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41. Biomechanics and Structure of the Cornea: Implications and Association with Corneal Disorders. (Abstract)

Biomechanics and Structure of the Cornea: Implications and Association with Corneal Disorders. Recent studies have shown that alterations in corneal biomechanical properties are associated with corneal pathologies, particularly corneal ectasia. Moreover, these alterations may have implications with regard to the outcomes of therapeutic modalities and corneal refractive surgeries. We address corneal anatomy and its relevance to corneal biomechanical characteristics, as well as ocular (...) and systemic conditions associated with changes in corneal biomechanics.Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 Survey of Ophthalmology

42. Long-term Clinical Outcomes of Phototherapeutic Keratectomy in Corneas With Granular Corneal Dystrophy Type 2 Exacerbated After LASIK. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Long-term Clinical Outcomes of Phototherapeutic Keratectomy in Corneas With Granular Corneal Dystrophy Type 2 Exacerbated After LASIK. To investigate the long-term clinical outcomes and recurrence patterns of phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) in patients with granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2) exacerbated after LASIK.Fifty-one patients (76 eyes) with GCD2 exacerbated after LASIK who underwent PTK between January 2007 and February 2017 were included. Participants underwent ophthalmic (...) of and significant recurrence.PTK improved corneal transparency and visual acuity in patients with GCD2 exacerbated after LASIK, although GCD2 eventually recurred. PTK with flap removal was superior to PTK with flap conservation in terms of visual acuity, recurrence, and complications. [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(2):132-139.].Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

2018 Journal of Refractive Surgery

43. Trends in corneal transplantation from 2001 to 2016 in Germany: A report of the DOG-Section Cornea and its Keratoplasty Registry. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Trends in corneal transplantation from 2001 to 2016 in Germany: A report of the DOG-Section Cornea and its Keratoplasty Registry. The purpose of this retrospective panel study was to provide an overview of absolute numbers and of trends in the types of and indications for corneal transplantation in Germany from 2001 to 2016.A questionnaire about absolute numbers, types of transplantation, and indications was sent to 111 ophthalmologic departments in Germany, out of which 94 (85%) provided (...) their data.Since the year 2001, the number of corneal transplantations has increased by 1.5-fold, from 4730 penetrating keratoplasties (PKPs) in 2001 to 7325 penetrating and lamellar keratoplasties in 2016. The shift from penetrating to lamellar procedures began in 2006. In 2014, lamellar procedures (231 [4%] anterior and 2883 [49%] posterior lamellar keratoplasties) surpassed PKPs (2721, 47%) for the first time. Main indications for keratoplasty in Germany (2016) are Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (46

2018 American Journal of Ophthalmology

44. Changes in shape and astigmatism of total, anterior, and posterior cornea after long versus short clear corneal incision cataract surgery. (Abstract)

Changes in shape and astigmatism of total, anterior, and posterior cornea after long versus short clear corneal incision cataract surgery. To compare changes in the shape and astigmatism of the total, anterior, and posterior cornea between eyes with long-length clear corneal incisions (CCIs) and eyes with short-length CCIs in cataract surgery.Hayashi Eye Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan.Prospective case series.Both eyes of patients having phacoemulsification with temporal CCIs were randomized to have (...) a long-length (≥1.75 mm) or short-length (<1.75 mm) CCI. Corneal astigmatic changes were decomposed to vertical/horizontal (Jackson cross-cylinder, axes at 180 degrees and 90 degrees [J0]) and oblique changes (Jackson cross-cylinder, axes at 45 degrees and 135 degrees [J45]) using power vector analysis. Corneal shape changes were assessed using the average of the difference map on videokeratography 2 days and 2, 4, and 8 weeks postoperatively.The mean J0 and J45 values of the total cornea in the 120

2018 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

45. Corneal Tear Film Imaging of the Cornea Before and After Restasis Therapy

Corneal Tear Film Imaging of the Cornea Before and After Restasis Therapy Corneal Tear Film Imaging of the Cornea Before and After Restasis Therapy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Corneal (...) Title: Corneal Tear Film Imaging of the Cornea Before and After Restasis Therapy Estimated Study Start Date : January 30, 2018 Estimated Primary Completion Date : May 30, 2018 Estimated Study Completion Date : December 30, 2018 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: available for: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: DES treated patients This single group of patients is imaged by the Tear Film Imager (TFI) device before and after

2018 Clinical Trials

46. Corneal Scarring and Hyperopic Shift After Corneal Cross-linking for Corneal Ectasia After SMILE. (Abstract)

Corneal Scarring and Hyperopic Shift After Corneal Cross-linking for Corneal Ectasia After SMILE. To report a case of severe corneal scarring and hyperopic shift after corneal cross-linking (CXL) for the treatment of ectasia following small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE).Case report and literature review.A 35-year-old man was referred with severe unilateral corneal haze that developed after CXL. The patient had undergone SMILE 4 years earlier in both eyes. Nineteen months postoperatively (...) , the patient presented with bilateral decrease in vision and corneal topography revealed corneal ectasia in the right eye. CXL was performed in the right eye and a deep stromal haze was observed 1 year later. Comparative maps showed progressive corneal thinning with corresponding flattening that induced hypermetropization and astigmatism.CXL after SMILE in this original case resulted in severe deep corneal haze and corneal flattening with hyperopic shift. [J Refract Surg. 2018;34(11):779-782.].Copyright

2018 Journal of Refractive Surgery

47. Corneal higher-order aberrations of the anterior surface, posterior surface, and total cornea after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE): high myopia versus mild to moderate myopia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Corneal higher-order aberrations of the anterior surface, posterior surface, and total cornea after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE): high myopia versus mild to moderate myopia. To investigate corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) of the anterior surface, posterior surface, and total cornea after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in high myopic and mild to moderate myopic patients.This retrospective study included 197 eyes (101 patients) undergoing SMILE surgery (...) . According to the preoperative spherical equivalent (SE), treated eyes were divided into two groups: a high myopic group (more than - 6.0 D, Group H) and a mild to moderate myopic group (less than - 6.0 D, Group M). Corneal HOAs of the anterior surface, posterior surface, and total cornea were measured using a Scheimpflug camera preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Pearson's correlation analysis was conducted to determine relationships between corneal aberrations and the SE.There were

2018 BMC Ophthalmology

48. Reappraisal of the suitability of corneas from bacteremic donors for use in corneal transplants. (Abstract)

Reappraisal of the suitability of corneas from bacteremic donors for use in corneal transplants. This study examined whether corneas from bacteremic donors could be used for corneal transplant.Corneas donated to the National Eye Bank of Taiwan between 1 January 2014 and 30 June 2017 were included in this study. All the corneas had corneoscleral rim cultures during the retrieval process and were hypothermic preserved in the Optisol-GS storage medium. A microbial work-up flow chart was used (...) for the sterility check of all grafts. Bacteremic donors were defined as those whose last blood culture before corneal donation was positive. The microbial contamination rates, the endothelial cell densities, the tissue utility rates and early complications after transplants were compared between the corneas from bacteremic versus non-bacteremic donors.697 corneas from 356 donors were analysed, 70 of which were from bacteremic donors. The microbial contamination rates of the corneas from bacteremic and non

2018 British Journal of Ophthalmology

49. An Investigation of the Effects of Riboflavin Concentration on the Efficacy of Corneal Cross-Linking Using an Enzymatic Resistance Model in Porcine Corneas. Full Text available with Trip Pro

An Investigation of the Effects of Riboflavin Concentration on the Efficacy of Corneal Cross-Linking Using an Enzymatic Resistance Model in Porcine Corneas. To investigate riboflavin concentration on enzymatic resistance following corneal cross-linking (CXL).Ninety-six porcine eyes were divided into five groups in two treatment runs. Group 1 remained untreated. Group 2 received riboflavin 0.05%, group 3 riboflavin 0.1%, group 4 riboflavin 0.2%, and group 5 riboflavin 0.3%. Treated eyes (...) underwent CXL with ultraviolet A at 9 mW/cm2 for 10 minutes. Eight-millimeter discs from each cornea were submerged in pepsin digest solution. In the first run, disc diameters were measured daily. After 10 days, dry weights were recorded from five samples in each group. In the second run, dry weights were recorded in five samples in each group at 10 and 20 days.CXL-treated corneas took longer to digest than untreated (P < 0.001). Although eyes treated with higher riboflavin concentrations generally took

2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

50. Modeling Diabetic Corneal Neuropathy in a 3D In Vitro Cornea System Full Text available with Trip Pro

Modeling Diabetic Corneal Neuropathy in a 3D In Vitro Cornea System Diabetes mellitus is a disease caused by innate or acquired insulin deficiency, resulting in altered glucose metabolism and high blood glucose levels. Chronic hyperglycemia is linked to development of several ocular pathologies affecting the anterior segment, including diabetic corneal neuropathy and keratopathy, neovascular glaucoma, edema, and cataracts leading to significant visual defects. Due to increasing disease (...) prevalence, related medical care costs, and visual impairment resulting from diabetes, a need has arisen to devise alternative systems to study molecular mechanisms involved in disease onset and progression. In our current study, we applied a novel 3D in vitro model of the human cornea comprising of epithelial, stromal, and neuronal components cultured in silk scaffolds to study the pathological effects of hyperglycemia on development of diabetic corneal neuropathy. Specifically, exposure to sustained

2018 Scientific reports

51. Corneal Tissue Engineering: An In Vitro Model of the Stromal-nerve Interactions of the Human Cornea Full Text available with Trip Pro

Corneal Tissue Engineering: An In Vitro Model of the Stromal-nerve Interactions of the Human Cornea Tissue engineering has gained substantial recognition due to the high demand for human cornea replacements with an estimated 10 million people worldwide suffering from corneal vision loss1. To address the demand for viable human corneas, significant progress in three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering has been made2,3,4. These cornea models range from simple monolayer systems to multilayered (...) models, leading to 3D full-thickness corneal equivalents2. However, the use of a 3D tissue-engineered cornea in the context of in vitro disease models studied to date lacks resemblance to the multilayered 3D corneal tissue structure, function, and the networking of different cell types (i.e., nerve, epithelium, stroma, and endothelium)2,3. In addition, the demand for in vitro cornea tissue models has increased in an attempt to reduce animal testing for pharmaceutical products. Thus, more

2018 Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE

52. Corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor in pellucid marginal corneal degeneration Full Text available with Trip Pro

Corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor in pellucid marginal corneal degeneration 29988910 2018 11 14 2452-2325 30 2 2018 Jun Journal of current ophthalmology J Curr Ophthalmol Corneal hysteresis and corneal resistance factor in pellucid marginal corneal degeneration. 187 10.1016/j.joco.2017.12.002 Sedaghat Mohamad Reza MR Cornea Research Center, Khatam-Al-Anbia Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University

2018 Journal of current ophthalmology

53. Cellular therapy of the corneal stroma: a new type of corneal surgery for keratoconus and corneal dystrophies Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cellular therapy of the corneal stroma: a new type of corneal surgery for keratoconus and corneal dystrophies Cellular therapy of the corneal stroma, with either ocular or extraocular stem cells, has been gaining a lot of interest over the last decade. Multiple publications from different research groups are showing its potential benefits in relation to its capacity to improve or alleviate corneal scars, improve corneal transparency in metabolic diseases by enhancing the catabolism (...) to ethical implications, the discovery of the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) has opened a new and very promising field for future research as they are pluripotent cells with the capacity to theoretically differentiate into any cell type, with the special advantage that they are obtained from adult differentiated cells. Cellular delivery into the corneal stroma has been experimentally assayed in vivo in multiple ways: systemic versus local injections with or without a carrier. Encouraging

2018 Eye and Vision

54. High-intensity corneal collagen crosslinking with riboflavin and UVA in rat cornea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

High-intensity corneal collagen crosslinking with riboflavin and UVA in rat cornea. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) halts human corneal ectasias progression by increasing stromal mechanical stiffness. Although some reports describe that this procedure is effective in dealing with some infectious and immunologic corneal thinning diseases, there is a need for more animal models whose corneal thickness more closely resemble those occurring in these patients. To meet this need, we describe (...) here high-intensity protocols that are safe and effective for obtaining CXL in rat corneas. Initially, a range of potentially effective UVA doses were evaluated based on their effectiveness in increasing tissue enzymatic resistance to dissolution. At UVA doses higher than a threshold level of 0.54 J/cm2, resistance to enzymatic digestion increased relative to that in non-irradiated corneas. Based on the theoretical threshold CXL dose, a CXL regimen was established in which the UVA tissue irradiance

2017 PLoS ONE

55. A case of hypertrophic herpes simplex virus affecting the eyelid and cornea masquerading as IgG4-related disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

A case of hypertrophic herpes simplex virus affecting the eyelid and cornea masquerading as IgG4-related disease To report a case of hypertrophic herpes simplex virus (HSV) of the eyelid and cornea masquerading as IgG4-related disease.A 37-year old African American female with a past medical history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and a recent history of treated genital herpes, presented with an ulcerative lesion of the left upper and lower (...) eyelids, and severe ocular inflammation with symblepharon. Initially, eyelid biopsy revealed findings consistent with IgG4-related disease, and the patient was treated with high dose oral prednisone. After one week of therapy, there was no improvement in the patient's symptoms, and she subsequently developed a corneal epithelial defect which progressed to chronic ulceration. Repeat biopsy and corneal cultures revealed herpes simplex virus type 2. The patient was treated with high dose acyclovir

2017 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

56. Paradox response of cornea to different color intensities of visible light: An experimental study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Paradox response of cornea to different color intensities of visible light: An experimental study. The technological development is associated with human daily life and had an impact on its social life. Due to the difficulty of estimating the daily exposure to light; research is needed to determine how much natural and man-made lights could affect the cornea. Visible light radiation could have damaging effect on the human eye; the type and degree of damage are related to the duration (...) and the cumulative exposure as well as to the intensity of the rays. There are noticeable increases in using electronic devices and colored lamps in decoration and toys as well, without any specific regulation. We studied the effect of such human activity on the corneal structure and the vibrational characteristics of corneal tissue by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. To achieve these goals, Chinchilla rabbits were exposed to two different lux of blue, green or red color lamps. The results indicate

2018 PLoS ONE

57. Transient viscous response of the human cornea probed with the Surface Force Apparatus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Transient viscous response of the human cornea probed with the Surface Force Apparatus. Knowledge of the biomechanical properties of the human cornea is crucial for understanding the development of corneal diseases and impact of surgical treatments (e.g., corneal laser surgery, corneal cross-linking). Using a Surface Force Apparatus we investigated the transient viscous response of the anterior cornea from donor human eyes compressed between macroscopic crossed cylinders. Corneal biomechanics (...) as the deformation was increased above a strain level of about 10%, indicating that the interstitial space between fibrils of the corneal stromal matrix was reduced under the effect of strong compression. This effect may play a major role in determining the observed rate-dependent non-linear stress-strain response of the anterior cornea, which underlies the shape and optical properties of the tissue.

2018 PLoS ONE

58. Gene expression in the corneal endothelium of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy patients with and without expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in TCF4. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Gene expression in the corneal endothelium of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy patients with and without expansion of a trinucleotide repeat in TCF4. Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD) is a late onset, autosomal dominant eye disease that can lead to loss of vision. Expansion of a CTG trinucleotide repeat in the third intron of the transcription factor 4 (TCF4) gene is highly associated with FECD. However, only about 75% of FECD patients in the northern European population possess (...) an expansion of this repeat. The remaining FECD cases appear to be associated with variants in other genes. To better understand the pathophysiology of this disease, we compared gene expression profiles of corneal endothelium from FECD patients with an expanded trinucleotide repeat (RE+) to those that do not have a repeat expansion (RE-). Comparative analysis of these two cohorts showed widespread RNA mis-splicing in RE+, but not in RE- samples. Quantitatively, we identified 39 genes in which expression

2018 PLoS ONE

59. Semaphorin3A induces nerve regeneration in the adult cornea-a switch from its repulsive role in development. Full Text available with Trip Pro

between both treatments. These effects were replicated in vivo, where thy1-YFP neurofluorescent mice subjected to cornea epithelium debridement and receiving intrastromal pellet implantation containing Sema3A showed increased corneal nerve regeneration than those receiving pellets with vehicle. In adult PNS neurons, Sema3A is a potent inducer of neuronal growth in vitro and cornea nerve regeneration in vivo. Our data indicates a functional switch for the role of Sema3A in PNS neurons where the well (...) Semaphorin3A induces nerve regeneration in the adult cornea-a switch from its repulsive role in development. The peripheral sensory nerves that innervate the cornea can be easily damaged by trauma, surgery, infection or diabetes. Several growth factors and axon guidance molecules, such as Semaphorin3A (Sema3A) are upregulated upon cornea injury. Nerves can regenerate after injury but do not recover their original density and patterning. Sema3A is a well known axon guidance and growth cone

2018 PLoS ONE

60. Corneal endothelium features in Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy: A preliminary 3D anterior segment optical coherence tomography study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

examination was performed, including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit lamp examination for subjective grading of FECD and corneal endothelial specular microscopy. A 512x128 AS-OCT cube centered on the corneal apex was performed, and then the inner surface of the cornea was visualized and analyzed individually.Overall, the study participants were adults (mean age was 57.35 ± 8.45 years [mean ± SD] 80% female) with a BCVA ranged from 1.3 to 0 LogMAR. The OCT analysis disclosed three different (...) Corneal endothelium features in Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy: A preliminary 3D anterior segment optical coherence tomography study. To evaluate the feasibility of 3D anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) for the detection of corneal endothelial features in patients with Fuchs' Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD).Twenty patients with clinical diagnosis of FECD (group A), and 20 control subjects (group B) were enrolled. In all patients a complete ophthalmological

2018 PLoS ONE

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