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81. Biomechanics and Structure of the Cornea: Implications and Association with Corneal Disorders. (Abstract)

Biomechanics and Structure of the Cornea: Implications and Association with Corneal Disorders. Recent studies have shown that alterations in corneal biomechanical properties are associated with corneal pathologies, particularly corneal ectasia. Moreover, these alterations may have implications with regard to the outcomes of therapeutic modalities and corneal refractive surgeries. We address corneal anatomy and its relevance to corneal biomechanical characteristics, as well as ocular (...) and systemic conditions associated with changes in corneal biomechanics.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 Survey of Ophthalmology

82. Improved High-Frequency Ultrasound Corneal Biometric Accuracy by Micrometer-Resolution Acoustic-Property Maps of the Cornea Full Text available with Trip Pro

Improved High-Frequency Ultrasound Corneal Biometric Accuracy by Micrometer-Resolution Acoustic-Property Maps of the Cornea Mapping of epithelial thickness (ET) is useful for detection of keratoconus, a disease characterized by corneal thinning and bulging in which epithelial thinning occurs over the apex. In prior clinical studies, optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of ET were systematically thinner than those obtained by 40-MHz high-frequency ultrasound (HFU) where a constant (...) speed of sound (c) of 1636 m/s was used for all corneal layers. The purpose of this work was to study the acoustic properties, that is, c, acoustic impedance (Z), and attenuation (α) of the corneal epithelium and stroma independently using a scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) to investigate the discrepancy between OCT and HFU estimates of ET.Twelve unfixed pig corneas were snap-frozen and 6-μm sections were scanned using a custom-built SAM with an F-1.08, 500-MHz transducer and a 264-MHz bandwidth

2018 Translational vision science & technology

83. Corneal higher-order aberrations of the anterior surface, posterior surface, and total cornea after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE): high myopia versus mild to moderate myopia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Corneal higher-order aberrations of the anterior surface, posterior surface, and total cornea after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE): high myopia versus mild to moderate myopia. To investigate corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) of the anterior surface, posterior surface, and total cornea after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in high myopic and mild to moderate myopic patients.This retrospective study included 197 eyes (101 patients) undergoing SMILE surgery (...) . According to the preoperative spherical equivalent (SE), treated eyes were divided into two groups: a high myopic group (more than - 6.0 D, Group H) and a mild to moderate myopic group (less than - 6.0 D, Group M). Corneal HOAs of the anterior surface, posterior surface, and total cornea were measured using a Scheimpflug camera preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Pearson's correlation analysis was conducted to determine relationships between corneal aberrations and the SE.There were

2018 BMC Ophthalmology

84. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Corneal Epithelial Thickness Mapping with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal and Diseased Cornea Eyes. (Abstract)

Repeatability and Reproducibility of Corneal Epithelial Thickness Mapping with Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Normal and Diseased Cornea Eyes. To evaluate the performance of the epithelial thickness mapping (ETM) of the iVue spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) device (Optovue Inc, Fremont, California, USA) in normal and diseased cornea eyes.Reliability and validity analysis.Sixty eyes of 60 subjects were recruited for the study, which included normal subjects (...) variability for both groups. Repeatability and reproducibility were similar in all subgroups of cornea patients, excluding the DES group, for which reproducibility was significantly lower (range 3.2%-5.5% for DES patients and 1.1%-2.9% for normal subjects).The iVue SD-OCT provides good corneal ETM repeatability and reproducibility in normal and diseased cornea eyes through all map zones.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 American Journal of Ophthalmology

85. Corneal Tear Film Imaging of the Cornea Before and After Restasis Therapy

Corneal Tear Film Imaging of the Cornea Before and After Restasis Therapy Corneal Tear Film Imaging of the Cornea Before and After Restasis Therapy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Corneal (...) Title: Corneal Tear Film Imaging of the Cornea Before and After Restasis Therapy Estimated Study Start Date : January 30, 2018 Estimated Primary Completion Date : May 30, 2018 Estimated Study Completion Date : December 30, 2018 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: available for: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: DES treated patients This single group of patients is imaged by the Tear Film Imager (TFI) device before and after

2018 Clinical Trials

86. Corneal Scarring and Hyperopic Shift After Corneal Cross-linking for Corneal Ectasia After SMILE. (Abstract)

Corneal Scarring and Hyperopic Shift After Corneal Cross-linking for Corneal Ectasia After SMILE. To report a case of severe corneal scarring and hyperopic shift after corneal cross-linking (CXL) for the treatment of ectasia following small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE).Case report and literature review.A 35-year-old man was referred with severe unilateral corneal haze that developed after CXL. The patient had undergone SMILE 4 years earlier in both eyes. Nineteen months postoperatively (...) , the patient presented with bilateral decrease in vision and corneal topography revealed corneal ectasia in the right eye. CXL was performed in the right eye and a deep stromal haze was observed 1 year later. Comparative maps showed progressive corneal thinning with corresponding flattening that induced hypermetropization and astigmatism.CXL after SMILE in this original case resulted in severe deep corneal haze and corneal flattening with hyperopic shift. [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(11):779-782.].Copyright

2018 Journal of Refractive Surgery

87. Corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor in pellucid marginal corneal degeneration Full Text available with Trip Pro

Corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor in pellucid marginal corneal degeneration 29988910 2018 11 14 2452-2325 30 2 2018 Jun Journal of current ophthalmology J Curr Ophthalmol Corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor in pellucid marginal corneal degeneration. 187 10.1016/j.joco.2017.12.002 Sedaghat Mohamad Reza MR Cornea Research Center, Khatam-Al-Anbia Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University

2018 Journal of current ophthalmology

88. Differences in Posterior Corneal Features Between Normal Corneas and Subclinical Keratoconus. (Abstract)

Differences in Posterior Corneal Features Between Normal Corneas and Subclinical Keratoconus. To compare posterior corneal features and their discriminating power for differentiating normal corneas from subclinical keratoconus using the Placido dual-Scheimpflug analyzer.Patients were retrospectively included in the study. The preoperative normal right eyes of 79 patients imaged with a Placido dual-Scheimpflug system and with a stable postoperative LASIK follow-up of a minimum of 36 months were (...) included in the normal group and were compared to 39 contralateral topographically normal eyes with clinically evident keratoconus in the fellow eye. The posterior surface variables measured were categorized according to the feature of the corneal shape they were characterizing (curvature, elevation, asymmetry, and eccentricity) and compared between the two groups using the Student's two-sample t test. The discriminating ability of the posterior surface variables was compared by receiver operator

2018 Journal of Refractive Surgery

89. Reappraisal of the suitability of corneas from bacteremic donors for use in corneal transplants. (Abstract)

Reappraisal of the suitability of corneas from bacteremic donors for use in corneal transplants. This study examined whether corneas from bacteremic donors could be used for corneal transplant.Corneas donated to the National Eye Bank of Taiwan between 1 January 2014 and 30 June 2017 were included in this study. All the corneas had corneoscleral rim cultures during the retrieval process and were hypothermic preserved in the Optisol-GS storage medium. A microbial work-up flow chart was used (...) for the sterility check of all grafts. Bacteremic donors were defined as those whose last blood culture before corneal donation was positive. The microbial contamination rates, the endothelial cell densities, the tissue utility rates and early complications after transplants were compared between the corneas from bacteremic versus non-bacteremic donors.697 corneas from 356 donors were analysed, 70 of which were from bacteremic donors. The microbial contamination rates of the corneas from bacteremic and non

2018 British Journal of Ophthalmology

90. Semaphorin3A induces nerve regeneration in the adult cornea-a switch from its repulsive role in development. Full Text available with Trip Pro

between both treatments. These effects were replicated in vivo, where thy1-YFP neurofluorescent mice subjected to cornea epithelium debridement and receiving intrastromal pellet implantation containing Sema3A showed increased corneal nerve regeneration than those receiving pellets with vehicle. In adult PNS neurons, Sema3A is a potent inducer of neuronal growth in vitro and cornea nerve regeneration in vivo. Our data indicates a functional switch for the role of Sema3A in PNS neurons where the well (...) Semaphorin3A induces nerve regeneration in the adult cornea-a switch from its repulsive role in development. The peripheral sensory nerves that innervate the cornea can be easily damaged by trauma, surgery, infection or diabetes. Several growth factors and axon guidance molecules, such as Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) are upregulated upon cornea injury. Nerves can regenerate after injury but do not recover their original density and patterning. Sema3A is a well known axon guidance and growth cone

2018 PLoS ONE

91. Corneal endothelium features in Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy: A preliminary 3D anterior segment optical coherence tomography study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

examination was performed, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit lamp examination for subjective grading of FECD and corneal endothelial specular microscopy. A 512x128 AS-OCT cube centered on the corneal apex was performed, and then the inner surface of the cornea was visualized and analyzed individually.Overall, the study participants were adults (mean age was 57.35 ± 8.45 years [mean ± SD] 80% female) with a BCVA ranged from 1.3 to 0 LogMAR. The OCT analysis disclosed three different (...) Corneal endothelium features in Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy: A preliminary 3D anterior segment optical coherence tomography study. To evaluate the feasibility of 3D anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) for the detection of corneal endothelial features in patients with Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD).Twenty patients with clinical diagnosis of FECD (group A), and 20 control subjects (group B) were enrolled. In all patients a complete ophthalmological

2018 PLoS ONE

92. A case of hypertrophic herpes simplex virus affecting the eyelid and cornea masquerading as IgG4-related disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

A case of hypertrophic herpes simplex virus affecting the eyelid and cornea masquerading as IgG4-related disease To report a case of hypertrophic herpes simplex virus (HSV) of the eyelid and cornea masquerading as IgG4-related disease.A 37-year old African American female with a past medical history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and a recent history of treated genital herpes, presented with an ulcerative lesion of the left upper and lower (...) eyelids, and severe ocular inflammation with symblepharon. Initially, eyelid biopsy revealed findings consistent with IgG4-related disease, and the patient was treated with high dose oral prednisone. After one week of therapy, there was no improvement in the patient's symptoms, and she subsequently developed a corneal epithelial defect which progressed to chronic ulceration. Repeat biopsy and corneal cultures revealed herpes simplex virus type 2. The patient was treated with high dose acyclovir

2017 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

93. Transient viscous response of the human cornea probed with the Surface Force Apparatus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Transient viscous response of the human cornea probed with the Surface Force Apparatus. Knowledge of the biomechanical properties of the human cornea is crucial for understanding the development of corneal diseases and impact of surgical treatments (e.g., corneal laser surgery, corneal cross-linking). Using a Surface Force Apparatus we investigated the transient viscous response of the anterior cornea from donor human eyes compressed between macroscopic crossed cylinders. Corneal biomechanics (...) as the deformation was increased above a strain level of about 10%, indicating that the interstitial space between fibrils of the corneal stromal matrix was reduced under the effect of strong compression. This effect may play a major role in determining the observed rate-dependent non-linear stress-strain response of the anterior cornea, which underlies the shape and optical properties of the tissue.

2018 PLoS ONE

94. Paradox response of cornea to different color intensities of visible light: An experimental study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Paradox response of cornea to different color intensities of visible light: An experimental study. The technological development is associated with human daily life and had an impact on its social life. Due to the difficulty of estimating the daily exposure to light; research is needed to determine how much natural and man-made lights could affect the cornea. Visible light radiation could have damaging effect on the human eye; the type and degree of damage are related to the duration (...) and the cumulative exposure as well as to the intensity of the rays. There are noticeable increases in using electronic devices and colored lamps in decoration and toys as well, without any specific regulation. We studied the effect of such human activity on the corneal structure and the vibrational characteristics of corneal tissue by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. To achieve these goals, Chinchilla rabbits were exposed to two different lux of blue, green or red color lamps. The results indicate

2018 PLoS ONE

95. Gene expression in the corneal endothelium of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy patients with and without expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in TCF4. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Gene expression in the corneal endothelium of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy patients with and without expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in TCF4. Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD) is a late onset, autosomal dominant eye disease that can lead to loss of vision. Expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat in the third intron of the transcription factor 4 (TCF4) gene is highly associated with FECD. However, only about 75% of FECD patients in the northern European population possess (...) an expansion of this repeat. The remaining FECD cases appear to be associated with variants in other genes. To better understand the pathophysiology of this disease, we compared gene expression profiles of corneal endothelium from FECD patients with an expanded trinucleotide repeat (RE+) to those that do not have a repeat expansion (RE-). Comparative analysis of these two cohorts showed widespread RNA mis-splicing in RE+, but not in RE- samples. Quantitatively, we identified 39 genes in which expression

2018 PLoS ONE

96. Clinical Commissioning Policy: Keratoprosthesis for corneal blindness

Clinical Commissioning Policy: Keratoprosthesis for corneal blindness NHS England » Clinical Commissioning Policy: Keratoprosthesis for corneal blindness (all ages) Search Search Menu Clinical Commissioning Policy: Keratoprosthesis for corneal blindness (all ages) Document first published: 6 July 2018 Page updated: 6 July 2018 Topic: , Publication type: This policy document outlines the arrangements for funding of treatment for corneal blindness. Document PDF 289 KB 15 pages

2018 NHS England

97. Corneal superficial injury: What else might it be?

Corneal superficial injury: What else might it be? Differential diagnosis | Diagnosis | Corneal superficial injury | CKS | NICE Search CKS… Menu Differential diagnosis Corneal superficial injury: What else might it be? Last revised in June 2017 What else might it be? There are many causes of red and/or painful eye, some of which are serious or sight threatening and require same day assessment by ophthalmology — for further information, see the CKS topic on . The differential diagnosis (...) for superficial corneal injury includes: Serious conditions such as: Penetrating eye injury. Acute angle-closure glaucoma. Uveitis. Optic neuritis. Iritis. Infective keratitis – bacterial, fungal and herpetic. Corneal ulcer. Other eye conditions such as: Recurrent erosion syndrome. Conjunctivitis. Dry eye syndrome. Trichiasis. Keratoconjunctivitis. Exposure keratopathy. Basis for recommendation The information on the differential diagnosis of superficial corneal injury is based on the clinical guidelines

2018 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

98. Corneal superficial injury

Corneal superficial injury Corneal superficial injury | Topics A to Z | CKS | NICE Search CKS… Menu Corneal superficial injury Corneal superficial injury Last revised in June 2017 Superficial corneal injuries are non-penetrating injuries affecting the outermost layer of the cornea. Diagnosis Management Prescribing information Background information Corneal superficial injury: Summary Superficial corneal injuries are non-penetrating injuries affecting the outermost layer of the cornea. Corneal (...) abrasions are defects in the epithelial surface of the cornea — most heal in within 1–2 days. Superficial corneal injuries typically present with sudden onset pain, discomfort or foreign body sensation of the eye and tearing. The mechanism of injury and material involved should be determined, of particular importance are injuries due to chemicals, high-velocity foreign bodies or sharp objects. There is usually a history of a precipitating event such as: An object striking the eye. A foreign body

2018 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

99. Cenegermin (Oxervate) - Treatment of moderate (persistent epithelial defect) or severe (corneal ulcer) neurotrophic keratitis in adults

Cenegermin (Oxervate) - Treatment of moderate (persistent epithelial defect) or severe (corneal ulcer) neurotrophic keratitis in adults Published 08 October 2018 . Statement of advice SMC2124 cenegermin 20micrograms/ml eye drops, solution (Oxervate®) Dompé UK Ltd In confidence 7 September 2018 ADVICE: in the absence of a submission from the holder of the marketing authorisation cenegermin (Oxervate®) is not recommended for use within NHSScotland. Indication under review: Treatment of moderate (...) (persistent epithelial defect) or severe (corneal ulcer) neurotrophic keratitis in adults. The holder of the marketing authorisation has not made a submission to SMC regarding this product in this indication. As a result we cannot recommend its use within NHSScotland. Advice context: No part of this advice may be used without the whole of the advice being quoted in full. This advice represents the view of the Scottish Medicines Consortium and was arrived at after careful consideration and evaluation

2018 Scottish Medicines Consortium

100. Effects of chalazia on corneal astigmatism : Large-sized chalazia in middle upper eyelids compress the cornea and induce the corneal astigmatism. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of chalazia on corneal astigmatism : Large-sized chalazia in middle upper eyelids compress the cornea and induce the corneal astigmatism. A chalazion is a common eyelid disease that causes eye morbidity due to inflammation and cosmetic disfigurement. Corneal topographic changes are important factors in corneal refractive surgery, intraocular lens power calculations for cataract surgery, and visual acuity assessments. However, the effects of chalazia on corneal astigmatism have not been (...) thoroughly investigated. The changes in corneal astigmatism according to chalazion size and location is necessary for better outcome of ocular surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate changes in corneal astigmatism according to chalazion size and location.In this cross-sectional study, a total of 44 eyes from 33 patients were included in the chalazion group and 70 eyes from 46 patients comprised the control group. Chalazia were classified according to location and size. An autokeratorefractometer

2017 BMC Ophthalmology

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