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Cornea

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161. Interleukin-24 Promotes Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Keratitis in C57BL/6 Mouse Corneas (Full text)

Interleukin-24 Promotes Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Keratitis in C57BL/6 Mouse Corneas The aim of this study was to elucidate the expression and functions of IL-24 in C57BL/6 mouse corneas in response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Among IL-20R cytokines, only IL-24 was induced at both mRNA and protein levels by infection at early time points. The upregulation of IL-24 was dampened by flagellin pretreatment, which protects the corneas from microbial infection. Time course studies revealed

2017 Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

162. A super-infection in the cornea caused by Stemphylium, Acremonium, and α-Streptococcus (Full text)

A super-infection in the cornea caused by Stemphylium, Acremonium, and α-Streptococcus Polymicrobial keratitis with fungus and bacteria can lead to blindness and is challenging to treat. Here, we introduce a case of fungal keratitis caused by two different strains in addition to definite bacterial super-infection caused by an α-Streptococcus sp., and describe the importance of microscopic examination.A 74-year-old woman, who had a past history of infection with leprosy, presented (...) -infection in the cornea caused by two different fungi and one bacterium. Microscopic examination of the corneal scrapings was beneficial in rapid decision of changing to appropriate drug according to the dominancy of pathogenicity.

2017 Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials

163. Bioavailability of generic 0.05% difluprednate emulsion in the aqueous humor, cornea, and conjunctiva of New Zealand rabbits after a single dose compared with commercial difluprednate (Full text)

Bioavailability of generic 0.05% difluprednate emulsion in the aqueous humor, cornea, and conjunctiva of New Zealand rabbits after a single dose compared with commercial difluprednate To determine the concentration after a single dose of generic 0.05% difluprednate and commercial difluprednate in the aqueous humor, cornea, and conjunctiva of New Zealand rabbits, a preclinical study in 72 male New Zealand white rabbits was performed. A single dose (50 μL) of two 0.05% difluprednate ophthalmic (...) formulations was instilled in both eyes. Conjunctiva, cornea, and aqueous humor samples were collected at nine time points over 8 h (four animals per time point). The active metabolite of difluprednate, 17-difluoroprednisolone-butyrate (DFB), concentrations was quantified using HPLC.Measurable levels of DFB were quantified in all three ocular tissues. After a single instillation, the highest concentration of difluprednate was found between 30 and 60 min in the conjunctiva, cornea, and aqueous humor

2017 Journal of ophthalmic inflammation and infection

164. Fibrillin Microfibrils Keep the Cornea in Shape (Full text)

Fibrillin Microfibrils Keep the Cornea in Shape 28395027 2018 01 19 2018 12 02 1552-5783 58 4 2017 04 01 Investigative ophthalmology & visual science Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. Fibrillin Microfibrils Keep the Cornea in Shape. 2117 10.1167/iovs.17-21840 Chakravarti Shukti S Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland, United States; schakra1@jhmi.edu. eng R01 EY026104 EY NEI NIH HHS United States R56 EY011654 EY NEI NIH HHS United States Journal Article (...) Comment United States Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 7703701 0146-0404 0 Fibrillin-1 0 Fibrillins 0 Microfilament Proteins IM Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017 Apr 1;58(4):2106-2116 28395026 Cornea Fibrillin-1 Fibrillins Humans Microfibrils Microfilament Proteins 2017 4 11 6 0 2017 4 11 6 0 2018 1 20 6 0 ppublish 28395027 2618121 10.1167/iovs.17-21840 PMC6108237 Nature. 1991 Jul 25;352(6333):337-9 1852208 Exp Eye Res. 2015 Mar;132:198-207 25613072 Matrix Biol. 2015 Sep;47:3-12 25957947 Invest Ophthalmol Vis

2017 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

165. Cornea Collagen Cross-linking for Keratoconus: A Comparison between Accelerated and Conventional Methods (Full text)

Cornea Collagen Cross-linking for Keratoconus: A Comparison between Accelerated and Conventional Methods Keratoconus is a progressive degenerative disorder of the cornea in which structural changes in the cornea cause it to become thin and conical in shape. Recently, collagen cross-linking (CXL) has been introduced as an effective intervention in management of progressive keratoconus. Accelerated CXL is a new protocol of this procedure which reduces corneal ultraviolet irradiation exposure time

2017 Advanced biomedical research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

166. Conical scan pattern for enhanced visualization of the human cornea using polarization-sensitive OCT (Full text)

Conical scan pattern for enhanced visualization of the human cornea using polarization-sensitive OCT Conventional imaging of the human cornea with optical coherence tomography (OCT) relies on telecentric scanning optics with sampling beams that are parallel to the optical axis of the eye. Because of the shape of the cornea, the beams have in some areas considerable inclination to the corneal surface which is accompanied by low signal intensities in these areas and thus an inhomogeneous (...) appearance of corneal structures. In addition, alterations in the polarization state of the probing light depend on the angle between the imaging beam and the birefringent axis of the sample. Therefore, changes in the polarization state observed with polarization-sensitive (PS-) OCT originate mainly from the shape of the cornea. In order to minimize the effects of the corneal shape on intensity and polarization-sensitive based data, we developed a conical scanning optics design. This design provides

2017 Biomedical optics express

167. Signaling Mediated by Toll-Like Receptor 5 Sensing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Flagellin Influences IL-1β and IL-18 Production by Primary Fibroblasts Derived from the Human Cornea (Full text)

Signaling Mediated by Toll-Like Receptor 5 Sensing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Flagellin Influences IL-1β and IL-18 Production by Primary Fibroblasts Derived from the Human Cornea Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the principal cause of bacterial keratitis worldwide and overstimulation of the innate immune system by this organism is believed to contribute significantly to sight loss. In the current study, we have used primary human corneal fibroblast (hCF) cells as an ex vivo model of corneal infection

2017 Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

168. Intrasession repeatability of pachymetry measurements with RTVue XR 100 optical coherence tomography in normal cornea (Full text)

Intrasession repeatability of pachymetry measurements with RTVue XR 100 optical coherence tomography in normal cornea To assess intra-observer reproducibility and repeatability of corneal pachymetry measurements with RTVue XR-100 anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in normal cornea.Eighty-four eyes of 84 healthy volunteers were enrolled for this study. A single examiner performed 3 successive corneal pachymetry mappings with RTVue XR-100 AS -OCT in a single session. One eye (...) was randomly selected for the analysis. Intrasession intraexaminer reproducibility and repeatability were calculated for the minimum corneal thickness (MCT), central corneal thickness (CCT, central 0-2 mm), pericentral (2-5 mm) and peripheral (5-6 mm) annular zones of cornea, in the pachymetry mapping protocol by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation and test retest variability.The mean CCT was 497.08 ± 32.83 µm and MCT was 490.28 ± 32.87 µm. ICC was 0.994 for CCT and 0.983

2017 Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology

169. The use of WaveLight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA Protocol. Part 3: the results of 50 treated eyes (Full text)

The use of WaveLight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA Protocol. Part 3: the results of 50 treated eyes To demonstrate how using the Wavelight Contoura measured astigmatism and axis eliminates corneal astigmatism and creates uniformly shaped corneas.A retrospective analysis was conducted of the first 50 eyes to have bilateral full WaveLight® Contoura LASIK correction of measured astigmatism and axis (vs conventional manifest refraction), using the Layer Yolked Reduction (...) a goal of plano, 3 had a monovision goal. Astigmatism was fully eliminated from all but 2 eyes, and 1 eye had regression with astigmatism. Of the eyes with plano as the goal, 80.85% were 20/15 or better, and 100% were 20/20 or better. Polynomial analysis postoperatively showed that at 6.5 mm, the average C3 was reduced by 86.5% and the average C5 by 85.14%.Using WaveLight® Contoura measured astigmatism and axis removes higher order aberrations and allows for the creation of a more uniform cornea

2017 Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)

170. The use of WaveLight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA Protocol. Part 1: the effect of higher-order corneal aberrations on refractive astigmatism (Full text)

The use of WaveLight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA Protocol. Part 1: the effect of higher-order corneal aberrations on refractive astigmatism To demonstrate how higher-order corneal aberrations can cancel out, modify, or induce lower-order corneal astigmatism.Six representative eyes are presented that show different scenarios in which higher-order aberrations interacting with corneal astigmatism can affect the manifest refraction. WaveLight® Contoura ablation maps showing (...) the higher-order aberrations are shown, as are results of correction with full measured correction using the LYRA (Layer Yolked Reduction of Astigmatism) Protocol.Higher-order corneal aberrations such as trefoil, quadrafoil, and coma can create ovalization of the central cornea, which can interact with the ovalization caused by lower-order astigmatism to either induce, cancel out, or modify the manifest refraction. Contoura processing successfully determines the linkage of these interactions resulting

2017 Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)

171. The use of WaveLight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA Protocol. Part 2: the consequences of treating astigmatism on an incorrect axis via excimer laser (Full text)

The use of WaveLight® Contoura to create a uniform cornea: the LYRA Protocol. Part 2: the consequences of treating astigmatism on an incorrect axis via excimer laser To show how an incorrect manifest astigmatism axis can cause an abnormal induced astigmatism on a new axis.Four eyes of three patients were treated primarily with WaveLight® EX500 wavefront optimized (WFO) treatments for astigmatism. All four eyes needed enhancements and were analyzed retrospectively via WaveLight® Contoura

2017 Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)

172. Tissue-engineered cornea constructed with compressed collagen and laser-perforated electrospun mat (Full text)

Tissue-engineered cornea constructed with compressed collagen and laser-perforated electrospun mat While Plastic Compressed (PC) collagen technique is often used to fabricate bioengineered constructs, PC collagen gels are too weak to be sutured or conveniently handled for clinical applications. To overcome this limitation, electrospun poly (lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA) mats, which have excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties, were combined with PC collagen to fabricate sandwich-like

2017 Scientific reports

173. Elastic microfibril distribution in the cornea: Differences between normal and keratoconic stroma (Full text)

Elastic microfibril distribution in the cornea: Differences between normal and keratoconic stroma The optical and biomechanical properties of the cornea are largely governed by the collagen-rich stroma, a layer that represents approximately 90% of the total thickness. Within the stroma, the specific arrangement of superimposed lamellae provides the tissue with tensile strength, whilst the spatial arrangement of individual collagen fibrils within the lamellae confers transparency. In keratoconus (...) , this precise stromal arrangement is lost, resulting in ectasia and visual impairment. In the normal cornea, we previously characterised the three-dimensional arrangement of an elastic fiber network spanning the posterior stroma from limbus-to-limbus. In the peripheral cornea/limbus there are elastin-containing sheets or broad fibers, most of which become microfibril bundles (MBs) with little or no elastin component when reaching the central cornea. The purpose of the current study was to compare

2017 Experimental eye research

174. Ophthoselfie: Detailed Self-imaging of Cornea and Anterior Segment by Smartphone (Full text)

Ophthoselfie: Detailed Self-imaging of Cornea and Anterior Segment by Smartphone To describe the ophthoselfie, a method by which everyone can take detailed self-images of the cornea and anterior segment with a smartphone.A 90-diopter non-contact double aspheric lens was attached to posterior camera of the smartphone by clear tape. Images of one eye on the screen of the smartphone could be seen with the other eye in the mirror and images were taken.Accurate and detailed images of the cornea (...) and anterior segment of the eye could be taken.The ophthoselfie allows everyone to take their own detailed anterior segment images by smartphone. To create a clear and detailed self-image of the cornea and anterior segment on the screen of a smartphone may lead to the development of new applications and facilitate patients' early recognition of certain conditions like keratoconus, refractive errors, corneal rejection, and uveitis. This method may also be useful in some urgent situations by allowing

2017 Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology

175. Wound-Healing Studies in Cornea and Skin: Parallels, Differences and Opportunities (Full text)

Wound-Healing Studies in Cornea and Skin: Parallels, Differences and Opportunities The cornea and the skin are both organs that provide the outer barrier of the body. Both tissues have developed intrinsic mechanisms that protect the organism from a wide range of external threats, but at the same time also enable rapid restoration of tissue integrity and organ-specific function. The easy accessibility makes the skin an attractive model system to study tissue damage and repair. Findings from skin (...) research have contributed to unravelling novel fundamental principles in regenerative biology and the repair of other epithelial-mesenchymal tissues, such as the cornea. Following barrier disruption, the influx of inflammatory cells, myofibroblast differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis and scar formation present parallel repair mechanisms in cornea and skin wound healing. Yet, capillary sprouting, while pivotal in proper skin wound healing, is a process that is rather associated

2017 International journal of molecular sciences

176. CXCL10 suppression of hem- and lymph-angiogenesis in inflamed corneas through MMP13 (Full text)

CXCL10 suppression of hem- and lymph-angiogenesis in inflamed corneas through MMP13 Though not present in the normal adult cornea, both hem- and lymph-angiogenesis can be induced in this tissue after an inflammatory, infectious, or traumatic insult. We previously showed that the chemokine CXCL10 plays a key role in eradicating invading Candida (C.) albicans in C57BL6 mouse corneas. However, even after the clearance of pathogens, infection-induced inflammation and angiogenesis continue (...) to progress in the cornea. The aim of this study is define the role of CXCL10 as a major angiostatic factor in modulating cornea angiogenesis in B6 mouse corneas under pathogenic conditions. We showed that epithelial expression of CXCL10, driven by AAV9 vector, suppressed both infection- and inflammation-induced hem and lymph angiogenesis, whereas the neutralization of CXCL10 as well as its receptor CXCR3 greatly promoted these processes. The inhibitory effect of CXCL10 was unrelated to its antimicrobial

2017 Angiogenesis

177. Plastic modification of the cornea by pneumatic force corrects myopia: Pneumatic keratology (Full text)

Plastic modification of the cornea by pneumatic force corrects myopia: Pneumatic keratology PurposeThe eyeball and, in particular, the cornea deform in vitro by the application of a distending force like other visco-elastic tissue. If the force is large enough, the cornea strains beyond the elastic range, and a permanent deformation occurs. Such permanent strain is referred to as 'plastic' strain. The phenomenon, however, has never been observed or produced on living tissue. This report seeks (...) to demonstrate that the central radius of a patient's cornea can be altered in a controlled manner designed to correct refractive errors.MethodsTo plastically deform the living cornea, we applied a vacuum to the cornea of eight rabbits and five human eyes with a novel device. This device consists of a chamber of 11 mm in diameter. The chamber is radially divided into four interconnected sub-chambers.ResultsHere we show that a strain can be achieved in vivo with a force produced by the application

2017 Eye

178. Biomaterial microlasers implantable in the cornea, skin, and blood (Full text)

Biomaterial microlasers implantable in the cornea, skin, and blood Stand-alone laser particles that are implantable into biological tissues have potential to enable novel optical imaging, diagnosis and therapy. Here we demonstrate several types of biocompatible microlasers and their lasing action within biological systems. Dye-doped polystyrene beads were embedded in the cornea and optically pumped to generate narrowband emission. We fabricated microbeads with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid

2017 Optica

179. Effect of open ultraviolet germicidal irradiation lamps on functionality of excimer lasers used in cornea surgery (Full text)

Effect of open ultraviolet germicidal irradiation lamps on functionality of excimer lasers used in cornea surgery We report on the impact of direct ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) on reflective optics, used in the excimer laser system Allegretto Eye-Q. The aim of our work was to confirm our hypothesis based on long-rate observations of obtained anomalies in post-operative results that are attributed to degradation of reflective optics upon ultraviolet radiation. The presence of direct

2017 International journal of ophthalmology

180. Prevalence of spheroidal degeneration of cornea and its association with other eye diseases in tribes of Western Rajasthan (Full text)

Prevalence of spheroidal degeneration of cornea and its association with other eye diseases in tribes of Western Rajasthan To determine the prevalence of spheroidal degeneration of cornea (SDC) and its association with other eye diseases in the tribes of South-West Rajasthan.A total of 5012 patients were examined on slit lamp for the diagnosis of SDC. Diagnosis of SDC was made based on presence of amber granules in the superficial stroma of peripheral interpalpebral cornea with increasing

2017 Indian journal of ophthalmology

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