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Cornea

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26761. Increased endothelial cell density in the paracentral and peripheral regions of the human cornea. (Abstract)

regions of cornea compared with the central region. The superior peripheral region of the corneal endothelium has the largest increase in ECD. These data on normal endothelial cell distribution in the human cornea are especially significant as they relate to new surgical techniques and endothelial wound repair. (...) Increased endothelial cell density in the paracentral and peripheral regions of the human cornea. To systematically investigate the central, paracentral, and peripheral endothelial cell density (ECD) in normal human corneas.Observational case series and experimental study.Noncontact specular microscopy was undertaken to determine the ECD of the central, paracentral (2.7 +/- 0.2 mm from center) and peripheral (4.7 +/- 0.2 mm from center) regions of the cornea of 48 normal eyes. The ECDs

2003 American Journal of Ophthalmology

26762. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty in severe fungal keratitis using cryopreserved donor corneas. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty in severe fungal keratitis using cryopreserved donor corneas. To investigate whether cryopreserved donor cornea could be used for therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) to eradicate the infection, obviate complications, and preserve anatomical integrity in severe fungal keratitis.In this retrospective, consecutive case series, 45 eyes of 45 patients with severe fungal keratitis, which exhibited anterior chamber collapse, corneal perforation, and/or large (...) suppurative corneal infiltrate, received therapeutic PKP after removal of the infected corneal tissue, irrigation of the anterior chamber by 0.2% fluconazole solution, iris dissection of fibrinoid membrane, and iridectomy and therapeutic PKP using corneas cryopreserved at -20 degrees C.Among 45 eyes, 39 eyes (86.7%) were successfully eradicated the fungal infection without recurrence and maintained their anatomical integrity without any complication. Four of 45 eyes (8.9%) showed postoperative rise

2003 British Journal of Ophthalmology

26763. Higher order aberrations in normal, dilated, intraocular lens, and laser in situ keratomileusis corneas. (Abstract)

Higher order aberrations in normal, dilated, intraocular lens, and laser in situ keratomileusis corneas. To compare repeated measures of Zernike polynomial higher-order aberrations in 29 normal, 13 dilated normal, 11 intraocular lens (IOL), 11 laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), and one refractive keratectomy (RK)/IOL subject.At least three Shack-Hartmann images were obtained from each subject, and higher order (uncorrectable by spectacles) Zernike representation was determined. For each

2002 Journal of Refractive Surgery

26764. Biomechanics of the cornea and wavefront-guided laser refractive surgery. (Abstract)

Biomechanics of the cornea and wavefront-guided laser refractive surgery. Wavefront-guided laser refractive surgery induces postoperative optical aberrations that are not explained by the ablation profile.A conceptual model is presented for a potential mechanism of surgically-induced corneal shape change that is dependent on structural modification, rather than ablation profile.Examples are provided from clinical and basic studies that are consistent with the proposed model.Corneal

2002 Journal of Refractive Surgery

26765. Biomechanical response of the cornea to phototherapeutic keratectomy when treated as a fluid-filled porous material. (Abstract)

Biomechanical response of the cornea to phototherapeutic keratectomy when treated as a fluid-filled porous material. Surgical effect on corneal deformation has been traditionally analyzed based on the solid material assumption. We examine the validity of this assumption by treating the cornea as a fluid-filled porous material and separately modeling the solid and fluid constituents inside the cornea. In particular, the internal sub-atmospheric fluid pressure is treated as an important part (...) of the mechanical loading in addition to the intraocular pressure.Finite element simulations of phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) were conducted with the cornea treated as a fluid-filled porous material, and through-the-thickness difference in swelling phenomena was taken into account. The results were compared with the same PTK simulations based on the solid material assumption of the cornea.The PTK simulation results based on the fluid-filled porous material assumption demonstrated a significantly higher

2002 Journal of Refractive Surgery

26766. Corneal innervation, corneal mechanical sensitivity, and tear fluid secretion after transscleral contact 670-nm diode laser cyclophotocoagulation. (Abstract)

body, using a 670-nm diode laser (power = 430 mW, application time = 10 seconds). In vivo confocal microscopy, with special attention to corneal morphology and the density of the subbasal nerves in the central and inferior perilimbal cornea, was performed preoperatively, and at 3 days and 1 month postoperatively. Corneal mechanical sensitivity was tested preoperatively, and at 3 days and 1 month postoperatively, using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. The rate of tear fluid secretion was measured (...) preoperatively and 1 month postoperatively, using the Schirmer basic secretion tear test with topical anesthesia.After cyclophotocoagulation, in vivo confocal microscopy did not reveal any changes in any of the corneal layers or in the corneal subbasal nerves. After treatment, as compared with baseline (paired samples test, > 0.05), there was no statistically significant change in the mechanical sensitivity values in any part of the cornea or in the Schirmer basic secretion tear test result.The results

2002 Journal of Glaucoma

26767. Epithelial downgrowth after clear cornea phacoemulsification: report of two cases and review of the literature. (Abstract)

, the epithelial invasion seemed to be growing from the temporal incision site onto the corneal endothelium toward the visual axis. Cryotherapy was applied to the affected cornea, with control of the growing membrane. A penetrating keratoplasty was performed to restore visual function. In the second patient, the membrane was attached to the iris and posterior cornea and was confirmed by diagnostic argon laser photocoagulation. This case was surgically treated with en bloc excision and a corneoscleral (...) Epithelial downgrowth after clear cornea phacoemulsification: report of two cases and review of the literature. To report two cases of diffuse epithelial downgrowth after clear cornea phacoemulsification and to review the different treatment options for this ominous disease.Two interventional case reports.Retrospective review of two eyes from two different patients in whom epithelial downgrowth developed 7 and 3 months after uneventful clear cornea phacoemulsification. In the first case

2002 Ophthalmology

26768. Corneal thickness indices discriminate between keratoconus and contact lens-induced corneal thinning. (Abstract)

Corneal thickness indices discriminate between keratoconus and contact lens-induced corneal thinning. To evaluate two indices generated from measurements obtained from the Orbscan Corneal Topography System (CTS; Orbscan, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT) to distinguish contact lens-induced corneal thinning from keratoconus. The corneal thickness index (CTI) was used to compare central and peripheral corneal thicknesses. The discriminant function 1 (DF1) was used to evaluate corneal thickness (...) and central keratometry measurements.Case-control study.Fifty-four patients with keratoconus or suspected keratoconus, 75 contact lens wearers, and 67 normal controls.In the initial model-building study, the central and peripheral corneal thickness and central keratometry (K) readings were evaluated retrospectively in 1 eye each of 23 patients with clinically defined keratoconus, 31 contact lens wearers, and 43 normal patients with the Orbscan CTS. Two methods (corneal thickness index [CTI

2002 Ophthalmology

26769. Sensitivity and rapidity of blood culture bottles in the detection of cornea organ culture media contamination by bacteria and fungi. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sensitivity and rapidity of blood culture bottles in the detection of cornea organ culture media contamination by bacteria and fungi. To test the bactericidal activity of standard organ culture medium, and to compare the sensitivity and rapidity of blood culture bottles with conventional microbiological methods for detection of bacteria and fungi inoculated in a standard cornea organ culture medium.The bactericidal activity of contaminated standard organ culture medium containing 100 IU/ml

2002 British Journal of Ophthalmology

26770. In vivo confocal microscopy of the human cornea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vivo confocal microscopy of the human cornea. To describe the optics of in vivo confocal microscopy, its advantages over previous methods, and to summarise the literature that arose from its use for the observation of the human cornea. A critical review of the clinical usefulness of this new technology for the corneal examination is undertaken.Confocal microscopes obtain increased resolution by limiting the illumination and observation systems to a single point. Rapid scanning is used (...) to reconstruct a full field of view and allows for "real time" viewing.Coronal sections of the in situ epithelium, Bowman's membrane, stroma, and endothelium can be visualised at a resolution of 1-2 micro m. A backscattered light intensity curve allows objective measurements of sublayer thickness and corneal haze to be taken. In vivo confocal microscopy is therefore particularly useful in the areas of infective keratitis, corneal dystrophies, refractive surgery, and contact lens wear, where it aids

2003 British Journal of Ophthalmology

26771. Topical cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2, reduces cornea-evoked trigeminal brainstem activity in the rat. (Abstract)

Topical cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2, reduces cornea-evoked trigeminal brainstem activity in the rat. Cannabinoids act at receptors on peripheral and central neurons to modulate diverse physiological functions and produce analgesia. Corneal sensory nerves express the CB1 cannabinoid receptor and project to two spatially discrete regions of the lower brainstem, the trigeminal interpolaris/caudalis (Vi/Vc) transition and subnucleus caudalis/upper cervical cord (Vc/C1) junction region (...) the magnitude of single unit activity recorded at the Vi/Vc transition (-80+/-7%, P<0.025), but not at the Vc/C1 junction region (-34+/-30%) evoked by CO(2) pulses applied to the cornea. Topical morphine did not alter CO(2)-evoked unit activity at either recording location. These results indicated that cannabinoid receptor agonists acted, at least in part, at CB1 receptors in the anterior eye to reduce corneal stimulation-evoked trigeminal brainstem neural activity. Corneal nociceptor-evoked activity

2002 Pain

26772. Effect of morphine sulphate eye drops on hyperalgesia in the rat cornea. (Abstract)

Effect of morphine sulphate eye drops on hyperalgesia in the rat cornea. In addition to their traditional role in centrally mediated analgesia, opiate compounds produce significant effects when administered peripherally. Using a recently characterized model of acute chemical injury to the rat cornea, we assessed the effects of morphine sulphate eye drops on corneal inflammation and hyperalgesia. Topical application of a 5 microM morphine sulphate eye drop preparation attenuated capsaicin (...) -induced blinking in a concentration-dependent manner. However, morphine had no effect on capsaicin-induced blinking when applied to healthy, non-inflamed rat cornea. In addition, 5 microM morphine given every 2 h following cauterization retarded the development of both stromal edema and the infiltration of immune cells. Both the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of morphine were prevented by the opioid receptor antagonists naloxone, CTAP, and naltrindole. We conclude that morphine acts on mu

2003 Pain

26773. Differential expression of thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22) by human fibroblasts from cornea, skin, and lung. (Abstract)

fibroblasts derived from the cornea, skin, or lung. Corneal and dermal fibroblasts might thus be important sources of TARC during allergic inflammation. (...) Differential expression of thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (CCL22) by human fibroblasts from cornea, skin, and lung. Allergic diseases of the ocular surface, skin, and lung are triggered by T(H)2 cells, which are recruited by thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC; CCL17) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC; CCL22). Resident fibroblasts are thought to contribute to inflammatory cell infiltration through chemokine production.We

2003 Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

26774. Morphometry of cupromeronic blue-stained proteoglycan molecules in animal corneas, versus that of purified proteoglycans stained in vitro, implies that tertiary structures contribute to corneal ultrastructure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Morphometry of cupromeronic blue-stained proteoglycan molecules in animal corneas, versus that of purified proteoglycans stained in vitro, implies that tertiary structures contribute to corneal ultrastructure. Isolated, purified small chondroitin (dermatan) sulphate proteoglycans from corneas of cow and rabbit and cow sclera were stained with Cupromeronic blue in 'model' experiments. The lengths and thicknesses of the images were compared with those of the same proteoglycans stained (...) filaments in tissues were sometimes over twice the length of isolated stained proteoglycans, suggesting that 2 glycan chains were aligned end-to-end. Thicknesses of proteoglycan filaments suggested that at least 2 glycan chains were aligned side-by-side, both in models and in tissues. A scheme for proteoglycan tertiary structure in cornea is proposed, in which glycan chains may bridge collagen fibrils in duplexed forms similar to those observed in rotary shadowed preparations.

1992 Journal of anatomy

26775. Recurrent malignant melanoma of the corneal stroma: a case of 'black cornea'. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recurrent malignant melanoma of the corneal stroma: a case of 'black cornea'. A 39-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of recurrent conjunctival melanoma of her right eye developed an intrastromal heavily pigmented malignant melanoma, which involved the whole corneal diameter. The patient was treated by corneoscleral lamellar keratoplasty and there has been no evidence of recurrent neoplasm during 4 years of follow-up. This apparently unique presentation of malignant melanoma of the cornea (...) is illustrated and the differential diagnosis of corneal pigmentation is discussed.

1992 The British journal of ophthalmology

26776. Comparison of corneal storage in K-Sol and chondroitin sulfate corneal storage medium in human corneal transplantation. (Abstract)

Comparison of corneal storage in K-Sol and chondroitin sulfate corneal storage medium in human corneal transplantation. Fifty-one pairs of corneas, stored in either K-Sol or CSM (chondroitin sulfate corneal storage medium) from 8 to 97 hours (mean +/- standard deviation, 58 +/- 21 and 57 +/- 21 hours, respectively), were transplanted in a prospective, randomized manner into 99 patients (n = 102 eyes), paired by diagnostic group and procedure. Ninety-six percent of K-Sol grafts (n = 51) and 94 (...) % of the CSM grafts (n = 51) were clear at 6 months; 92% of both the K-Sol (n = 38) and CSM (n = 35) grafts were clear at 12 months. One primary donor failure occurred, a K-Sol cornea stored for 76 hours. The CSM group experienced a greater number of persistent epithelial defects beyond 2 weeks (7 versus 4 defects) and graft reaction episodes (7 versus 3 episodes) than the K-Sol group; however, an equal number of late graft failures (3) occurred in both groups. No significant differences by paired t test

1989 Ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

26777. [Effect of corneal collagen shields and epithelial growth promoting factors on epithelialization of the human cornea]. (Abstract)

[Effect of corneal collagen shields and epithelial growth promoting factors on epithelialization of the human cornea]. In 28 patients after perforating keratoplasty followed by epithelial abrasion of the transplant the period required for epithelial closure with a therapy including collagen shields and the growth stimulating factors vitamin A and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) was determined.A significant acceleration of the epithelialization was observed in all groups treated with collagen

1994 Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde Controlled trial quality: uncertain

26778. Risk factors for corneal graft failure and rejection in the collaborative corneal transplantation studies. Collaborative Corneal Transplantation Studies Research Group. (Abstract)

Risk factors for corneal graft failure and rejection in the collaborative corneal transplantation studies. Collaborative Corneal Transplantation Studies Research Group. To evaluate comprehensively the magnitude of suspected risk factors for corneal graft failure from any cause, failure from rejection, and immunologic reaction in patients at high risk for graft failure after corneal transplantation.The records of the 457 participants in the Collaborative Corneal Transplantation Studies were (...) and to estimate the magnitude of risk factors.Many apparent risk factors did not maintain their association with graft outcomes after adjustment for other risk factors. Young recipient age, the number of previous grafts, history of previous anterior segment surgery, preoperative glaucoma, quadrants of anterior synechiae, quadrants of stromal vessels, a primary diagnosis of chemical burn, and blood group ABO incompatibility were among the strongest risk factors identified for graft failure. Donor and corneal

1994 Ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

26779. Functional differences in nucleoside and nucleobase transporters expressed on the rabbit corneal epithelial cell line (SIRC) and isolated rabbit cornea Full Text available with Trip Pro

Functional differences in nucleoside and nucleobase transporters expressed on the rabbit corneal epithelial cell line (SIRC) and isolated rabbit cornea The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of nucleoside/nucleobase transporters on the Statens Seruminstitut rabbit corneal (SIRC) epithelial cell line and to evaluate SIRC as an in vitro screening tool for delineating the mechanism of corneal permeation of nucleoside analogs. SIRC cells (passages 410-425) were used to study (...) and was inhibited by the purine nucleobases but not by the nucleosides or pyrimidine nucleobases. However, transport of [3H]adenine across the isolated rabbit cornea was not inhibited by unlabeled adenine. Further, corneal permeability of ganciclovir across a 100-fold concentration range remained constant, indicating that ganciclovir permeates the cornea primarily by passive diffusion. Nucleoside and nucleobase transporters on rabbit cornea and corneal epithelial cell line, SIRC, are functionally different

2003 AAPS pharmSci

26780. Effect of three different media on serum free culture of donor corneas and isolated human corneal endothelial cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of three different media on serum free culture of donor corneas and isolated human corneal endothelial cells Removal of bovine serum from organ culture medium is necessary because of the variability in serum composition and the potential risk of infection. Two specific endothelial cell media (F99 and Endothelial-SFM) were compared with the routinely used medium MEM for their use in serum free cultivation of human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC) and donor corneas.HCEC were incubated (...) in three test media with or without increasing serum content and a growth assay was performed. Seven pairs of donor corneas were cultured in each of three media for 3 weeks, one cornea with serum supplementation and one without. Endothelial cell density was determined once each week. Trypan blue staining of the endothelium and vital staining of keratocytes was performed after 3 weeks.All three media promoted proliferation of cultured HCEC when supplemented with serum. Endothelial cell density of donor

2001 The British journal of ophthalmology

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