook

653. corneal reflex

corneal reflex corneal reflex - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search corneal reflex The corneal reflex that is dependent on the integrity of the Vth and the VIIth cranial nerves. Method: distract the patient by asking them to gaze upwards. lightly touch the cornea with a wisp of cotton wool, bringing the wool from the side of the eye. Interpretation of results: reflex blinking of both eyes - normal patient can (...) feel the touch of the cotton wool - via the ophthalamic division of the trigeminal nerve - but there is no reflex blink - via facial nerve innervation of orbicularis oculi muscles. This indicates facial nerve palsy. unable to feel touch of cotton wool - indicates trigeminal nerve palsy. Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted

2010 GP Notebook

654. A randomised controlled study of the efficacy of hypromellose and Lacri-Lube combination versus polyethylene/Cling wrap to prevent corneal epithelial breakdown in the semiconscious intensive care patient. (PubMed)

A randomised controlled study of the efficacy of hypromellose and Lacri-Lube combination versus polyethylene/Cling wrap to prevent corneal epithelial breakdown in the semiconscious intensive care patient. To compare the efficacy of two forms of eye care (hypromellose and Lacri-Lube combination vs polyethylene/Cling wrap covers) for intensive care patients.Randomised-controlled trial.University affiliated, tertiary referral hospital.One hundred ten patients with a reduced or absent blink reflex (...) were followed through until they regained consciousness, were discharged from the facility during study enrolment, died or developed a positive corneal ulcer or eye infection.All patients received standard eye cleansing every 2 h. In addition to this, group one ( n=60) received a treatment combining hypromellose drops and Lacri-Lube (HL) to each eye every 2 h. Group two ( n=50) had polyethylene covers only placed over the eye to create a moisture chamber.Corneal ulceration was determined using

2004 Intensive Care Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

655. LBP and CD14 secreted in tears by the lacrimal glands modulate the LPS response of corneal epithelial cells. (Full text)

-negative infections.The expression of LPS-binding protein (LBP), CD14, toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, and MD-2 in human lacrimal glands, reflex tears, and corneal epithelia was examined by ELISA, RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence. The release of proinflammatory cytokines after the activation of primary and immortalized corneal epithelial cells with LPS and human tears was measured by ELISA.LBP and CD14 proteins were detected in reflex human tears. Human lacrimal glands and corneal (...) LBP and CD14 secreted in tears by the lacrimal glands modulate the LPS response of corneal epithelial cells. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the most powerful bacterial virulence factors in terms of proinflammatory properties and is likely to contribute to corneal bacterial keratitis. Better understanding of the spatial expression of the LPS receptor components at the tear-corneal interface might facilitate enhanced functions of the LPS receptor complex in ocular defense against Gram

2005 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

656. Does the Use of a Moisture Chamber Decrease the Incidence of Corneal Abrasions in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients?

Does the Use of a Moisture Chamber Decrease the Incidence of Corneal Abrasions in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients? Does the Use of a Moisture Chamber Decrease the Incidence of Corneal Abrasions in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients? - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number (...) of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Does the Use of a Moisture Chamber Decrease the Incidence of Corneal Abrasions in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients? The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00129077 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : August

2005 Clinical Trials

657. Scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation and optical coherence tomography in tilted disk. (PubMed)

Scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation and optical coherence tomography in tilted disk. To determine whether scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx-VCC) or optical coherence tomography (OCT) is helpful for the analysis of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in glaucoma subjects with tilted disk.Retrospective case-control study.We included 21 glaucomatous eyes with tilted disk and 35 glaucomatous eyes without tilted disk (...) of nearly 780 nm revealed a high reflex from the sclera in the tilted disk.Our study has suggested that RNFL analysis by OCT is more suitable for the glaucoma assessment in the tilted disk compared with GDx-VCC.

2006 American Journal of Ophthalmology

658. Warm compress induced visual degradation and Fischer-Schweitzer polygonal reflex. (Full text)

Warm compress induced visual degradation and Fischer-Schweitzer polygonal reflex. To document adverse visual effects of warm compress therapy and determine potential etiologies in subjects with dry eye symptoms.Subjects (n = 24) with dry eye symptoms were recruited. Group 1 (n = 13): baseline measurements for each eye included subjective blur, visual acuity (VA), autorefraction (AR), corneal topography (CT), central corneal curvature (CCC), lipid layer thickness (LLT), and evaluation (...) experimental eyes: 10 exhibited the polygonal reflex compared with 0 controls (p < 0.001); eight exhibited subjective blur; seven exhibited VA decrease > or =2 lines (mean = 2.9 +/- 0.9). The polygonal reflex correlated positively to visual blur (r = 0.88, p = 0.04) and to VA decrease (r = 0.79, p = 0.1).Warm compress application induces transient visual degradation. Although there was no correlation between visual degradation and AR, CT, CCC, LLT, or the presence of striae or corneal edema, visual

2007 Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

659. Effects of goshajinkigan on corneal sensitivity, superficial punctate keratopathy and tear secretion in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (PubMed)

. Fifty diabetic patients were randomized into two groups: Group A, in which 25 patients received goshajinkigan orally, 7.5 g/day for 3 months; Group B, in which 25 patients were orally administered placebo, 6.0 g/day for 3 months; and in Group C, 25 non-diabetic subjects were orally administered goshajinkigan, 7.5 g/day for 3 months. Corneal sensitivity was measured with an aesthesiometer. The area of superficial punctate keratopathy was expressed as a fluorescein staining score. Reflex tearing (...) Effects of goshajinkigan on corneal sensitivity, superficial punctate keratopathy and tear secretion in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Goshajinkigan (niu-che-shen-qi-wan in Chinese), a traditional herbal medicine, has been used in Japan to treat clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. A double-masked study was performed to evaluate its effects on corneal sensitivity, superficial punctate keratopathy and tear production in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

2003 The American journal of Chinese medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

660. Moisture chamber versus lubrication for the prevention of corneal epithelial breakdown. (PubMed)

Moisture chamber versus lubrication for the prevention of corneal epithelial breakdown. Patients who are comatose or semicomatose are at risk of corneal dryness and ulceration.To compare and evaluate the effectiveness of two treatments used for the prevention of corneal epithelial breakdown in critically ill patients.A randomized clinical trial was used. The sample consisted of critically ill patients (age, 15-84 years) with a limited or absent blink reflex in a 14-bed general intensive care (...) and a maximum of 1 week.Eight of the 30 patients in the lubricating drop group had positive fluorescein staining, compared with one in the moisture chamber group.Our results suggest that a moisture chamber is more effective than lubricating drops in preventing corneal epithelial breakdown in critically ill patients with limited or absent blink reflex.

1995 American journal of critical care : an official publication, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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