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9281. Incidence and clinical significance of abdominal wall bruising in restrained children involved in motor vehicle crashes. (Abstract)

Incidence and clinical significance of abdominal wall bruising in restrained children involved in motor vehicle crashes. Children involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVC) can sustain bruising of the abdominal wall associated with seat belt restraint. The incidence of bruising and its relationship with significant intraabdominal injuries are not known.An analysis of children involved in MVC between December 1998 and November 2002 was performed, using the crash surveillance database from (...) the Partners for Child Passenger Safety (PCPS) project. Optimally (OR) or suboptimally (S-OR) restrained children aged 4 to 15 years were selected. The incidence of abdominal wall bruising was calculated then correlated with the type of restraint as well as any intraabdominal injury with an Abbreviated Injury Scale score > or =2.A total of 147,985 children in 102,548 crashes met study criteria. An abdominal bruise was noted in 1.33% of the children (n = 1,967; 881 OR and 1,086 S-OR). Significant

2004 Journal of Pediatric Surgery

9282. 10. Bruising, abrasions and lacerations: minor injuries in children I. (Abstract)

10. Bruising, abrasions and lacerations: minor injuries in children I. Minor injuries in children (those that could reasonably be expected to heal with minimal medical intervention) are extremely common. The possibility of more serious injuries should be considered and excluded early. Successful examination requires gaining the child's trust, relieving pain early, and using a flexible and creative examination technique. Bruising may suggest a more serious underlying injury, or the bruising

2005 Medical Journal of Australia

9283. Posttraumatic migraine characteristics in athletes following sports-related concussion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Posttraumatic migraine characteristics in athletes following sports-related concussion. The object of this study was to compare symptom status and neurocognitive functioning in athletes with no headache (non-HA group), athletes complaining of headache (HA group), and athletes with characteristics of posttraumatic migraine (PTM group).Neurocognitive tests were undertaken by 261 high-school and collegiate athletes with a mean age of 16.36 +/- 2.6 years. Athletes were separated into three groups (...) : the PTM group (74 athletes with a mean age of 16.39 +/- 3.06 years), the HA group (124 athletes with a mean age of 16.44 +/- 2.51 years), and the non-HA group (63 patients with a mean age of 16.14 +/- 2.18 years). Neurocognitive summary scores (outcome measures) for verbal and visual memory, visual motor speed, reaction time, and total symptom scores were collected using ImPACT, a computer software program designed to assess sports-related concussion. Significant differences existed among the three

2005 Journal of Neurosurgery

9284. Sex differences in outcome following sports-related concussion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Sex differences in outcome following sports-related concussion. Females comprise an increasing percentage of the athlete population across all age groups, and analysis of recent literature reveals that they sustain more concussions in collegiate sports. Results of human and animal studies indicate that females may have poorer outcomes after traumatic brain injury; however, no return-to-play guideline takes sex or other individual differences into account. In the present study the authors (...) evaluated the influence of patient sex on objective neurocognitive performance and subjective reporting of symptoms following sports-related concussion.According to preseason baseline neurocognitive computerized testing in 2340 male and female high school and collegiate athletes, individuals who sustained sports-related concussions (155 persons) were reevaluated using an alternate form of the cognitive test. Sex differences in the magnitude of cognitive change from baseline levels and the subjective

2005 Journal of Neurosurgery

9285. Clinical inquiries. How should we follow athletes after a concussion? (Abstract)

Clinical inquiries. How should we follow athletes after a concussion? Athletes sustaining a concussion should be held from contact activities a minimum of 7 days; they must be asymptomatic and their coordination and neuropsychological tests should have returned to their pre-injury baseline (strength of recommendation [SOR]: B, based on multiple prospective cohort studies). High-risk athletes (eg, those with a history of previous concussion, high-school age or younger, or female) may need

2005 Journal of Family Practice

9286. Incidence and risk factors for concussion in high school athletes, North Carolina, 1996-1999. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Incidence and risk factors for concussion in high school athletes, North Carolina, 1996-1999. A prospective cohort study was used to quantify risk factors for sports concussions. Analysis was based on a stratified cluster sample of North Carolina high school athletes followed during 1996-1999. Clustering was by school and sport, and the sample included 15,802 athletes with 1-8 seasons of follow-up per athlete. Concussion rates were estimated for 12 sports, and risk factors were quantified using (...) generalized Poisson regression. Concussion rates ranged from 9.36 (95% confidence interval: 1.93, 16.80) per 100,000 athlete-exposures in cheerleading to 33.09 (95% confidence interval: 24.74, 41.44) per 100,000 athlete-exposures in football, where "athlete-exposure" is one athlete participating in one practice or game. The overall rate of concussion was 17.15 (95% confidence interval: 13.30, 21.00) per 100,000 athlete-exposures. Cheerleading was the only sport for which the practice rate was greater than

2004 American Journal of Epidemiology

9287. Bruising associated with sibutramine: results from postmarketing surveillance in New Zealand. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bruising associated with sibutramine: results from postmarketing surveillance in New Zealand. To determine whether postmarketing data provide evidence of an association of sibutramine with bruising.During a postmarketing surveillance study of sibutramine in New Zealand by the Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP), a series of reports of bruising was identified. Further case reports were also obtained from the World Health Organisation (WHO) adverse drug reactions database.All platelet (...) , bleeding and clotting events associated with sibutramine were identified and causality assessments were performed.From the IMMP and WHO databases a total of 16 cases of bruising that improved on withdrawal of sibutramine were identified. Of these, two had a recurrence of bruising on reintroduction of sibutramine.Evidence from postmarketing surveillance suggests that there is a causal association between sibutramine and bruising/ecchymosis. This represents a newly recognized adverse reaction

2006 International Journal of Obesity

9288. Delayed intracranial complications after concussion. (Abstract)

Delayed intracranial complications after concussion. The incidence of readmissions because of delayed intracranial complications within 3 weeks after observation for the sole diagnosis of concussion was examined in a national cohort. A nested case-control design was used to analyze the association between clinical factors as well as early computed tomography (CT) scan examination and these complications.Out of 100,784 patients hospitalized because of concussion during ten years, 127 (0.13 (...) %) patients were readmitted because of a delayed intracranial complication. High clinical severity grade (odds ratio [OR] 2.0, confidence interval [CI] 1.2-3.6), minor CT scan abnormalities (OR 1.7, CI 0.8-3.4) and male gender (OR 2.2, CI 1.4-3.5) were associated with an increased risk of delayed, intracranial complications.The incidence of delayed intracranial complications after primarily uncomplicated concussion was low. High clinical severity grade and male gender were risk factors. We failed

2006 Journal of Trauma

9289. Scaphoid bone bruising--probably not the precursor of asymptomatic non-union of the scaphoid. (Abstract)

Scaphoid bone bruising--probably not the precursor of asymptomatic non-union of the scaphoid. The MRI finding of bone marrow oedema, without fracture, following trauma to the scaphoid has been called a 'bone bruise'. A similar injury is found in the knee, considered benign and managed conservatively. In the scaphoid, there is the concern that this lesion may lead to scaphoid non-union. This study addresses that concern. The clinical and radiological findings of 41 patients with a scaphoid bone (...) bruise on MRI are described, an MRI classification system proposed and clinical outcomes investigated. Patients were immobilised for 6 weeks. At 3 months, 8 remained symptomatic and had repeat MRI. Four of these showed complete resolution of the bruise, the others improvement. At 6 months, 2 of the 8 complained of minor, intermittent discomfort but progressed to resolution of symptoms. This study suggests that the scaphoid bone bruise is a benign injury with predictable recovery and is unlikely

2007 Journal of Hand Surgery - European

9290. A study on the effect of the duration of subcutaneous heparin injection on bruising and pain. (Abstract)

A study on the effect of the duration of subcutaneous heparin injection on bruising and pain. This study was carried out to determine the effect of injection duration on bruising and pain following the administration of the subcutaneous injection of heparin.Although different methods to prevent bruising and pain following the subcutaneous injection of heparin have been widely studied and described, the effect of injection duration on the occurrence of bruising and pain is little documented.This (...) study was designed as within-subject, quasi-experimental research.The sample for the study consisted of 50 patients to whom subcutaneous heparin was administered. Heparin was injected over 10 seconds on the right abdominal site and 30 seconds on the left abdominal site. Injections areas were assessed for the presence of bruising at 48 and 72 hours after each injection. Dimensions of the bruising on the heparin applied areas were measured using transparent millimetric measuring paper. The visual

2008 Journal of clinical nursing Controlled trial quality: uncertain

9291. Two kampo medicines, jidabokuippo and hachimijiogan alleviate sprains, bruises and arthritis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Two kampo medicines, jidabokuippo and hachimijiogan alleviate sprains, bruises and arthritis. In traditional Chinese medicine theory (TCM), the affected parts of sprains, bruises and arthritis are considered to be under certain conditions of TCM concept. We administered two Kampo medicines with synergistic effects to promote quick recovery from these conditions. Jidabokuippo (Zhidapuyifang in Chinese), which means 'decoction for contusions' is expected to remove these conditions. Hachimijiogan (...) (Baweidihuangwan in Chinese), which translates as 'eight-ingredient pill with Rehmannia' is expected to restore presumed minute bone injury and regulates bone metabolism by changing such conditions based on TCM theory. We administered the two prescriptions to 10 patients (age range: 40-85 years; 1 male, 9 females) suffering from bruises, sprains, arthritis and spinal compression fracture without changing their routine intake of other drugs. Patients reported on changes in the pain of affected body parts

2007 Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM)

9292. Neural substrates of symptoms of depression following concussion in male athletes with persisting postconcussion symptoms. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neural substrates of symptoms of depression following concussion in male athletes with persisting postconcussion symptoms. Depressed mood is frequently reported by individuals who have sustained cerebral concussion but little is known about the nature of this alteration in mood state.To investigate whether the symptoms of depression reflect an ongoing pathophysiological change following concussion.Cohort study with male athletes using functional and structural neuroimaging.Hospital laboratory (...) and imaging facility.Fifty-six male athletes with and without concussion were divided into (1) a no depression symptom, concussed group, (2) a mild depression symptom, concussed group, (3) a moderate depression symptom, concussed group, and (4) a healthy control group.All athletes filled out a postconcussive symptoms checklist and the Beck Depression Inventory II and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging session, which included T1, T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences, as well

2008 Archives of General Psychiatry

9293. The practical application of reflectance spectrophotometry for the demonstration of haemoglobin and its degradation in bruises. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The practical application of reflectance spectrophotometry for the demonstration of haemoglobin and its degradation in bruises. To develop a non-invasive method to demonstrate the presence of haemoglobin and its degradation products in bruises in live human subjects for the purposes of objectively assisting in the determination of the age of a bruise.The cuvette holder unit of a Cary 100 Bio UV-Visible Spectrophotometer was replaced with the manufacture's fibre optic cable and optical (...) the spectrophotometer to collect reproducible absorption spectra of bruises in the skin of living subjects. A bruise at three days has greater negative first derivative values at 480 and 490 nm than does a fresh bruise, indicating the local degradation of haemoglobin. Correlation between the first derivative and the CIEL*a*b "b" values in a series of bruises indicates that the yellow colour in a bruise is proportional to the amount of local haemoglobin breakdown.The ability to demonstrate the presence

2004 Journal of Clinical Pathology

9294. The life cycle of bruises in older adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The life cycle of bruises in older adults. To summarize the occurrence, progression, and resolution of accidentally acquired bruises in a sample of adults aged 65 and older. The systematic documentation of accidentally occurring bruises in older adults could provide a foundation for comparison when considering suspicious bruising in older adults.Between April 2002 and August 2003, a convenience sample of 101 seniors was examined daily at home (up to 6 weeks) to document the occurrence (...) , progression, and resolution of accidental bruises that occurred during the observation period.Three community-based settings and two skilled nursing facilities in Orange County, California.One hundred one adults aged 65 and older (mean age=83).Age, sex, ethnicity, functional status, handedness, medical conditions, medications, cognitive status, depression, history of falls, bruise size, bruise location, initial bruise color, color change over time.Nearly 90% of the bruises were on the extremities

2005 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

9295. Pediatric sport-related concussion: a review of the clinical management of an oft-neglected population. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pediatric sport-related concussion: a review of the clinical management of an oft-neglected population. Athletic concussion is a growing focus of attention for pediatricians. Although numerous literature reviews and clinical guidelines are now available pertaining to athletic concussion, few have focused on the pediatric athlete in particular. Sport-related concussions occur relatively frequently in children and adolescents, and primary health care providers are often responsible (...) for coordinating clinical management. Here we summarize the scientific literature pertinent to the care of young athletes. We examine how concussion affects younger and older athletes differently at biomechanical, pathophysiological, neurobehavioral, and contextual levels. We also discuss important issues in clinical management, including preparticipation assessment, concussion evaluation and recovery tracking, and when and how to return pediatric athletes to play sports. We also briefly cover non-sport

2006 Pediatrics

9296. Radiographic outcome of vertebral bone bruise associated with fracture of the thoracic and lumbar spine in adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Radiographic outcome of vertebral bone bruise associated with fracture of the thoracic and lumbar spine in adults. Bone bruising associated with long bone injury is a defined entity with known radiological, pathologic and clinical features. Vertebral bone bruise (VBB) has been described through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the injured spine, but to date the consequences of this entity are unknown. The objective of this retrospective study was to describe the plain radiographic outcome (...) of injury and at follow-up. Abnormalities of the bone--implant interface were recorded at instrumented levels associated with VBB on follow-up radiographs. Thirty VBBs were identified in 18 adult patients who had suffered 21 vertebral fractures. At an average follow-up of 19 months (range, 12--30 months), the mean AWAs of the VBB vertebrae at the time of injury and at the most recent follow-up were 3.5 degrees and 3.8 degrees , respectively (p=0.33, paired t-test). A total of 12 out of 30 (40%) bruised

2005 European Spine Journal

9297. Raised intracranial pressure presenting with spontaneous periorbital bruising: two case reports. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Raised intracranial pressure presenting with spontaneous periorbital bruising: two case reports. The venous drainage of the orbit is known to be via the ophthalmic and vortex veins which communicate with the cavernous sinus. We describe two patients with raised intracranial pressure presenting with periorbital bruising. In one patient dural venous sinus thrombosis was demonstrated and it is suspected that the cause of the raised intracranial pressure may have been the same in the second. We

2004 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

9298. Neuropsychological dysfunction following repeat concussions in jockeys. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Neuropsychological dysfunction following repeat concussions in jockeys. Single and repeat concussions have a high prevalence in sport. However, there is limited research into longterm risks associated with single and repeat concussions.To determine the effects of single and repeat historical concussions on the neuropsychological functioning and neurological reports of licensed jockeys.Six hundred and ninety eight licensed jockeys in the UK were assessed for neurological and neuropsychological (...) symptoms of concussion at least three months after potential episodes.Jockeys reporting multiple historical injuries versus a single injury showed reliable decrements on a measure of response inhibition and, to a less robust degree, on divided attention. Younger adults showed greater vulnerability.Repeated concussion is associated with reliable decrements in cognitive performance--even after a three month window for recent recovery.

2006 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

9299. Cognition in the days following concussion: comparison of symptomatic versus asymptomatic athletes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cognition in the days following concussion: comparison of symptomatic versus asymptomatic athletes. Concussion is a common neurological injury occurring during contact sport. Current guidelines recommend that no athlete should return to play while symptomatic or displaying cognitive dysfunction. This study compared post-concussion cognitive function in recently concussed athletes who were symptomatic/asymptomatic at the time of assessment with that of non-injured (control) athletes.Prospective (...) study of 615 male Australian Rules footballers. Before the season, all participants (while healthy) completed a battery of baseline computerised (CogSport) and paper and pencil cognitive tasks. Sixty one injured athletes (symptomatic = 25 and asymptomatic = 36) were reassessed within 11 days of being concussed; 84 controls were also reassessed. The serial cognitive function of the three groups was compared using analysis of variance.The performance of the symptomatic group declined at the post

2006 Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

9300. Return-to-Play Criteria After Athletic Concussion: A Need for Revision. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Return-to-Play Criteria After Athletic Concussion: A Need for Revision. Management of a sport-related concussion, especially involving return-to-play decisions, is one of the most important challenges confronting sports medicine professionals. Current guidelines result from thoughtful consensus recommendations by expert committees but are chiefly based on the resolution of symptoms and the results of neuropsychological testing, if available. Adherence to this paradigm results in most injured

2008 Archives of Neurology

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