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Corneal Reflex

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581. Eye neoplasm

Eye neoplasm Eye neoplasm - Wikipedia Eye neoplasm From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Eye neoplasm Melanotic sarcoma through the conjunctiva and sclerotic along the lower border of the cornea. Eye neoplasms can affect all parts of the , and can be a benign tumor or a malignant tumor ( ). Eye cancers can be primary (starts within the eye) or (spread to the eye from another organ). The two most common cancers that spread to the eye from another organ are and . Other less common sites of origin (...) the pupil, decreasing/loss of vision, sometimes the eye may be red and painful. Retinoblastoma can occur in one or both eyes. This tumor occurs in babies and young children. It is called RB for short. Check photographs, normal healthy eyes would have the red eye reflex, but a white/yellow dot instead of the red eye reflex can indicate a tumor or some other kind of eye disease. Any photos of a child/children which have a white/yellow dot instead of the red eye reflex should be evaluated by an eye doctor

2012 Wikipedia

582. Electroencephalography

several times per minute, the eyes movements occur several times per second. Eyelid movements, occurring mostly during blinking or vertical eye movements, elicit a large potential seen mostly in the difference between the (EOG) channels above and below the eyes. An established explanation of this potential regards the eyelids as sliding electrodes that short-circuit the positively charged cornea to the extra-ocular skin. Rotation of the eyeballs, and consequently of the corneo-retinal dipole (...) , increases the potential in electrodes towards which the eyes are rotated, and decrease the potentials in the opposing electrodes. Eye movements called also generate transient potentials, known as saccadic spike potentials (SPs). The spectrum of these SPs overlaps the gamma-band (see ), and seriously confounds analysis of induced gamma-band responses, requiring tailored artifact correction approaches. Purposeful or reflexive eye blinking also generates potentials, but more importantly there is reflexive

2012 Wikipedia

583. Hyperkinesia Full Text available with Trip Pro

: Head turning to shift eye position Facial movements, including grimaces Slow, uncontrolled movements Quick, sudden, sometimes wild jerking movements of the arms, legs, face, and other body parts Unsteady gait Abnormal reflexes “prancing,” or a wide walk The disease is characterized further by the gradual onset of defects in behavior and cognition, including dementia and speech impediments, beginning in the fourth or fifth decades of life. Death usually occurs within 10–20 years after a progressive (...) -onset DRPLA presents with ataxia and symptoms consistent with progressive myoclonus epilepsy (myoclonus, multiple seizure types and dementia). Other symptoms that have been described include cervical , corneal endothelial degeneration , and surgery-resistant . Management [ ] Athetosis, chorea and hemiballismus [ ] Before prescribing medication for these conditions which often resolve spontaneously, recommendations have pointed to improved skin hygiene, good hydration via fluids, good nutrition

2012 Wikipedia

584. Visual acuity Full Text available with Trip Pro

and functioning of the , and (iii) the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain. A common cause of low visual acuity is , or errors in how the light is refracted in the eyeball. Causes of refractive errors include aberrations in the shape of the or the , and reduced flexibility of the . Too high or too low refractive error (in relation to the length of the eyeball) is the cause of or (normal refractive status is referred to as ). Other optical causes are or more complex corneal irregularities (...) tissues and structures that are in the visual axis (and also the tissues adjacent to it) affect the quality of the image. These structures are: tear film, cornea, anterior chamber, pupil, lens, vitreous, and finally the retina. The posterior part of the retina, called the (RPE) is responsible for, among many other things, absorbing light that crosses the retina so it cannot bounce to other parts of the retina. In many vertebrates, such as cats, where high visual acuity is not a priority

2012 Wikipedia

585. Trigeminal nerve Full Text available with Trip Pro

– Referring to all three branches Nerves on the left side of the jaw slightly outnumber the nerves on the right side of the jaw. Sensory branches [ ] Dermatome distribution of the trigeminal nerve The ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular branches leave the skull through three separate : the , the and the , respectively. The ophthalmic nerve (V 1 ) carries sensory information from the scalp and forehead, the upper eyelid, the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye, the nose (including the tip of the nose (...) were discovered in the late 19th century by medical student . Two types of sensory fibers have cell bodies in the mesencephalic nucleus: fibers from the jaw and mechanoreceptor fibers from the teeth. Some of these incoming fibers go to the motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (V), bypassing the pathways for conscious perception. The is an example; tapping the jaw elicits a reflex closure of the jaw in the same way that tapping the knee elicits a reflex kick of the lower leg. Other incoming fibers

2012 Wikipedia

586. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca Full Text available with Trip Pro

, which float on the tear film that covers the cornea, absorb the tears in the eyes. The connection between a loss in nerve sensitivity and tear production is also the subject of current research. Dry eyes also occurs or gets worse after and other , in which the corneal nerves are cut during the creation of a corneal . The corneal nerves stimulate tear secretion. Dry eyes caused by these procedures usually resolves after several months, but it can be permanent. Persons who are thinking about (...) cause the eyes to water. This can happen because the eyes are irritated. One may experience excessive tearing in the same way as one would if something got into the eye. These reflex tears will not necessarily make the eyes feel better. This is because they are the watery type that are produced in response to injury, irritation, or emotion. They do not have the lubricating qualities necessary to prevent dry eye. Because blinking coats the eye with tears, symptoms are worsened by activities in which

2012 Wikipedia

587. Keratoconus

of different factors: genetic, environmental or cellular, any of which may form the trigger for the onset of the disease. Once initiated, the disease normally develops by progressive dissolution of , which lies between the corneal and . As the two come into contact, cellular and structural changes in the cornea adversely affect its integrity and lead to the bulging and scarring characteristic of the disorder. Within any individual keratoconic cornea, regions of degenerative thinning coexisting with regions (...) undergoing wound healing may be found. Scarring appears to be an aspect of the corneal degradation; however, a recent, large, multicenter study suggests abrasion by contact lenses may increase the likelihood of this finding by a factor over two. A number of studies have indicated keratoconic corneas show signs of increased activity by , a class of that break some of the cross-linkages in the stroma, with a simultaneous reduced of protease . Other studies have suggested that reduced activity by the enzyme

2012 Wikipedia

588. Rapid eye movement sleep Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and thermoregulation [ ] Generally speaking, the body suspends during paradoxical sleep. , cardiac pressure, , , and quickly become irregular when the body moves into REM sleep. In general, respiratory reflexes such as response to hypoxia diminish. Overall, the brain exerts less control over breathing; electrical stimulation of respiration-linked brain areas does not influence the lungs, as it does during non-REM sleep and in waking. The fluctuations of heart rate and arterial pressure tend to coincide with PGO (...) from unavailability of monoamine neurotransmitters (restraining the abundance of acetylcholine in the brainstem) and perhaps from mechanisms used in waking muscle inhibition. The , located between pons and spine, seems to have the capacity for organism-wide muscle inhibition. Some localized twitching and reflexes can still occur. Pupils contract. Lack of REM causes , sufferers of which physically act out their dreams, or conversely "dream out their acts", under an alternative theory

2012 Wikipedia

589. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

of suspected CJD was published in 1974. Animal experiments showed that corneas of infected animals could transmit CJD, and the causative agent spreads along visual pathways. A second case of CJD associated with a corneal transplant was reported without details. In 1977, CJD transmission caused by silver electrodes previously used in the brain of a person with CJD was first reported. Transmission occurred despite decontamination of the electrodes with ethanol and formaldehyde. Retrospective studies (...) , and . This is accompanied by physical problems such as impairment, balance and coordination dysfunction ( ), changes in , rigid . In most people with CJD, these symptoms are accompanied by and the appearance of an atypical, diagnostic tracing. The duration of the disease varies greatly, but sporadic (non-inherited) CJD can be fatal within months or even weeks. Most victims die six months after initial symptoms appear, often of due to impaired coughing reflexes. About 15% of people with CJD survive for two or more years

2012 Wikipedia

590. Bell's palsy

the first two weeks nearly always remit entirely. When remission does not occur until the third week or later, a significantly greater part of the patients develop . A third study found a better prognosis for young patients, aged below 10 years old, while the patients over 61 years old presented a worse prognosis. Major complications of the condition are chronic loss of taste ( ), chronic facial , facial pain and corneal infections. To prevent the latter, the eyes may be protected by covers, or taped (...) shut during sleep and for rest periods, and tear-like eye drops or eye ointments may be recommended, especially for cases with complete . Where the eye does not close completely, the blink reflex is also affected, and care must be taken to protect the eye from injury. Another complication can occur in case of incomplete or erroneous regeneration of the damaged facial nerve. The nerve can be thought of as a bundle of smaller individual nerve connections that branch out to their proper destinations

2012 Wikipedia

591. List of cutaneous conditions

) (generalized lichen myxedematosus, sclerodermoid lichen myxedematosus, scleromyxedema) (cutaneous mucinosis of infancy) (midline mucinosis, plaque-like cutaneous mucinosis, REM syndrome) (congenital fascial dystrophy) Neurocutaneous [ ] See also: Neurocutaneous conditions are due disease or are in . (dysmorphic syndrome, dysmorphophobia) (reflex sympathetic dystrophy) (delusions of parasitosis, Ekbom syndrome, monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis) (dermatitis artefacta, factitial dermatitis) (burning (...) seed dermatoses, palmar keratoses, papulotranslucent acrokeratoderma, punctate keratoderma, punctate keratoses of the palms and soles, maculosa disseminata) (erythrokeratodermia progressiva Burns, ichthyosiform erythroderma with corneal involvement and deafness, KID syndrome) (acral keratoderma, Gamborg–Nielsen keratoderma, mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma of the Gamborg–Nielsen type, palmoplantar ectodermal dysplasia type VIII, palmoplantar keratoderma of the Norrbotten type) (diffuse non

2012 Wikipedia

592. Cavernous sinus thrombosis

are abrupt onset of unilateral periorbital , , , and bulging of the eye ( ). Other common signs and symptoms include: , , (III, IV, V, VI). Sixth nerve palsy is the most common. Sensory deficits of the ophthalmic and maxillary branch of the fifth nerve are common. Periorbital sensory loss and impaired corneal reflex may be noted. , , and decreased visual acuity and blindness may occur from venous congestion within the retina. , and may be present. Headache with may occur. may be dilated and sluggishly

2012 Wikipedia

593. Coma Full Text available with Trip Pro

ear and the patient is observed for eye movement If the patient's eyes slowly deviate toward the ear where the water was injected, then the brainstem is intact, however failure to deviate toward the injected ear indicates damage of the brainstem on that side. The cortex is responsible for a rapid away from this deviated position and is often seen in patients who are conscious or merely lethargic. The corneal reflex assess the proper function of the (CN 5) and (CN 7) and is present at infancy (...) . Lightly touching the with a tissue or cotton swab induces a rapid blink reflex of both eyes. Touching the sclera or eyelashes, presenting a light flash, or stimulating the will induce a less rapid but still reliable response. Those in a comatose state will have altered corneal reflex depending on the severity of their unconscious and the location of their lesion. The gag, or pharyngeal, reflex is centered in the medulla and consists of the reflexive motor response of pharyngeal elevation

2012 Wikipedia

594. A Study of the Long-term Safety and Efficacy of Adalimumab in Subjects With Intermediate-, Posterior-, or Pan-uveitis

according to NEI and SUN criteria: Grade 0: No evident vitreous haze; Grade 0.5+: Slight blurring of the optic disc margin because of the haze; normal striations and reflex of the nerve fiber layer cannot be visualized; Grade 1+: Permits a better definition of both the optic nerve head and the retinal vessels (compared to higher grades); Grade 2+: Permits better visualization of the retinal vessels (compared to higher grades); Grade 3+: Permits the observer to see the optic nerve head, but the borders (...) Inclusion Criteria: Participant must have successfully enrolled in either study M10-877 or M10-880 and either met the endpoint of "Treatment Failure" or completed the study Exclusion Criteria: A participant will be excluded from this study if the participant discontinued from study M10-877 or M10-880 for any reasons other than having a Treatment Failure event Participant with corneal or lens opacity that precludes visualization of the fundus or that likely requires cataract surgery during the duration

2010 Clinical Trials

595. Efficacy and Safety of Adalimumab in Subjects With Inactive Uveitis

dilated indirect ophthalmoscopy (DIO) and assessed by the Investigator according to National Eye Institute (NEI) and SUN criteria: Grade 0: No evident vitreous haze; Grade 0.5+: Slight blurring of the optic disc margin because of the haze; normal striations and reflex of the nerve fiber layer cannot be visualized; Grade 1+: Permits a better definition of both the optic nerve head and the retinal vessels (compared to higher grades); Grade 2+: Permits better visualization of the retinal vessels (...) infectious uveitis, including but not limited to infectious uveitis due to TB, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Lyme disease, toxoplasmosis, human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection, Whipple's disease, herpes zoster virus (HZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Subject with serpiginous choroidopathy. Subject with corneal or lens opacity that precludes visualization of the fundus or that likely requires cataract surgery during the duration of the trial. Subject with intraocular pressure of ≥ 25 mmHg

2010 Clinical Trials

596. Efficacy and Safety of Adalimumab in Subjects With Active Uveitis

/Early Termination Visit (up to 80 weeks) ] Vitreous haze was measured using dilated indirect ophthalmoscopy (DIO) and assessed by the Investigator according to National Eye Institute (NEI) and SUN criteria: Grade 0: No evident vitreous haze; Grade 0.5+: Slight blurring of the optic disc margin because of the haze; normal striations and reflex of the nerve fiber layer cannot be visualized; Grade 1+: Permits a better definition of both the optic nerve head and the retinal vessels (compared to higher (...) corticosteroids Subject with confirmed or suspected infectious uveitis, including but not limited to infectious uveitis due to TB, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1), Whipple's disease, Herpes Zoster virus (HZV), Lyme disease, toxoplasmosis and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Subject with serpiginous choroidopathy. Subject with corneal or lens opacity that precludes visualization of the fundus or that likely requires cataract surgery during the duration of the trial. Subject

2010 Clinical Trials

597. Construct validity of a surgical simulator as a valid model for capsulorhexis training. (Abstract)

with the simulator. Each participant completed 4 trials on the capsulorhexis module.The 7 experienced surgeons achieved statistically significantly better total scores than the 16 medical students and residents on the easy level and the medium level of the capsulorhexis module (P = .004 and P = .000007, respectively). Experienced surgeons achieved significantly better scores in all parameters at the medium level, with better centering (P = .001), less corneal injury (P = .02), fewer spikes (P = .03), less time (...) operating without a red reflex (P = .0005), better roundness of the capsulorhexis (P = .003), and less time completing tasks (P = .008).The surgical simulator capsulorhexis module showed significant construct validity (P<.05).Published by Elsevier Inc.

2010 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

598. Predictors of neurologic outcome in hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and electroencephalogram (EEG) results were recorded. EEG patterns were blindly dichotomized with malignant patterns consisting of burst-suppression, generalized suppression, status epilepticus, and nonreactivity. Outcome measure of in-hospital mortality was assessed.A total of 192 patients (103 hypothermic, 89 nonhypothermic) were studied. The absence of pupillary light responses, corneal reflexes, and an extensor or absent motor response at Day 3 after cardiac arrest remained accurate predictors of poor outcome (...) reflexes, motor response, and presence of myoclonus) at Day 3 after cardiac arrest remains an accurate predictor of outcome after therapeutic hypothermia. Sedative medications in both hypothermic and nonhypothermic patients may confound the clinical exam. NSE > 33 ng/ml has a high false-positive rate in patients treated with hypothermia and should be interpreted with caution.

2010 Annals of Neurology

599. Fixation-Free Assessment of the Hirschberg Ratio. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fixation-Free Assessment of the Hirschberg Ratio. To describe a novel methodology by which to measure the Hirschberg ratio (HR) in infants. The methodology does not require fixation on specific points, and measurements are made while infants look naturally at a display.The HR is calculated automatically from measurements of the direction of the optical axis, the position of the pupil center, and corneal reflexes in video images from an advanced two-camera eye-tracking system. The performance

2010 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

600. Factors influencing time to death after withdrawal of life support in neurocritical patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. A total of 75 patients had cardiac arrest in <60 minutes; 57% were male and 52% were older than 66 years. Ischemic stroke (30%) and intraparenchymal hemorrhage (52%) were the most frequent diagnoses. Absent corneal (odds ratio [OR] = 4.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.57-11.5, p = 0.005) and cough reflexes (OR = 4.46, 95% CI 1.93-10.3, p = 0.0005), extensor or absent motor response (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.01-7.91, p = 0.048), and an oxygenation index greater than 4.2 (OR = 3.36, 95% CI 1.33-8.5, p

2010 Neurology

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