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101. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SKQ1 protects cornea from oxidative damage induced by ultraviolet irradiation and mechanical injury. (Full text)

Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SKQ1 protects cornea from oxidative damage induced by ultraviolet irradiation and mechanical injury. Cornea protects the eye against natural and anthropogenic ultraviolet (UV) damage and mechanical injury. Corneal incisions produced by UV lasers in ophthalmic surgeries are often complicated by oxidative stress and inflammation, which delay wound healing and result in vision deterioration. This study trialed a novel approach to prevention and treatment (...) of iatrogenic corneal injuries using SkQ1, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant approved for therapy of polyethiological dry eye disease.Rabbit models of UV-induced and mechanical corneal damage were employed. The animals were premedicated or treated with conjunctival instillations of 7.5 μM SkQ1. Corneal damage was assessed by fluorescein staining and histological analysis. Oxidative stress in cornea was monitored by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) using thiobarbituric acid assay. Total antioxidant activity

2018 BMC Ophthalmology

102. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Corneal Epithelial Thickness Mapping with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal and Diseased Cornea Eyes. (PubMed)

Repeatability and Reproducibility of Corneal Epithelial Thickness Mapping with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal and Diseased Cornea Eyes. To evaluate the performance of the epithelial thickness mapping (ETM) of the iVue spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) device (Optovue Inc, Fremont, California, USA) in normal and diseased cornea eyes.Reliability and validity analysis.Sixty eyes of 60 subjects were recruited for the study, which included normal subjects (...) variability for both groups. Repeatability and reproducibility were similar in all subgroups of cornea patients, excluding the DES group, for which reproducibility was significantly lower (range 3.2%-5.5% for DES patients and 1.1%-2.9% for normal subjects).The iVue SD-OCT provides good corneal ETM repeatability and reproducibility in normal and diseased cornea eyes through all map zones.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 American Journal of Ophthalmology

103. Reappraisal of the suitability of corneas from bacteremic donors for use in corneal transplants. (PubMed)

Reappraisal of the suitability of corneas from bacteremic donors for use in corneal transplants. This study examined whether corneas from bacteremic donors could be used for corneal transplant.Corneas donated to the National Eye Bank of Taiwan between 1 January 2014 and 30 June 2017 were included in this study. All the corneas had corneoscleral rim cultures during the retrieval process and were hypothermic preserved in the Optisol-GS storage medium. A microbial work-up flow chart was used (...) for the sterility check of all grafts. Bacteremic donors were defined as those whose last blood culture before corneal donation was positive. The microbial contamination rates, the endothelial cell densities, the tissue utility rates and early complications after transplants were compared between the corneas from bacteremic versus non-bacteremic donors.697 corneas from 356 donors were analysed, 70 of which were from bacteremic donors. The microbial contamination rates of the corneas from bacteremic and non

2018 British Journal of Ophthalmology

104. Factors Associated with Graft Rejection in the Cornea Preservation Time Study. (Full text)

Factors Associated with Graft Rejection in the Cornea Preservation Time Study. To identify factors related to graft rejection following Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in the Cornea Preservation Time Study (CPTS).Cohort study within a multicenter randomized clinical trial.A total of 1330 eyes of 1090 subjects undergoing DSAEK were randomized to receive a donor cornea with preservation time (PT) of 0-7 days (n = 675) or 8-14 days (n = 655) and followed for 3 years

2018 American Journal of Ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

105. Differences in Posterior Corneal Features Between Normal Corneas and Subclinical Keratoconus. (PubMed)

Differences in Posterior Corneal Features Between Normal Corneas and Subclinical Keratoconus. To compare posterior corneal features and their discriminating power for differentiating normal corneas from subclinical keratoconus using the Placido dual-Scheimpflug analyzer.Patients were retrospectively included in the study. The preoperative normal right eyes of 79 patients imaged with a Placido dual-Scheimpflug system and with a stable postoperative LASIK follow-up of a minimum of 36 months were (...) characteristics curves.Variables that related to asymmetry and elevation of the posterior surface were statistically significantly different between groups (P < .05), whereas eccentricity and curvature-related parameters were not. Receiver operator characteristics curves analysis showed that the maximum posterior elevation over the best-fit toric and aspheric surface reference shape had the highest discriminating ability for distinguishing normal corneas from subclinical keratoconus, with an area under

2018 Journal of Refractive Surgery

106. Brittle cornea syndrome: a case report and review of the literature. (Full text)

Brittle cornea syndrome: a case report and review of the literature. To report a patient who presented with bluish scleral discoloration, keratoconus, and progressive high myopia.A 6-year-old Chinese female patient presented with a significant bluish discoloration of the sclera in both eyes and extreme corneal thinning with anterior corneal protrusion. General pediatric physical examination was normal for all systems and no genetic disorders known were observed.We aim to highlight (...) the importance of diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from Brittle cornea syndrome. Timely diagnosis and early provision of protective glasses seem to be the most important step in treating BCS. To our knowledge, this is the first case of BCS being reported in the Asia area.

2018 BMC Ophthalmology

107. Assessment of Topical Therapies for Improving the Optical Clarity Following Stromal Wounding in a Novel Ex Vivo Canine Cornea Model. (Full text)

Assessment of Topical Therapies for Improving the Optical Clarity Following Stromal Wounding in a Novel Ex Vivo Canine Cornea Model. To evaluate the effect of topical suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA) and 5-methyl-1-phenyl-2[1H]-pyridone (pirfenidone) on the degree of corneal haze in the stromal wounded ex vivo canine cornea.Twenty-four corneoscleral rims from normal dogs were uniformly wounded with an excimer laser and placed into culture medium with an air-liquid interface. The control group (...) (n = 8) contained placebo-treated corneas. Treatment group 1 (n = 8) received SAHA topically every 6 hours. Treatment group 2 (n = 8) received pirfenidone topically every 6 hours. Each cornea was fluorescein stained and macrophotographed every 6 hours to assess epithelialization rate. All corneas were also macrophotographed weekly to assess optical clarity (haze). Images were analyzed for differences in pixel intensity between wounded (haze) and unwounded (nonhaze) regions, and haze surface area

2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

108. TSLP Protects Corneas From Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection by Regulating Dendritic Cells and IL-23-IL-17 Pathway. (Full text)

TSLP Protects Corneas From Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection by Regulating Dendritic Cells and IL-23-IL-17 Pathway. We sought to determine the role of epithelium-produced thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and its underlying mechanisms in corneal innate immune defense against Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa keratitis.The expression of TSLP and TSLPR in cultured human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) and mouse corneas was determined by PCR, Western, and/or ELISA. Cellular localization of TSLP (...) the expression of TSLP and TSLPR in both cultured primary HCECs and in C57BL/6 mouse corneas. While TSLP was mostly expressed by epithelial cells, CD11c-positive cells were positive for TSLPR. Targeting TSLP or TSLPR with neutralizing antibodies or TSLPR with siRNA resulted in more severe keratitis, attributable to an increase in bacterial burden and PMN infiltration. TSLPR neutralization significantly suppressed infection-induced TSLP and interleukin (IL)-17C expression and augmented the expression of IL-23

2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

109. Optimization of femtosecond lasers using porcine and human donor corneas before in vivo use. (PubMed)

Optimization of femtosecond lasers using porcine and human donor corneas before in vivo use. To demonstrate a safe and effective method of optimizing a femtosecond laser upon installation or for a new procedure before use on patients. In this case, specifically for optimizing settings for intrastromal corneal pocket creation for the presbyopic small-aperture corneal inlay (Kamra) and deep laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flaps for the presbyopic hydrogel corneal inlay (Raindrop).Keil LASIK (...) Vision Center, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA.Experimental study.Human donor corneas were used to optimize femtosecond laser settings after initial optimization with porcine corneas. The laser used was the Femto LDV Z4.Pocket settings optimized for porcine corneas were 12.0 mm/s pocket and tunnel at 105% energy; whereas, settings optimized with human donor corneas were 13.0 mm/s pocket and tunnel at 110% energy. Settings optimized with human donor corneas were subsequently applied in vivo to create

2018 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

110. The Asia Cornea Society Infectious Keratitis Study: A Prospective Multicenter Study Of Infectious Keratitis In Asia. (PubMed)

The Asia Cornea Society Infectious Keratitis Study: A Prospective Multicenter Study Of Infectious Keratitis In Asia. To survey the demographics, risk factors, microbiology, and outcomes for infectious keratitis in Asia.Prospective, nonrandomized clinical study.Thirteen study centers and 30 sub-centers recruited consecutive subjects over 12-18 months, and performed standardized data collection. A microbiological protocol standardized the processing and reporting of all isolates. Treatment (...) %). Of the 2831 microorganisms isolated, the most common were Fusarium species (n = 518, 18.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 302, 10.7%), and Aspergillus flavus (n = 236, 8.3%). Cornea transplantation was performed in 628 eyes to manage ongoing infection, but 289 grafts (46%) had failed by the end of the study. Moderate visual impairment (Snellen vision less than 20/60) was documented in 3478 eyes (53.6%).Demographic and risk factors for infection vary by country, but infections occur predominantly in male

2018 American Journal of Ophthalmology

111. Donor, Recipient and Operative Factors Associated with Graft Success in the Cornea Preservation Time Study. (Full text)

Donor, Recipient and Operative Factors Associated with Graft Success in the Cornea Preservation Time Study. To associate donor, recipient, and operative factors with graft success 3 years after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) in the Cornea Preservation Time Study (CPTS).Cohort study within a multicenter, double-masked, randomized clinical trial.One thousand ninety individuals (1330 study eyes) with a median age of 70 years undergoing DSAEK for Fuchs endothelial (...) corneal dystrophy (94% of eyes) or pseudophakic or aphakic corneal edema (PACE; 6% of eyes).Eyes undergoing DSAEK were randomized to receive a donor cornea with preservation time (PT) of 0 to 7 days (n = 675) or 8 to 14 days (n = 655). Donor, recipient, and operative parameters were recorded prospectively. Graft failure was defined as regraft for any reason, a graft that failed to clear by 8 weeks after surgery, or an initially clear graft that became and remained cloudy for 90 days. Failure

2018 Ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

112. [MITOCHONDRIA-TARGETED ANTIOXIDANTS IN THE PREVENTION OF THE CORNEA EROSION WHEN PERFORMING SURGERY UNDER GENERAL ANESTHESIA.] (PubMed)

[MITOCHONDRIA-TARGETED ANTIOXIDANTS IN THE PREVENTION OF THE CORNEA EROSION WHEN PERFORMING SURGERY UNDER GENERAL ANESTHESIA.] Despite the use of modern methods of prevention, at least 10% of patients operated on for ophthalmic indications not develop corneal erosion as the indirect complication of general anesthesia.To reduce the number of ophthalmic complications of general anesthesia by prophylactic use of new mito- chondria-targeted antioxidants - Vizomitin (eye drops).70 patients, which (...) was supposed to perform the average duration of operations under general anesthesia were randomized into 3 groups depending on the method specific (pharmacological) prevention of corneal erosions: (1) control (specic (pharmacological) prevention was not carried out), (2), using preparation "natural tear, and (3) "Vizomitin" preparation. Postoperative biomicroscopy was performed to assess the condition of the cornea, tear film stability was measured and the height of the tear meniscus.When using eye drops

2018 Anesteziologiia i reanimatologiia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

113. Pre-cut post-LASIK/PRK donor corneas for use in endothelial keratoplasty: potential impact of post-cut morphology on visual outcomes. (PubMed)

Pre-cut post-LASIK/PRK donor corneas for use in endothelial keratoplasty: potential impact of post-cut morphology on visual outcomes. To evaluate the accuracy, complication rates, cut quality, and degree of induced hyperopic shift of eye bank-prepared post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)/photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) donor corneas compared to those of non-post-LASIK/PRK donor corneas.The cut accuracy and failure rates of all post-LASIK/PRK donor cornea tissue processed for use (...) in Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) from January 2012 through December 2016 were compared to control cornea donor tissue. Corneas were analyzed for regularity and morphology of cut using anterior segment optical coherence tomography images. Using a mathematical model, the hyperopic shifts induced by post-LASIK/PRK donor lenticules were compared to the control corneas.During the study period, 733 post-LASIK/PRK and 10 437 non-post-LASIK/PRK donor corneas were processed

2018 American Journal of Ophthalmology

114. Spatial Patterns and Age-Related Changes of the Collagen Crimp in the Human Cornea and Sclera. (Full text)

Spatial Patterns and Age-Related Changes of the Collagen Crimp in the Human Cornea and Sclera. Collagen is the main load-bearing component of the eye, and collagen crimp is a critical determinant of tissue mechanical behavior. We test the hypothesis that collagen crimp morphology varies over the human cornea and sclera and with age.We analyzed 42 axial whole-globe sections from 20 normal eyes of 20 human donors, ranging in age from 0.08 (1 month) to 97 years. The sections were imaged using (...) -related decreases between regions. The crimp morphology of the limbus changed the most drastically with age, such that it had the largest crimp in neonates, and among the smallest in the elderly.Age-related decreases in crimp parameters are likely one of the mechanisms underlying age-related stiffening of the sclera and cornea, potentially influencing sensitivity to IOP. Further work is needed to determine the biomechanical implications of the crimp patterns observed. The comparatively large changes

2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

115. Integrated Stress Response and Decreased ECM in Cultured Stromal Cells From Keratoconus Corneas. (Full text)

Integrated Stress Response and Decreased ECM in Cultured Stromal Cells From Keratoconus Corneas. Keratoconus (KC) is a multifactorial disease where progressive thinning and weakening of the cornea leads to loss of visual acuity. Although the underlying etiology is poorly understood, a major endpoint is a dysfunctional stromal connective tissue matrix. Using multiple individual KC corneas, we determined that matrix production by keratocytes is severely impeded due to an altered stress response

2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

116. The Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 Mediates Recruitment of CD11c+ Conventional Dendritic Cells Into the Inflamed Murine Cornea. (Full text)

The Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 Mediates Recruitment of CD11c+ Conventional Dendritic Cells Into the Inflamed Murine Cornea. The cornea contains distinct populations of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including conventional dendritic cells (cDCs). Little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in cDCs homing and recruitment into the naïve and inflamed cornea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of CXCR4 and its ligand CXCL12 in the murine cornea and its role in cDC (...) migration during corneal inflammation.The expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12 in naïve and suture-inflamed murine corneas was assessed by whole-mount staining, flow cytometry, and quantitative PCR. The role of CXCR4 in recruitment into inflamed corneas was investigated using adoptive transfer of cDCs blocked with neutralizing antibody against CXCR4.We show the chemokine receptor CXCR4 to be expressed on 51.7% and 64.8% of total corneal CD11c+ cDCs, equating to 98.6 ± 12.5 cells/mm2 in the peripheral and 64.7

2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

117. Corneal higher-order aberrations of the anterior surface, posterior surface, and total cornea after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE): high myopia versus mild to moderate myopia. (Full text)

Corneal higher-order aberrations of the anterior surface, posterior surface, and total cornea after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE): high myopia versus mild to moderate myopia. To investigate corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) of the anterior surface, posterior surface, and total cornea after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in high myopic and mild to moderate myopic patients.This retrospective study included 197 eyes (101 patients) undergoing SMILE surgery (...) . According to the preoperative spherical equivalent (SE), treated eyes were divided into two groups: a high myopic group (more than - 6.0 D, Group H) and a mild to moderate myopic group (less than - 6.0 D, Group M). Corneal HOAs of the anterior surface, posterior surface, and total cornea were measured using a Scheimpflug camera preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Pearson's correlation analysis was conducted to determine relationships between corneal aberrations and the SE.There were

2018 BMC Ophthalmology

118. Donor, Recipient, and Operative Factors Associated With Increased Endothelial Cell Loss in the Cornea Preservation Time Study. (Full text)

Donor, Recipient, and Operative Factors Associated With Increased Endothelial Cell Loss in the Cornea Preservation Time Study. Determining factors associated with endothelial cell loss after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) could improve long-term graft survival.To evaluate the associations of donor, recipient, and operative factors with endothelial cell density (ECD) 3 years after DSAEK in the Cornea Preservation Time Study.This cohort study was a secondary (...) analysis of data collected in a multicenter, double-masked, randomized clinical trial. Forty US clinical sites with 70 surgeons participated, with donor corneas provided by 23 US eye banks. Individuals undergoing DSAEK for Fuchs dystrophy or pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema were included.The DSAEK procedure, with random assignment of a donor cornea with a preservation time of 0 to 7 days or 8 to 14 days.Endothelial cell density at 3 years as determined by a reading center from eye bank and clinical

2018 JAMA ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

119. The Effect of Aging on Nerve Morphology and Substance P Expression in Mouse and Human Corneas. (Full text)

The Effect of Aging on Nerve Morphology and Substance P Expression in Mouse and Human Corneas. Aging impairs corneal nerve density and sensitivity. Substance P (SP), a neuropeptide secreted by sensory nerves, regulates nerve morphology and nociception. Here, we investigate the relationship between aging, nerve morphology, and SP expression in mouse and human corneas.SP levels in mouse corneas (wild type and substance P-knockout) and human corneas and tears were quantified with an ELISA assay (...) . Corneal total nerve length (TNL) was measured with whole-mount β3-tubulin immunofluorescence in mouse and in vivo laser corneal confocal microscopy in humans. SP and β3-tubulin stained cross-sections were used to assess the colocalization of SP and nerves in human and mouse corneas. Ocular surface nociception was assessed with a wiping test in mice.SP colocalizes with sub-basal neurons in mice and humans. In WT mice, SP levels decrease with age (P = 0.0045, 8 vs. 52 weeks; P = 0.004, 26 vs. 52 weeks

2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

120. Outcomes of complex Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty performed by cornea fellows. (Full text)

Outcomes of complex Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty performed by cornea fellows. A major obstacle that academic institutions face is the steep learning curve for cornea fellows initially learning to perform Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty (DSEK). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of complex DSEK performed by cornea fellow supervised by an attending surgeon at an academic institution.Patients who underwent a complex DSEK procedure performed by a cornea (...) fellow during the years 2009-2013 were included. All the surgeries were supervised by the same cornea attending. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Charts were reviewed for demographic data, intraoperative and postoperative complications and clinical outcomes. Corneal graft survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis.Fifty-seven eyes of 55 patients (mean age 77.5 ± 8.5 years) were included in the study with a mean follow-up time of 16.4 ± 15.6 months. Previous graft failure

2018 BMC Ophthalmology

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