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27341. Self-inflicted corneal injuries in children with congenital corneal anaesthesia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

intellectual development. Whether the eye scratching behaviour was the primary cause of the ulceration or merely an aggravating factor, the identification of this abnormal behaviour is important in any child with idiopathic corneal ulceration, as even in the presence of congenital corneal anaesthesia the eyes heal quickly with effective splinting of the elbows. It is therefore important to test sensation of the cornea and face and to consider the possibility of self-inflicted injury in children (...) Self-inflicted corneal injuries in children with congenital corneal anaesthesia. Severe corneal ulceration related to self-inflicted injury in the presence of congenital corneal anaesthesia is described in four boys under 2 1/2 years of age. The ulcers had failed to heal until it was recognised that the children were scratching their own eyes. The application of arm splints allowed rapid healing. Although corneal ulceration is a recognised complication of congenital corneal anaesthesia

1985 The British journal of ophthalmology

27342. Blue fleck corneal iridescence: an occasional feature of Cogan's microcystic corneal dystrophy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Blue fleck corneal iridescence: an occasional feature of Cogan's microcystic corneal dystrophy. Flecks consisting of brilliant reflective blue dots and streaks were a prominent biomicroscopical feature in three patients with Cogan's microcystic corneal dystrophy. Two patients required epithelial debridement. We used the material obtained to investigate their histology and ultrastructure. A subepithelial accumulation of basement membrane-like material composed of ultrastructurally fine granules (...) was deposited in alternating layers of compaction and rarefaction. The layers lie mostly parallel to the anterior corneal surface, but in some places they are folded. Such foldings are possibly the sites of multilaminar reflection and constructive interference, giving rise to the blue iridescence.

1983 The British journal of ophthalmology

27343. Keratan sulphate and the ultrastructure of cornea and cartilage: a 'stand-in' for chondroitin sulphate in conditions of oxygen lack? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Keratan sulphate and the ultrastructure of cornea and cartilage: a 'stand-in' for chondroitin sulphate in conditions of oxygen lack? Corneas from mouse, rat and rabbit were analysed quantitatively and/or qualitatively for collagen and acid glycosaminoglycans. They were examined by light and electron microscopy, using Alcian blue and Cupromeronic blue, in critical electrolyte concentration methods, with or without digestion by hyaluronidase, chondroitinases and keratanase, for their sulphated (...) glycosaminoglycan distributions. Glycosaminoglycan patterns were very different in the three species. Mouse lacked chemically detectable keratan sulphate, which was present in considerable amounts in rat and rabbit stroma. Mouse corneal stroma proteoglycan filaments were located predominantly at the gap zone of the collagen fibrils, mainly at the d band, with few at the a and c bands. Rat and rabbit micrographs were more complicated, with many proteoglycan filaments at the a and c, as well as the d and e bands

1988 Journal of anatomy

27344. High resolution immunoelectron microscopic localization of functional domains of laminin, nidogen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan in epithelial basement membrane of mouse cornea reveals different topological orientations Full Text available with Trip Pro

High resolution immunoelectron microscopic localization of functional domains of laminin, nidogen, and heparan sulfate proteoglycan in epithelial basement membrane of mouse cornea reveals different topological orientations Thin and ultrathin cryosections of mouse cornea were labeled with affinity-purified antibodies directed against either laminin, its central segments (domain 1), the end of its long arm (domain 3), the end of one of its short arms (domain 4), nidogen, or low density heparan

1988 The Journal of cell biology

27345. A morphometric study of endothelial cells of human corneas stored in MK media and warmed at 37 degrees C. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and perimeter varied significantly between those corneas rewarmed daily and those held in cold storage for six days. SEM studies showed an intact cell monolayer with cell loss along the folds of corneal endothelium. We therefore concluded that repeated rewarming at 37 degrees C of corneas stored in MK medium at 4 degrees has a deleterious effect on cell morphology and that folds induced by swelling of corneal tissue result in endothelial cell damage with some loss. (...) A morphometric study of endothelial cells of human corneas stored in MK media and warmed at 37 degrees C. No study has yet been done to investigate the changes in endothelial cell size, perimeter, and density that may result from the warming of corneas in MK (McCarey-Kaufman) medium for specular microscopy. In the present investigation eye bank eyes were stored in MK medium at 4 degrees C and rewarmed daily for six days at 37 degrees C before specular photography of the endothelium

1988 The British journal of ophthalmology

27346. Expression of HLA antigens in the cornea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Expression of HLA antigens in the cornea. 2765433 1989 10 06 2018 11 13 0007-1161 73 8 1989 Aug The British journal of ophthalmology Br J Ophthalmol Expression of HLA antigens in the cornea. 585 Falcon M G MG eng Editorial England Br J Ophthalmol 0421041 0007-1161 0 HLA Antigens IM Cornea immunology HLA Antigens analysis Humans 1989 8 1 1989 8 1 0 1 1989 8 1 0 0 ppublish 2765433 PMC1041820 Ophthalmology. 1988 Jun;95(6):803-12 3062532

1989 The British journal of ophthalmology

27347. Relative rates of biosynthesis of collagen type I, type V and type VI in calf cornea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Relative rates of biosynthesis of collagen type I, type V and type VI in calf cornea. The biosynthesis of type I, type V and type VI collagens was studied by incubation of calf corneas in vitro with [3H]proline as a marker. Pepsin-solubilized collagen types were isolated by salt fractionation and quantified by SDS/PAGE. Expressed as proportions of the total hydroxyproline solubilized, corneal stroma comprised 75% type I, 8% type V and 17% type VI collagen. The rates of [3H]proline incorporation

1991 Biochemical Journal

27348. Excitation by irritant chemical substances of sensory afferent units in the cat's cornea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Excitation by irritant chemical substances of sensory afferent units in the cat's cornea. 1. Single-unit electrical activity was recorded from thin myelinated sensory nerve fibres innervating the cornea of deeply anaesthetized cats. 2. Based on their responses to mechanical (calibrated von Frey hairs), chemical (10 mM-acetic acid and/or 616 mM-NaCl) and thermal (ice-cold or heat up to 51 degrees C) stimuli, corneal A delta fibres were classified as polymodal nociceptors (63%), high-threshold (...) sensitization to repeated heating, most mechano-heat units developed a sensitivity to acidic stimulation. 5. Topical 0.33 mM-capsaicin excited polymodal nociceptors of the cornea; 5 min after capsaicin about 15% of these fibres were inactivated to all subsequent stimuli. In the rest of the fibres, chemical and thermal sensitivity disappeared after 0.33-3.3 mM-capsaicin, but mechanosensitivity was preserved. 6. Corneal mechanoceptors and limbal cold receptors were not affected by capsaicin (up to 33 mM). 7

1991 The Journal of physiology

27349. Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Management of the Cornea Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Management of the Cornea The cornea should be examined carefully during any ocular examination. Certain simple procedures can aid diagnosis and help the physician choose easy therapy to prevent changes in the patient's vision that can result in blindness. The use of good lighting and magnification is mandatory for better diagnosis. Corneal epithelial defects can be better defined with fluorescein staining.

1990 Canadian Family Physician

27350. Immunohistochemical detection of bFGF and TNF-alpha in the course of inflammatory angiogenesis in the mouse cornea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Immunohistochemical detection of bFGF and TNF-alpha in the course of inflammatory angiogenesis in the mouse cornea. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) have been assigned a major role in the induction of angiogenesis. By performing immunohistochemical studies of cauterized mouse corneas, the in situ distribution of bFGF and TNF-alpha in the course of inflammatory neovascularization was investigated. bFGF was found throughout the corneal epithelium

1990 The American journal of pathology

27351. Cellular events associated with inflammatory angiogenesis in the mouse cornea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cellular events associated with inflammatory angiogenesis in the mouse cornea. The aim of this study was to establish an angiogenesis model in the mouse and to define immunohistochemically the cellular events that precede angiogenesis. After chemical cauterization of the murine cornea, neovascularization was observed within 36 hours. The cellular infiltrate was analyzed by using antibodies on cryostat and paraffin sections and by histochemical staining for mast cells. It was found that neither (...) , but not with the infiltration of mature macrophages, T lymphocytes, or mast cells. This study shows that immunohistochemical analysis of cauterized murine corneas presents a useful tool for further studies on cells and cell products involved in the angiogenic process.

1991 The American journal of pathology

27352. Blockade by calcium antagonists of chemical excitation and sensitization of polymodal nociceptors in the cat's cornea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Blockade by calcium antagonists of chemical excitation and sensitization of polymodal nociceptors in the cat's cornea. 1. The possibility that a modified Ca2+ channel mediates chemical and thermal excitation of nociceptors was examined in single polymodal nociceptive fibres of the cat's cornea. 2. Ca2+ channel blockers cadmium (2.5 mM) and diltiazem (1 mM), and high external [Ca2+] (40 mM), markedly reduced nociceptive responses to topical acidic solutions (pH 4.5). 3. Decreasing the pH to 6.5 (...) did not cause excitation, but reduced the subsequent response to pH 4.5 buffer. 4. Diltiazem (1 mM), applied after repeated stimulation with stepped heating pulses (35 to 47-49 degrees C in 2 degrees C steps) decreased the impulse responses elicited by heat. The decrease in threshold to thermal stimulation produced by repeated heating was blocked by diltiazem. 5. Mechanical threshold and mechanical responsiveness of corneal polymodal nociceptors was not modified by Ca2+ antagonists or by a high

1992 The Journal of physiology

27353. Use of a bandage contact lens in perforating injuries of the cornea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Use of a bandage contact lens in perforating injuries of the cornea. Four cases of perforating corneal injuries as a result of work-related injuries are presented. All were managed with a bandage contact lens and surgical intervention was avoided. Topical pilocarpine was used to free incarcerated iris in two cases. All patients received a course of broad-spectrum systemic antibiotics, and also used topical preservative-free chloramphenicol for the duration of contact lens wear. No lens related

1992 Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine

27354. Long-term survival of endothelium following transplantation of corneas stored by organ culture. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Long-term survival of endothelium following transplantation of corneas stored by organ culture. This study reports corneal graft survival, endothelial cell changes, and visual outcome in 20 patients who received some of the first corneas stored by organ culture in the Corneal Transplant Service Eye Bank in Bristol. Mean donor age was 48 years (SD 15, n = 20) and corneas were stored for an average of 21 days (SD 7, n = 20). Preoperative endothelial cell density was 2334 cells/mm2 (SD 235, n = 18 (...) ) and this fell by 8% (SD 12) to 2158 cells/mm2 (SD 372) within the first 2 months following transplantation. In 13 patients, endothelial cell density thereafter declined exponentially with a half-life of 41 months (SD 17, n = 12; one patient excluded as an outlier). Corneas that suffered rejection episodes showed the highest rates of loss of endothelial cells. Endothelial cell loss 4 years after transplantation was 46% (SD 16, n = 12), which was similar to the postoperative decline in cell density reported

1992 The British journal of ophthalmology

27355. Toxic side effects of local anaesthetics on the human cornea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Toxic side effects of local anaesthetics on the human cornea. The cytotoxic effects of 0.5% amethocaine (tetracaine) on the human cornea were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The ultrastructural examination of epithelial cells showed damage of the cell membrane, rare-faction and loss of microvilli, deposits of amethocaine on the corneal surface and accelerated desquamation of superficial epithelial cells.

1994 The British journal of ophthalmology

27356. Application of structural analysis to the mechanical behaviour of the cornea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

the behaviour of the cornea under different loading states and to provide improved predictions of the mechanical response to disease and injury. The initial study involved laboratory tests and mathematical back analysis to determine the corneal material properties and topography. These data were then used to facilitate the construction of accurate finite-element models that are able to reliably trace the performance of cornea upon exposure to disease, injury or elevated intra-ocular pressure. The models (...) Application of structural analysis to the mechanical behaviour of the cornea. Structural engineering analysis tools have been used to improve the understanding of the biomechanical behaviour of the cornea. The research is a multi-disciplinary collaboration between structural engineers, mathematical and numerical analysts, ophthalmologists and clinicians. Mathematical shell analysis and nonlinear finite-element modelling have been used in conjunction with laboratory experiments to study

2004 Journal of the Royal Society Interface

27357. Effect of topical fluoroquinolones on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases in the cornea Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of topical fluoroquinolones on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases in the cornea Matrix metalloproteinases play an important role in extracellular matrix deposition and degradation. Based on previous clinical observations of corneal perforations during topical fluoroquinolone treatment, we decided to evaluate the comparative effects of various fluoroquinolone eye drops on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in cornea.Eighty female Lewis rats were divided into two (...) experimental groups: intact and wounded corneal epithelium. Uniform corneal epithelial defects were created in the right eye with application of 75% alcohol in the center of the tissue for 6 seconds. The treatment groups were tested as follows: 1) Tear drops: carboxymethylcellulose sodium 0.5 % (Refresh, Allergan); 2) Ciprofloxacin 0.3% (Ciloxan, Alcon); 3) Ofloxacin 0.3%(Ocuflox, Allergan); 4) Levofloxacin 0.5%(Quixin, Santen). Eye drops were administered 6 times a day for 48 hours. Rats were sacrificed

2003 BMC ophthalmology

27358. Treatment of bacterial ulcers of the cornea in the rabbit: a comparison of administration by eye drops and subconjunctival injections. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Treatment of bacterial ulcers of the cornea in the rabbit: a comparison of administration by eye drops and subconjunctival injections. The various routes of antibiotic administration available to treat a bacterial corneal ulcer were reviewed and compared, and the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of each route analyzed in the rabbit. I then evaluated the efficacy of eye drops and subconjunctival injections in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers for each of the following drug-organism (...) combinations: staphylococcal ulcers/cefazolin, staphylococcal ulcers/gentamicin and Pseudomonas ulcers/gentamicin. Both topical and subconjunctival administration of each drug effectively reduced or eliminated the bacteria from infected corneal tissue. For both cefazolin and gentamicin, the subconjunctival and the topical route were of similar efficacy in the treatment of Staphylococcal and Pseudomonal ulcers. Subconjunctival injections produced high but transient peaks followed by persistent low troughs

1982 Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society

27359. Development of quantitative methods of measuring antifungal drug effects in the rabbit cornea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Development of quantitative methods of measuring antifungal drug effects in the rabbit cornea. By means of multiple inoculation in each cornea with microtrephination a highly reproducible quantitative model of fungal infection of the rabbit corneal stroma has been produced. A known suspension of the chosen pathogen was systematically implanted into the trephine sites in the cornea. The degree of infectivity was monitored in both the preinoculation treated corneae (prophylaxis (...) ) and the postinoculation treated corneae (therapy). Examples measuring and comparing the antifungal effect of various imidazole drugs against Candida albicans are discussed.

1981 The British journal of ophthalmology

27360. Synthesis of type III collagen by fibroblasts from the embryonic chick cornea Full Text available with Trip Pro

detected previously by indirect immunofluorescence in the corneal epithelial cells at Hamburger-Hamilton stages 20--30 but not in the stroma at any age. Intact corneas from embryos older than stage 30 contain and synthesize type I collagen but no detectable type III collagen. However, whole stromata subjected to collagenase treatment and scraping (to remove epithelium and endothelium) and stromal fibroblasts from such corneas inoculated in vitro begin synthesis of type III collagen within a few hours (...) they lose the ability to synthesize the specific proteoglycan of the cornea: the presence of corneal-type keratan sulfate.

1980 The Journal of cell biology

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