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, and . This is accompanied by physical problems such as impairment, balance and coordination dysfunction ( ), changes in , rigid . In most people with CJD, these symptoms are accompanied by and the appearance of an atypical, diagnostic tracing. The duration of the disease varies greatly, but sporadic (non-inherited) CJD can be fatal within months or even weeks. Most victims die six months after initial symptoms appear, often of due to impaired coughing reflexes. About 15% of people with CJD survive for two or more years (...) of suspected CJD was published in 1974. Animal experiments showed that corneas of infected animals could transmit CJD, and the causative agent spreads along visual pathways. A second case of CJD associated with a corneal transplant was reported without details. In 1977, CJD transmission caused by silver electrodes previously used in the brain of a person with CJD was first reported. Transmission occurred despite decontamination of the electrodes with ethanol and formaldehyde. Retrospective studies
ear and the patient is observed for eye movement If the patient's eyes slowly deviate toward the ear where the water was injected, then the brainstem is intact, however failure to deviate toward the injected ear indicates damage of the brainstem on that side. The cortex is responsible for a rapid away from this deviated position and is often seen in patients who are conscious or merely lethargic. The cornealreflex assess the proper function of the (CN 5) and (CN 7) and is present at infancy (...) . Lightly touching the with a tissue or cotton swab induces a rapid blink reflex of both eyes. Touching the sclera or eyelashes, presenting a light flash, or stimulating the will induce a less rapid but still reliable response. Those in a comatose state will have altered cornealreflex depending on the severity of their unconscious and the location of their lesion. The gag, or pharyngeal, reflex is centered in the medulla and consists of the reflexive motor response of pharyngeal elevation
was performed at days 2, 4, 5, and 7. To confirm the effectiveness of the procedure, we examined the gross nerve pathology, blink reflex, and immunohistochemistry of the corneal nerves. TUNEL-positive apoptotic and Ki-67-positive proliferating corneal cells were evaluated to detect changes from the contralateral normal eye.TSE was confirmed by gross histology of the trigeminal nerve and was considered effective if the corneal blink reflex was completely abolished. TSE totally abolished the blink reflex (...) in 70% of mice and significantly reduced it in the remaining 30%. Animals with absent blink reflex were used for subsequent experiments. In these mice, a progressive corneal degeneration developed, with thinning of the corneal epithelium and eventually perforation after 7 days. In all mice, 48 hours after TSE, corneal nerves were not recognizable histologically. Seven days after TSE, an increase in cellular apoptosis in all the corneal layers and a reduction in proliferation in basal epithelial
, and electroencephalogram (EEG) results were recorded. EEG patterns were blindly dichotomized with malignant patterns consisting of burst-suppression, generalized suppression, status epilepticus, and nonreactivity. Outcome measure of in-hospital mortality was assessed.A total of 192 patients (103 hypothermic, 89 nonhypothermic) were studied. The absence of pupillary light responses, cornealreflexes, and an extensor or absent motor response at Day 3 after cardiac arrest remained accurate predictors of poor outcome (...) reflexes, motor response, and presence of myoclonus) at Day 3 after cardiac arrest remains an accurate predictor of outcome after therapeutic hypothermia. Sedative medications in both hypothermic and nonhypothermic patients may confound the clinical exam. NSE > 33 ng/ml has a high false-positive rate in patients treated with hypothermia and should be interpreted with caution.
and consequently a target for pain control. Resiniferatoxin (RTX), a potent TRPV1 agonist, produces transient analgesia when injected peripherally by inactivating TRPV1-expressing nerve terminals through excessive calcium influx. The aim of the present study was to evaluate topical RTX as a corneal analgesic. In rat cornea, a single application of RTX dose dependently eliminated or reduced the capsaicin eye wipe response for 3-5 days, with normal nociceptive responses returning by 5-7 days. RTX alone produced (...) a brief but intense noxious response, similar to capsaicin, necessitating pretreatment of the cornea with a local anesthetic. Topical lidocaine, applied prior to RTX, blocks acute nociceptive responses to RTX without impairing the subsequent analgesic effect. Importantly, RTX analgesia (a) did not impair epithelial wound healing, (b) left the blink reflex intact and (c) occurred without detectable histological damage to the cornea. Immunohistochemistry showed that loss of CGRP immunoreactivity
. A total of 75 patients had cardiac arrest in <60 minutes; 57% were male and 52% were older than 66 years. Ischemic stroke (30%) and intraparenchymal hemorrhage (52%) were the most frequent diagnoses. Absent corneal (odds ratio [OR] = 4.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.57-11.5, p = 0.005) and cough reflexes (OR = 4.46, 95% CI 1.93-10.3, p = 0.0005), extensor or absent motor response (OR = 2.83, 95% CI 1.01-7.91, p = 0.048), and an oxygenation index greater than 4.2 (OR = 3.36, 95% CI 1.33-8.5, p
Fixation-Free Assessment of the Hirschberg Ratio. To describe a novel methodology by which to measure the Hirschberg ratio (HR) in infants. The methodology does not require fixation on specific points, and measurements are made while infants look naturally at a display.The HR is calculated automatically from measurements of the direction of the optical axis, the position of the pupil center, and cornealreflexes in video images from an advanced two-camera eye-tracking system. The performance
according to NEI and SUN criteria: Grade 0: No evident vitreous haze; Grade 0.5+: Slight blurring of the optic disc margin because of the haze; normal striations and reflex of the nerve fiber layer cannot be visualized; Grade 1+: Permits a better definition of both the optic nerve head and the retinal vessels (compared to higher grades); Grade 2+: Permits better visualization of the retinal vessels (compared to higher grades); Grade 3+: Permits the observer to see the optic nerve head, but the borders (...) Inclusion Criteria: Participant must have successfully enrolled in either study M10-877 or M10-880 and either met the endpoint of "Treatment Failure" or completed the study Exclusion Criteria: A participant will be excluded from this study if the participant discontinued from study M10-877 or M10-880 for any reasons other than having a Treatment Failure event Participant with corneal or lens opacity that precludes visualization of the fundus or that likely requires cataract surgery during the duration
/Early Termination Visit (up to 80 weeks) ] Vitreous haze was measured using dilated indirect ophthalmoscopy (DIO) and assessed by the Investigator according to National Eye Institute (NEI) and SUN criteria: Grade 0: No evident vitreous haze; Grade 0.5+: Slight blurring of the optic disc margin because of the haze; normal striations and reflex of the nerve fiber layer cannot be visualized; Grade 1+: Permits a better definition of both the optic nerve head and the retinal vessels (compared to higher (...) corticosteroids Subject with confirmed or suspected infectious uveitis, including but not limited to infectious uveitis due to TB, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1), Whipple's disease, Herpes Zoster virus (HZV), Lyme disease, toxoplasmosis and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Subject with serpiginous choroidopathy. Subject with corneal or lens opacity that precludes visualization of the fundus or that likely requires cataract surgery during the duration of the trial. Subject
dilated indirect ophthalmoscopy (DIO) and assessed by the Investigator according to National Eye Institute (NEI) and SUN criteria: Grade 0: No evident vitreous haze; Grade 0.5+: Slight blurring of the optic disc margin because of the haze; normal striations and reflex of the nerve fiber layer cannot be visualized; Grade 1+: Permits a better definition of both the optic nerve head and the retinal vessels (compared to higher grades); Grade 2+: Permits better visualization of the retinal vessels (...) infectious uveitis, including but not limited to infectious uveitis due to TB, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Lyme disease, toxoplasmosis, human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection, Whipple's disease, herpes zoster virus (HZV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Subject with serpiginous choroidopathy. Subject with corneal or lens opacity that precludes visualization of the fundus or that likely requires cataract surgery during the duration of the trial. Subject with intraocular pressure of ≥ 25 mmHg
pupillary entrance using Purkinje reflexes of the surgical microscope light.The study enrolled 52 eyes of 35 patients (23 women) with corneal astigmatism ranging from 0.90 to 6.19 diopters (D). The toric power was between 1.00 D and 8.00 D. One-third of eyes had an additional ocular comorbidity (including amblyopia) that could influence the clinical outcomes; 5.2% had an irregular astigmatism up to 15 degrees. Twelve eyes had high myopia (axial length [AL] >26 mm) and 5 eyes, high hyperopia (AL <21 mm (...) Clinical results after spherotoric intraocular lens implantation using the bag-in-the-lens technique. To evaluate the clinical results after implantation of a spherotoric intraocular lens (IOL) using the bag-in-the-lens (BIL) technique.Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Antwerp, Belgium.Evidence-based manuscript.Consecutive eyes with cataract and corneal astigmatism had implantation of a spherotoric BIL intraocular lens (IOL). The IOL was centered based on the patient's
; diagnosed with acne rosacea and currently on any systemic tetracycline antibiotic or any other prescribed treatment such as metronidazole, or have used any prescribed treatment for acne rosacea in the past; active ocular infection or inflammation in any eye; active ocular allergy in any eye; abnormal dilated fundus examination indicative of intraocular tumor presence; corneal disorder or abnormality that affects cornea sensitivity or normal spreading of the tear film in any eye; severe blepharitis (...) or obvious inflammation of the lid margin in any eye which, in the judgment of the investigator, may interfere with the interpretation of the study results; history of punctal occlusion, canalicular stenosis or nasolacrimal duct blockage. unable to cannulate the puncta (grade 3 on the Canalicular Stenosis Scale); unable to successfully irrigate the canaliculi; Schirmer's Test - Standard Test (with anesthesia) result of = 3 mm; epiphora is due to reflex tearing resulting from dry eye syndrome; history
Photographic assessment of changes in torsional strabismus. The horizontal and vertical components of strabismus are measured routinely and relatively easily in the clinical setting using prism-and-cover and/or corneal light reflex tests. The third dimension of ocular alignment, ocular torsion, is more difficult to assess. Objective torsional deviation (cyclotropia) is evaluated qualitatively with fundus examination. For quantitative assessment, however, fundus photography is needed, which may
camera, static ocular counterrolling (s-OCR) was determined by measuring the inclination of a line connecting the two centroids of the characteristic iris pattern and cornealreflex. The BHP was measured with the alternate prism and cover test.The mean (SD) amplitude of s-OCR in paretic eyes based on the fit of the regression sine curve against the ipsilesional head tilt angle was significantly decreased compared with that for contralesional head tilt, 6.3 (3.5) degrees for ipsilesional and 11.3 (3.9
optic nerve imaging, refractometry, ultrasound, corneal thickness pachymetry, measurement of proptosis, measurement of pupillary reflex, The volunteers do not receive anesthetic medications or intravenous fluids and will provide a baseline for comparision with patients enrolled in the prospective study. Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Observational Actual Enrollment : 10 participants Observational Model: Case-Crossover Time Perspective: Prospective Official Title
were digitally transferred to the excimer laser system based on the positional relationship between the LOS and the coaxially sighted corneal light reflex. All eyes were treated with a 6.5-mm optical zone and 9.0-mm transition zone. Three-month postoperative outcomes were retrospectively analyzed.The preoperative manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) was +2.57+/-1.26 diopters (D) (range: 0.13 to 5.63 D) in the visual axis group and +2.46+/-1.32 D (range: 0.38 to 5.63 D) in the LOS group
with the simulator. Each participant completed 4 trials on the capsulorhexis module.The 7 experienced surgeons achieved statistically significantly better total scores than the 16 medical students and residents on the easy level and the medium level of the capsulorhexis module (P = .004 and P = .000007, respectively). Experienced surgeons achieved significantly better scores in all parameters at the medium level, with better centering (P = .001), less corneal injury (P = .02), fewer spikes (P = .03), less time (...) operating without a red reflex (P = .0005), better roundness of the capsulorhexis (P = .003), and less time completing tasks (P = .008).The surgical simulator capsulorhexis module showed significant construct validity (P<.05).Published by Elsevier Inc.
retrospectively reviewed and the clinical characteristics and postoperative surgical results of these patients were analysed. This study was a retrospective, non-randomised, interventional case series and the main outcome measures were margin reflex distance, eyelid contour and corneal status.Seven patients were recruited (one male and six female). The mean age at the time of operation was 29.6 (range 15-62) years. Two patients had unilateral ptosis and five patients had bilateral ptosis. The mean follow-up (...) period was 22.7 (range 1-61) months. Satisfactory lid height was achieved in all patients. Although corneal erosions were detected in five patients 1 month after surgery, these findings eventually resolved in three patients 2 months later, after the use of artificial tear eyedrops and ointments.The frontalis sling operation using silicone rod can safely and effectively correct ptosis in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia patients without serious corneal complications.
after resuscitation from CA and treated with TIMH.None of six patients without pupillary reactivity, six without cornealreflexes on day 3, or eight with myoclonus status epilepticus recovered awareness. Two of 14 patients with motor responses no better than extension at day 3 recovered motor responses only after 6 days post-arrest (one at 5 and one at 6 days post-rewarming) and regained awareness.Loss of motor responses better than extension on day 3 was not prognostically reliable after (...) therapeutic induced mild hypothermia for comatose cardiac arrest survivors. None of the patients who lost pupillary or cornealreflexes on day 3 or developed myoclonus status epilepticus recovered awareness.