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Contusion

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161. Osteochondritis dissecans development after bone contusion of the knee in the skeletally immature: a case series. (PubMed)

Osteochondritis dissecans development after bone contusion of the knee in the skeletally immature: a case series. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is thought to be an acquired osteochondral disorder, and its aetiology may be multifactorial. Trauma, both acute and repetitive events, has previously been proposed as a potential cause for OCD development. We present two cases of skeletally immature boys who developed a symptomatic OCD lesion following a femoral condyle bone contusion. These cases

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2013 Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy

162. Optimal time for subarachnoid transplantation of neural progenitor cells in the treatment of contusive spinal cord injury (PubMed)

Optimal time for subarachnoid transplantation of neural progenitor cells in the treatment of contusive spinal cord injury This study aimed to identify the optimal neural progenitor cell transplantation time for spinal cord injury in rats via the subarachnoid space. Cultured neural progenitor cells from 14-day embryonic rats, constitutively expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein, or media alone, were injected into the subarachnoid space of adult rats at 1 hour (acute stage), 7 days (...) (subacute stage) and 28 days (chronic stage) after contusive spinal cord injury. Results showed that grafted neural progenitor cells migrated and aggregated around the blood vessels of the injured region, and infiltrated the spinal cord parenchyma along the tissue spaces in the acute stage transplantation group. However, this was not observed in subacute and chronic stage transplantation groups. O4- and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells, representing oligodendrocytes and astrocytes

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2013 Neural Regeneration Research

163. Aquaporin 4 expression and ultrastructure of the blood-brain barrier following cerebral contusion injury (PubMed)

Aquaporin 4 expression and ultrastructure of the blood-brain barrier following cerebral contusion injury This study aimed to investigate aquaporin 4 expression and the ultrastructure of the blood-brain barrier at 2-72 hours following cerebral contusion injury, and correlate these changes to the formation of brain edema. Results revealed that at 2 hours after cerebral contusion and laceration injury, aquaporin 4 expression significantly increased, brain water content and blood-brain barrier (...) permeability increased, and the number of pinocytotic vesicles in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells increased. In addition, the mitochondrial accumulation was observed. As contusion and laceration injury became aggravated, aquaporin 4 expression continued to increase, brain water content and blood-brain barrier permeability gradually increased, brain capillary endothelial cells and astrocytes swelled, and capillary basement membrane injury gradually increased. The above changes were most apparent

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2013 Neural Regeneration Research

164. Combined transplantation of GDAsBMP and hr-decorin in spinal cord contusion repair (PubMed)

Combined transplantation of GDAsBMP and hr-decorin in spinal cord contusion repair Following spinal cord injury, astrocyte proliferation and scar formation are the main factors inhibiting the regeneration and growth of spinal cord axons. Recombinant decorin suppresses inflammatory reactions, inhibits glial scar formation, and promotes axonal growth. Rat models of T8 spinal cord contusion were created with the NYU impactor and these models were subjected to combined transplantation of bone (...) morphogenetic protein-4-induced glial-restricted precursor-derived astrocytes and human recombinant decorin transplantation. At 28 days after spinal cord contusion, double-immunofluorescent histochemistry revealed that combined transplantation inhibited the early inflammatory response in injured rats. Furthermore, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which was secreted by transplanted cells, protected injured axons. The combined transplantation promoted axonal regeneration and growth of injured motor

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2013 Neural Regeneration Research

165. Desferrioxamine Reduces Oxidative Stress in the Lung Contusion (PubMed)

Desferrioxamine Reduces Oxidative Stress in the Lung Contusion Our hypothesis in this study is that desferrioxamine (DFX) has therapeutic effects on experimental lung contusions in rats. The rats were divided into four groups (n = 8): control, control+DFX, contusion, and contusion+DFX. In the control+DFX and contusion+DFX groups, 100 mg/kg DFX was given intraperitoneally once a day just after the contusion and the day after the contusion. Contusions led to a meaningful rise (...) in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in lung tissue. MDA levels in the contusion+DFX group experienced a significant decline. Glutathione levels were significantly lower in the contusion group than in the control group and significantly higher in the contusion+DFX group. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the contusion group were significantly lower than those in the control group. In the contusion+DFX group, SOD and GPx levels were significantly higher than those in the contusion

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2013 The Scientific World Journal

166. Perivascular Fibroblasts Form the Fibrotic Scar after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury (PubMed)

Perivascular Fibroblasts Form the Fibrotic Scar after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Injury to the CNS leads to formation of scar tissue, which is important in sealing the lesion and inhibiting axon regeneration. The fibrotic scar that comprises a dense extracellular matrix is thought to originate from meningeal cells surrounding the CNS. However, using transgenic mice, we demonstrate that perivascular collagen1α1 cells are the main source of the cellular composition of the fibrotic scar after (...) contusive spinal cord injury in which the dura remains intact. Using genetic lineage tracing, light sheet fluorescent microscopy, and antigenic profiling, we identify collagen1α1 cells as perivascular fibroblasts that are distinct from pericytes. Our results identify collagen1α1 cells as a novel source of the fibrotic scar after spinal cord injury and shift the focus from the meninges to the vasculature during scar formation.

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2013 The Journal of Neuroscience

167. Cell Cycle Activation Contributes to Increased Neuronal Activity in the Posterior Thalamic Nucleus and Associated Chronic Hyperesthesia after Rat Spinal Cord Contusion (PubMed)

Cell Cycle Activation Contributes to Increased Neuronal Activity in the Posterior Thalamic Nucleus and Associated Chronic Hyperesthesia after Rat Spinal Cord Contusion Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes not only sensorimotor and cognitive deficits, but frequently also severe chronic pain that is difficult to treat (SCI pain). We previously showed that hyperesthesia, as well as spontaneous pain induced by electrolytic lesions in the rat spinothalamic tract, is associated with increased spontaneous (...) and sensory-evoked activity in the posterior thalamic nucleus (PO). We have also demonstrated that rodent impact SCI increases cell cycle activation (CCA) in the injury region and that post-traumatic treatment with cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors reduces lesion volume and motor dysfunction. Here we examined whether CCA contributes to neuronal hyperexcitability of PO and hyperpathia after rat contusion SCI, as well as to microglial and astroglial activation (gliopathy) that has been implicated

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2013 Neurotherapeutics

168. Curative effect of Xuebijing injection on severe pulmonary contusion. (PubMed)

Curative effect of Xuebijing injection on severe pulmonary contusion. To investigate the curative effects of Xuebijing (XBJ) injection, a Chinese patent medicine, on severe pulmonary contusion (PC).Sixty-three patients with PC were randomized to conventional therapy plus XBJ injection (n = 33) or conventional therapy alone (n = 30). Between groups differences in corticosteroid treatment, immune regulation therapy, hemofiltration, infusion volume, transfusion volume and antibiotic period were

2013 Journal of traditional Chinese medicine = Chung i tsa chih ying wen pan / sponsored by All-China Association of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

169. Regenerative responses in slow- and fast-twitch muscles following moderate contusion spinal cord injury and locomotor training. (PubMed)

Regenerative responses in slow- and fast-twitch muscles following moderate contusion spinal cord injury and locomotor training. The aim of this study was to use the rat moderate spinal cord contusion model to investigate the effects of incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) on the muscle regeneration process, comparing regeneration of slow-twitch plantarflexor soleus muscle and fast-twitch dorsiflexor tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. Additionally, we wanted to examine the effect of a week (...) of locomotor training following incomplete SCI on the muscle regeneration process in these muscles and also determine if a week of similar locomotor training is sufficient to initiate muscle regeneration in control, non-injured rats. Thirty-two, adult, female, Sprague-Dawley rats were chosen for the study. Moderate, midthoracic contusion SCIs were produced using a NYU (New York University) impactor in all rats except controls. Animals were randomly assigned to treadmill training or untrained groups. Rats

2013 European journal of applied physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

170. Reactive Oxygen Species Contribute to Neuropathic Pain and Locomotor Dysfunction via activation of CamKII in Remote Segments following Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in Rats. (PubMed)

Reactive Oxygen Species Contribute to Neuropathic Pain and Locomotor Dysfunction via activation of CamKII in Remote Segments following Spinal Cord Contusion Injury in Rats. In this study, we examined whether blocking spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) by a ROS scavenger would attenuate below-level central neuropathic pain and promote recovery of locomotion. Rats with T10 SCI developed mechanical allodynia in both hind paws and overproduction of ROS

2013 Pain Controlled trial quality: uncertain

171. Efficacy of cytidine-5'-diphosp-bocholine combined with compound anisodine in the treatment of early optic nerve contusion. (PubMed)

Efficacy of cytidine-5'-diphosp-bocholine combined with compound anisodine in the treatment of early optic nerve contusion. To investigate the efficacy of anisodine combined with cytidine-5'-diphosp-bocholine (citicoline) in the treatment of early optic nerve contusion.A total of 33 subjects eligible for inclusion were selected from 105 patients clinically diagnosed with optic nerve contusion. These patients were subsequently divided into the control group (n=16) and the intervention group (n (...) , 50th and 75th percentiles of visual acuity grade were 4, 6 and 7.75 in the control group, and 7, 7 and 8 in the intervention group. (P=0.046). A significant difference was observed in both control (P=0.005) and intervention groups (P=0.001) when comparing presenting visual acuity before and after treatment.The combination of anisodine and citicoline with standard steroid and mannitol therapy appears to be effective in the treatment of early optic nerve contusion.

2012 Eye science

172. A modified rat model of isolated bilateral pulmonary contusion (PubMed)

A modified rat model of isolated bilateral pulmonary contusion The aim of the present study was to create a feasible specific rat model of isolated bilateral pulmonary contusion (PC) and to evaluate the relationship between severity of hypoxemia and quantity of contusion lesions. Anesthetized rats were placed in a prone position. Injury energy ranging from 2.1 to 3.0 J was produced by a falling weight passed through a specially designed arched shield to the bilateral chest wall of rats. After (...) injury (4 h), the contusion volume was measured using computer-generated three-dimensional reconstruction from a chest computed tomographic scan and expressed as a percentage of total lung volume. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2)) in blood gas analysis and contusion volume percentage were used to assess the severity of contusion. Heart and lung biopsy was used to confirm the diagnosis and rule out the existence of myocardial contusion. There were 3 cases of death and 1 case of death

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2012 Experimental and therapeutic medicine

173. Pulmonary contusion is associated with TLR4 upregulation and decreased susceptibility to Pseudomonas pneumonia in a mouse model (PubMed)

Pulmonary contusion is associated with TLR4 upregulation and decreased susceptibility to Pseudomonas pneumonia in a mouse model Pulmonary contusion is a major cause of respiratory failure in trauma patients. This injury frequently leads to immune suppression and infectious complications such as pneumonia. The mechanism whereby trauma leads to an immune-suppressed state is poorly understood. To further study this phenomenon, we developed an animal model of pulmonary contusion (PC) complicated

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2012 Shock (Augusta, Ga.)

174. Sildenafil Improves Epicenter Vascular Perfusion but not Hindlimb Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Mice (PubMed)

Sildenafil Improves Epicenter Vascular Perfusion but not Hindlimb Functional Recovery after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Mice Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of vasodilation and angiogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). Signaling initiated by the membrane receptor CD47 antagonizes vasodilation and angiogenesis by inhibiting synthesis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). We recently found that deletion of CD47 led to significant functional locomotor improvements (...) , enhanced angiogenesis, and increased epicenter microvascular perfusion in mice after moderate contusive spinal cord injury (SCI). We tested the hypothesis that improving NO/cGMP signaling within the spinal cord immediately after injury would increase microvascular perfusion, angiogenesis, and functional recovery, with an acute, 7-day administration of the cGMP phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor sildenafil. PDE5 expression is localized within spinal cord microvascular endothelial cells and smooth

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2012 Journal of neurotrauma

175. Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Oligodendrocyte Progenitors Aid in Functional Recovery of Sensory Pathways following Contusive Spinal Cord Injury (PubMed)

Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Oligodendrocyte Progenitors Aid in Functional Recovery of Sensory Pathways following Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Transplantations of human stem cell derivatives have been widely investigated in rodent models for the potential restoration of function of neural pathways after spinal cord injury (SCI). Studies have already demonstrated cells survival following transplantation in SCI. We sought to evaluate survival and potential therapeutic effects of transplanted (...) human embryonic stem (hES) cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in a contusive injury in rats. Bioluminescence imaging was utilized to verify survivability of cells up to 4 weeks, and somatosensory evoked potential (SSEPs) were recorded at the cortex to monitor function of sensory pathways throughout the 6-week recovery period.hES cells were transduced with the firefly luciferase gene and differentiated into OPCs. OPCs were transplanted into the lesion epicenter of rat spinal cords 2

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2012 PloS one

176. Electroporation-mediated in vivo gene delivery of the Na+/K+-ATPase pump reduced lung injury in a mouse model of lung contusion. (PubMed)

Electroporation-mediated in vivo gene delivery of the Na+/K+-ATPase pump reduced lung injury in a mouse model of lung contusion. Lung contusion (LC) is an independent risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The final common pathway in ARDS involves accumulation of fluid in the alveoli. In this study, we demonstrate the application of a potential gene therapy approach by delivering the Na+/K+-ATPase pump subunits in a murine model of LC. We hypothesized that restoring the activity (...) of the pump will result in removal of excess alveolar fluid and additionally reduce inflammation.Under anesthesia, C57/BL6 mice were struck along the right posterior axillary line 1 cm above the costal margin with a cortical contusion impactor. Immediately afterward, 100 μg of plasmid DNA coding for the α,β of the Na+/K+-ATPase pump were instilled into the lungs (LC-electroporation-pump group). Contusion only (LC-only) and a sham saline instillation group after contusion were used as controls (LC

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2012 Journal of Trauma

177. Cervical spinal cord contusion in professional athletes.: A case series with implications for return to play. (PubMed)

Cervical spinal cord contusion in professional athletes.: A case series with implications for return to play. Retrospective case series.This report provides long-term follow-up on athletes who have sustained a cervical spinal cord contusion. Their magnetic resonance (MR) image is correlated with clinical signs and symptoms. Mechanism of injury and a hypothesis of etiology are reported.Current return-to-play criteria for athletes who sustain a cervical cord contusion are based on expert opinion (...) only. Decision making for this clinical situation in athletes carries significant clinical, legal, and economic ramifications. The natural history, clinical correlation, and effect of surgery for athletic cervical cord contusions have not been established. The mechanism of injury for this entity has historically emphasized axial loading.The case histories, physical examination, and MR images were reviewed for 4 professional athletes. All athletes had documented cervical cord contusions. None

2012 Spine

178. Effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on pulmonary contusion from blunt chest trauma in rats. (PubMed)

Effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride on pulmonary contusion from blunt chest trauma in rats. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is widely recognised as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in the triggering of innate immunity. Lung inflammation and systemic innate immune responses are dependent on TLR4 activation undergoing pulmonary contusion. Therefore, the author investigated the effects of penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) on the expression of TLR4 and inflammatory responses of blunt chest (...) trauma-induced pulmonary contusion.Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into three groups: normal control (NC) group, pulmonary contusion (PC) group and penehyclidine hydrochloride treatment (PHC) group. Pulmonary contusion was induced in anesthetised rats at fixed chest impact energy of 2.45J. Lung injury was assessed by the histopathology changes, arterial blood gas and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of lung. The serum tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels

2012 Injury

179. Diagnostic value of ischaemia-modified albumin in pulmonary contusion in rats. (PubMed)

Diagnostic value of ischaemia-modified albumin in pulmonary contusion in rats. Patients with pulmonary contusion (PC) are at increased risk of development of complications and death after trauma. The early diagnosis and determination of severity of PC could improve clinical outcomes. The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic value of ischaemia-modified albumin (IMA) in a PC model in rats.Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to four groups; the uninjured control

2012 Injury

180. Posttraumatic Epilepsy: What's Contusion Got to Do With It? (PubMed)

Posttraumatic Epilepsy: What's Contusion Got to Do With It? Text of Abstract Liability to develop posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) correlates in a general way with trauma dose. While contusion of the brain produces an admixture of extravasated blood, edema fluid and necrotic tissue at the site of skull trauma and in regions remote from the direct force, an unpredictable cascade of shearing injury, torsion and rotation and a myriad of physiological changes occur in structures subject

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2012 Epilepsy Currents

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