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Cornea

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181. Primary calcareous degeneration of the cornea (Full text)

Primary calcareous degeneration of the cornea Primary calcareous degeneration is a rare corneal disease. In the past 50 years, only four cases have been described. We present the case of a 26-year-old male patient with progressive calcium deposition in both eyes with negative laboratory parameters. For the first time, anterior segment optic coherence tomography was used to investigate and establish the proper treatment.

2017 Indian journal of ophthalmology

182. Procollagen C-proteinase Enhancer 1 (PCPE-1) Functions as an Anti-angiogenic Factor and Enhances Epithelial Recovery in Injured Cornea (Full text)

Procollagen C-proteinase Enhancer 1 (PCPE-1) Functions as an Anti-angiogenic Factor and Enhances Epithelial Recovery in Injured Cornea Procollagen C-proteinase enhancer 1 (PCPE-1) has been characterized as a protein capable of enhancing the activity of bone morphogenetic protein 1/tolloid-like proteinases in the biosynthetic processing of C-propeptides from procollagens I-III. This processing step is thought necessary to the formation of collagen I-III monomers capable of forming fibrils. Thus (...) were not grossly apparent, differences in procollagen I processing levels between Pcolce -/- and WT primary corneal keratocytes were consistent with a role for PCPE-1 in corneal collagen deposition. An unexpected finding was that neoangiogenesis, which follows alkali burn cornea injury, was strikingly increased in Pcolce -/- cornea, compared to WT. A series of aortic ring assays confirmed the anti-angiogenic effects of PCPE-1. Another unexpected finding was of abnormalities of epithelial basement

2017 Cell and tissue research

183. Custom built nonlinear optical crosslinking (NLO CXL) device capable of producing mechanical stiffening in ex vivo rabbit corneas (Full text)

Custom built nonlinear optical crosslinking (NLO CXL) device capable of producing mechanical stiffening in ex vivo rabbit corneas The purpose of this study was to develop and test a nonlinear optical device to photoactivate riboflavin to produce spatially controlled collagen crosslinking and mechanical stiffening within the cornea. A nonlinear optical device using a variable numerical aperture objective was built and coupled to a Chameleon femtosecond laser. Ex vivo rabbit eyes were (...) then saturated with riboflavin and scanned with various scanning parameters over a 4 mm area in the central cornea. Effectiveness of NLO CXL was assessed by evaluating corneal collagen auto fluorescence (CAF). To determine mechanical stiffening effects, corneas were removed from the eye and subjected to indentation testing using a 1 mm diameter probe and force transducer. NLO CXL was also compared to standard UVA CXL. The NLO CXL delivery device was able to induce a significant increase in corneal stiffness

2017 Biomedical optics express

184. Histopathological and Molecular Changes in the Rabbit Cornea From Arsenical Vesicant Lewisite Exposure (Full text)

Histopathological and Molecular Changes in the Rabbit Cornea From Arsenical Vesicant Lewisite Exposure Lewisite (LEW), a potent arsenical vesicating chemical warfare agent, poses a continuous risk of accidental exposure in addition to its feared use as a terrorist weapon. Ocular tissue is exquisitely sensitive to LEW and exposure can cause devastating corneal lesions. However, detailed pathogenesis of corneal injury and related mechanisms from LEW exposure that could help identify targeted

2017 Toxicological Sciences

185. Use of glycerol-preserved corneas for corneal transplants (Full text)

Use of glycerol-preserved corneas for corneal transplants This study was carried out to see the results of glycerol-preserved cornea (GPC) in emergency situation when fresh corneal tissue was not available. The aim was to study the outcome of corneal transplantation using GPC.This was a retrospective study. The medical records of all the patients were reviewed, who underwent keratoplasty using "GPC" during the period from October 2011 to December 2015. The indication of keratoplasty, duration

2017 Indian journal of ophthalmology

186. Penetration of 0.3% ciprofloxacin, 0.3% ofloxacin, and 0.5% moxifloxacin into the cornea and aqueous humor of enucleated human eyes (Full text)

Penetration of 0.3% ciprofloxacin, 0.3% ofloxacin, and 0.5% moxifloxacin into the cornea and aqueous humor of enucleated human eyes We aimed to quantify the penetration of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin into the cornea and aqueous humor of cadaver eyes. A total of 60 enucleated eyes, not eligible for corneal transplantation, were divided into three groups and immersed in commercial solutions of 0.3% ciprofloxacin, 0.3% ofloxacin, or 0.5% moxifloxacin for 10 min. Whole corneas (...) the anterior chamber after a 10-min immersion was far below the safe limit of endothelial toxicity of each preparation. Moxifloxacin demonstrated far superior penetration into the cornea and anterior chamber of cadaver eyes compared to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. One should not expect endothelial toxicity with the commercial eye drops of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin that reach the anterior chamber through the cornea.

2017 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research

187. Whole genome DNA methylation sequencing of the chicken retina, cornea and brain (Full text)

Whole genome DNA methylation sequencing of the chicken retina, cornea and brain Whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) analysis of DNA methylation uses massively parallel next generation sequencing technology to characterize global epigenetic patterns and fluctuations throughout a range of tissue samples. Development of the vertebrate retina is thought to involve extensive epigenetic reprogramming during embryogenesis. The chicken embryo (Gallus gallus) is a classic model system for studying (...) developmental biology and retinogenesis, however, there are currently no publicly available data sets describing the developing chicken retinal methylome. Here we used Illumina WGBS analysis to characterize genome-wide patterns of DNA methylation in the developing chicken retina as well as cornea and brain in an effort to further our understanding of retina-specific epigenetic regulation. These data will be valuable to the vision research community for correlating global changes in DNA methylation

2017 Scientific data

188. Herpes Simplex Virus 1, Macrophages, and the Cornea (Full text)

Herpes Simplex Virus 1, Macrophages, and the Cornea 29030534 2018 04 09 2018 12 02 1098-5514 91 21 2017 11 01 Journal of virology J. Virol. Herpes Simplex Virus 1, Macrophages, and the Cornea. e01267-17 10.1128/JVI.01267-17 Carr Daniel J J DJJ Department of Ophthalmology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA dan-carr@ouhsc.edu. eng Letter Comment 2017 10 13 United States J Virol 0113724 0022-538X IM J Virol. 2017 Jul 12;91(15): 28490589 J Virol. 2017 Oct (...) 13;91(21): 29030535 Cornea virology Herpes Simplex virology Herpesvirus 1, Human Humans Macrophages Simplexvirus HSV-1 cornea macrophages 2017 10 15 6 0 2017 10 17 6 0 2018 4 10 6 0 epublish 29030534 91/21/e01267-17 10.1128/JVI.01267-17 PMC5640828 J Immunol. 1997 Feb 1;158(3):1383-91 9013983 Chem Immunol Allergy. 2007;92:58-70 17264483 Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998 Sep;39(10):1854-62 9727408 Mucosal Immunol. 2017 Apr 05;: 28378806 Prog Retin Eye Res. 2013 Jan;32:88-101 22944008 Pflugers Arch. 2017

2017 Journal of virology

189. High-resolution wavefront-guided surface ablation with corneal cross-linking in ectatic corneas: a pilot study (Full text)

High-resolution wavefront-guided surface ablation with corneal cross-linking in ectatic corneas: a pilot study A preliminary study to evaluate the outcomes of high-resolution wavefront-guided (HRWG) photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) with simultaneous corneal cross-linking (CXL) in ectasia eyes.Sixteen eyes of 11 patients (mean age 31.9±9.8 years; range: 15-48 years) with keratoconus or post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis ectasia underwent HRWG PRK with simultaneous CXL. Manifest

2017 Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)

190. Improving the success rate of human corneal endothelial cell cultures from single donor corneas with stabilization medium (Full text)

Improving the success rate of human corneal endothelial cell cultures from single donor corneas with stabilization medium Main objective of this study was to improve the success rate of human corneal endothelial cell (hCEC) cultures from single donor corneas. We could show that the use of stabilization medium prior to cell isolation may have a positive effect on the success rate of hCEC cultures from single research-grade donor corneas by allowing growth of otherwise possibly not successful (...) cultures and by improving their proliferative rate. hCEC were obtained from corneo-scleral rims of 7 discarded human research-grade cornea pairs. The Descemet membrane-endothelium (DM-EC) sheets of each pair were assigned to 2 experimental conditions: (1) immediate cell isolation after peeling, and (2) storage of the DM-EC sheet in a growth factor-depleted culture medium (i.e. stabilization medium) for up to 6 days prior to cell isolation. hCEC isolated by enzymatic digestion were then induced

2017 Cell and tissue banking

191. Biomechanical Simulation of Stress Concentration and Intraocular Pressure in Corneas Subjected to Myopic Refractive Surgical Procedures (Full text)

Biomechanical Simulation of Stress Concentration and Intraocular Pressure in Corneas Subjected to Myopic Refractive Surgical Procedures Recent advances in the analysis of corneal biomechanical properties remain difficult to predict the structural stability before and after refractive surgery. In this regard, we applied the finite element method (FEM) to determine the roles of the Bowman's membrane, stroma, and Descemet's membrane in the hoop stresses of cornea, under tension (physiological (...) ) and bending (nonphysiological), for patients who undergo radial keratotomy (RK), photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), or small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). The stress concentration maps, potential creak zones, and potential errors in intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements were further determined. Our results confirmed that the Bowman's membrane and Descemet's membrane accounted for 20% of the bending rigidity of the cornea, and became the force pair

2017 Scientific reports

192. Letter to the Editor: Effect of Povidone Iodine 5% on the Cornea, Vision, and Subjective Comfort (Full text)

Letter to the Editor: Effect of Povidone Iodine 5% on the Cornea, Vision, and Subjective Comfort 29045318 2018 06 04 2018 12 02 1538-9235 94 11 2017 11 Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry Optom Vis Sci Letter to the Editor: Effect of Povidone Iodine 5% on the Cornea, Vision, and Subjective Comfort. 1070 10.1097/OPX.0000000000001138 Hartwick Andrew A Columbus, Ohio hartwick.4@osu.edu Chicago, Illinois St Louis, Missouri Tahlequah, Oklahoma (...) Dublin, Georgia. Shorter Ellen E Margolis Mathew M Johnson Spencer S Than Tammy T eng R34 EY023633 EY NEI NIH HHS United States Letter Comment United States Optom Vis Sci 8904931 1040-5488 0 Anti-Infective Agents, Local 85H0HZU99M Povidone-Iodine IM Optom Vis Sci. 2017 Jul;94(7):732-741 28609415 Optom Vis Sci. 2017 Nov;94(11):1071 29045319 Anti-Infective Agents, Local Cornea Povidone-Iodine 2017 10 19 6 0 2018 6 5 6 0 2017 10 19 6 0 ppublish 29045318 10.1097/OPX.0000000000001138 PMC5683403

2017 Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry

193. Alternatives to In Vivo Draize Rabbit Eye and Skin Irritation Tests with a Focus on 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea-Like Epithelium and Epidermis Models (Full text)

Alternatives to In Vivo Draize Rabbit Eye and Skin Irritation Tests with a Focus on 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea-Like Epithelium and Epidermis Models Human eyes and skin are frequently exposed to chemicals accidentally or on purpose due to their external location. Therefore, chemicals are required to undergo the evaluation of the ocular and dermal irritancy for their safe handling and use before release into the market. Draize rabbit eye and skin irritation test developed in 1944, has been (...) a gold standard test which was enlisted as OECD TG 404 and OECD TG 405 but it has been criticized with respect to animal welfare due to invasive and cruel procedure. To replace it, diverse alternatives have been developed: (i) For Draize eye irritation test, organotypic assay, in vitro cytotoxicity-based method, in chemico tests, in silico prediction model, and 3D reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium (RhCE); (ii) For Draize skin irritation test, in vitro cytotoxicity-based cell model, and 3D

2017 Toxicological research

194. Telocytes in normal and keratoconic human cornea: an immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscopy study (Full text)

Telocytes in normal and keratoconic human cornea: an immunohistochemical and transmission electron microscopy study Telocytes (TC) are typically defined as cells with telopodes by their ultrastructural features. Their presence was reported in the interstitium of various organs in vertebrates, including humans. However, no study has yet described the presence of TC in the human eye and in particular, within the stromal compartment of the cornea. To address this issue, samples of normal (...) and pathologic (keratoconic) human corneas were tested by immunohistochemistry for CD34, platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) and c-kit/CD117 or examined by transmission electron microscopy. We found that TC coexpressing CD34 and PDGFRα were distributed throughout the whole normal corneal stroma with different TC subtypes being distinguishable on the basis of the expression of the stemness marker c-kit (i.e. c-kit-positive and c-kit-negative TC subpopulations). Transmission electron microscopy

2017 Journal of cellular and molecular medicine

195. The structural response of the cornea to changes in stromal hydration (Full text)

The structural response of the cornea to changes in stromal hydration The primary aim of this study was to quantify the relationship between corneal structure and hydration in humans and pigs. X-ray scattering data were collected from human and porcine corneas equilibrated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to varying levels of hydration, to obtain measurements of collagen fibril diameter, interfibrillar spacing (IFS) and intermolecular spacing. Both species showed a strong positive linear (...) correlation between hydration and IFS2 and a nonlinear, bi-phasic relationship between hydration and fibril diameter, whereby fibril diameter increased up to approximately physiological hydration, H = 3.0, with little change thereafter. Above H = 3.0, porcine corneas exhibited a larger fibril diameter than human corneas (p < 0.001). Intermolecular spacing also varied with hydration in a bi-phasic manner but reached a maximum value at a lower hydration (H = 1.5) than fibril diameter. Human corneas

2017 Journal of the Royal Society Interface

196. Noninvasive measurement of wave speed of porcine cornea in ex vivo porcine eyes for various intraocular pressures (Full text)

Noninvasive measurement of wave speed of porcine cornea in ex vivo porcine eyes for various intraocular pressures The objective of this study was to extend an ultrasound surface wave elastography (USWE) technique for noninvasive measurement of ocular tissue elastic properties. In particular, we aim to establish the relationship between the wave speed of cornea and the intraocular pressure (IOP). Normal ranges of IOP are between 12 and 22mmHg. Ex vivo porcine eye balls were used in this research (...) . The porcine eye ball was supported by the gelatin phantom in a testing container. Some water was pour into the container for the ultrasound measurement. A local harmonic vibration was generated on the side of the eye ball. An ultrasound probe was used to measure the wave propagation in the cornea noninvasively. A 25 gauge butterfly needle was inserted into the vitreous humor of the eye ball under the ultrasound imaging guidance. The needle was connected to a syringe. The IOP was obtained by the water

2017 Ultrasonics

197. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of cornea transplant patients of a reference hospital (Full text)

Clinical and epidemiological aspects of cornea transplant patients of a reference hospital clinically characterizing cornea transplant patients and their distribution according to indicated and post-operative conditions of cornea transplantation, as well as estimating the average waiting time.a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study performed for all cornea transplants performed at a reference service (n=258). Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (...) , version 20.0.the main indicator for cornea transplant was keratoconus. The mean waiting time for the transplant was approximately 5 months and 3 weeks for elective transplants and 9 days for urgent cases. An association between the type of corneal disorder with gender, age, previous surgery, eye classification, glaucoma and anterior graft failure were found.keratoconus was the main indicator for cornea transplant. Factors such as age, previous corneal graft failure (retransplantation), glaucoma, cases

2017 Revista latino-americana de enfermagem

198. Contrasting Cellular Damage After Blue-IRIS and Femto-LASIK in Cat Cornea (Full text)

Contrasting Cellular Damage After Blue-IRIS and Femto-LASIK in Cat Cornea Blue-intra-tissue refractive index shaping (Blue-IRIS) is a new approach to laser refractive correction of optical aberrations in the eye, which alters the refractive index of the cornea rather than changing its shape. Before it can be implemented in humans, it is critical to establish whether and to what extent, Blue-IRIS damages the cornea. Here, we contrasted the impact of -1.5 D cylinder refractive corrections (...) inscribed using either Blue-IRIS or femtosecond laser in-situ keratomileusis (femto-LASIK) on corneal cell viability. Blue-IRIS was used to write a -1.5 D cylinder gradient index (GRIN) lens over a 2.5 mm by 2.5 mm area into the mid-stromal region of the cornea in six freshly-enucleated feline eyes. The same correction (-1.5 D cylinder) was inscribed into another four cat eyes using femto-LASIK. Six hours later, all corneas were processed for histology and stained for terminal deoxynucleotidyl

2017 Experimental eye research

199. Changes in the anterior cornea during the early stages of severe myopia prior to and following LASIK, as detected by confocal microscopy (Full text)

Changes in the anterior cornea during the early stages of severe myopia prior to and following LASIK, as detected by confocal microscopy The present study aimed to assess the microscopic changes of the epithelium and Bowman's layer under confocal microscopy during the early stages of severe myopia following laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). The study comprised 54 patients (54 eyes) with severe myopia and 65 patients (65 eyes) with low and moderate myopia, who underwent LASIK surgery (...) yellow changes were observed at the epithelial layer and in the central part of the cornea 6 months after the surgery; the same was observed in 35 eyes (53.8%) with low and moderate myopia. Microfolds in the Bowman's layer of eyes with severe myopia were detected in 48 eyes (88.9%), and in 54 eyes (100.0%) in the anterior stroma following LASIK, whereas microfolds were observed in 51 (78.5%) and 65 eyes (100%), respectively, in patients with low to moderate myopia. In the severe myopia group, 54 eyes

2017 Experimental and therapeutic medicine

200. Transient Ingrowth of Lymphatic Vessels into the Physiologically Avascular Cornea Regulates Corneal Edema and Transparency (Full text)

Transient Ingrowth of Lymphatic Vessels into the Physiologically Avascular Cornea Regulates Corneal Edema and Transparency Lymphangiogenesis is essential for fluid homeostasis in vascularized tissues. In the normally avascular cornea, however, pathological lymphangiogenesis mediates diseases like corneal transplant rejection, dry eye disease, and allergy. So far, a physiological role for lymphangiogenesis in a primarily avascular site such as the cornea has not been described. Using a mouse (...) model of perforating corneal injury that causes acute and severe fluid accumulation in the cornea, we show that lymphatics transiently and selectively invade the cornea and regulate the resolution of corneal edema. Pharmacological blockade of lymphangiogenesis via VEGFR-3 inhibition results in increased corneal thickness due to delayed drainage of corneal edema and a trend towards prolonged corneal opacification. Notably, lymphatics are also detectable in the cornea of a patient with acute edema due

2017 Scientific reports

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