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41. RANTES levels in peripheral blood, CSF and contused brain tissue as a marker for outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients (PubMed)

RANTES levels in peripheral blood, CSF and contused brain tissue as a marker for outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes activation of several neurochemical and physiological cascades, leading to neurological impairment. We aimed to investigate the level of novel chemokine RANTES in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and contused brain tissue in traumatic brain injury patients and to correlate the expression of this chemokine with the severity of head (...) injury and neurological outcome.This longitudinal case control study was performed on 70 TBI patients over a period of 30 months. Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and Glasgow outcome score were used to assess the severity of head injury and clinical outcome. Level of RANTES was quantified in plasma (n = 60), CSF (N = 10) and contused brain tissue (n = 5). Alterations in the plasma levels on 1st and 5th day following TBI were assessed. Patients were categorized as severe (GCS < 8) (SHI), moderate and mild

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2017 BMC research notes

42. Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 may be an intervention target for improving sensory and locomotor functions after spinal cord contusion (PubMed)

Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 may be an intervention target for improving sensory and locomotor functions after spinal cord contusion Synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP-25) is localized on the synapse and participates in exocytosis and neurotransmitter release. Decreased expression of SNAP-25 is associated with Alzheimer's disease and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. However, the expression of SNAP-25 in spinal cord contusion injury is still unclear. We hypothesized (...) that SNAP-25 is associated with sensory and locomotor functions after spinal cord injury. We established rat models of spinal cord contusion injury to detect gene changes with a gene array. A decreased level of SNAP-25 was detected by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction and western blot assay at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post injury. SNAP-25 was localized in the cytoplasm of neurons of the anterior and posterior horns, which are involved in locomotor and sensory functions. Our data suggest

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2017 Neural Regeneration Research

43. A Tissue Displacement-based Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Model in Mice (PubMed)

A Tissue Displacement-based Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Model in Mice Producing a consistent and reproducible contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) is critical to minimizing behavioral and histological variabilities between experimental animals. Several contusive SCI models have been developed to produce injuries using different mechanisms. The severity of the SCI is based on the height that a given weight is dropped, the injury force, or the spinal cord displacement. In the current study, we (...) introduce a novel mouse contusive SCI device, the Louisville Injury System Apparatus (LISA) impactor, which can create a displacement-based SCI with high injury velocity and accuracy. This system utilizes laser distance sensors combined with advanced software to produce graded and highly-reproducible injuries. We performed a contusive SCI at the 10th thoracic vertebral (T10) level in mice to demonstrate the step-by-step procedure. The model can also be applied to the cervical and lumbar spinal levels.

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2017 Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE

44. Feasibility of Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessing Functional Recovery in Rats with Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Transplantation After Contusive Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) (PubMed)

Feasibility of Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Assessing Functional Recovery in Rats with Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Transplantation After Contusive Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) BACKGROUND Olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation is a promising treatment for spinal cord injury. Diffusion tensor imaging has been applied to assess various kinds of spinal cord injury. However, it has rarely been used to evaluate the beneficial effects of olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation. This study aimed (...) to explore the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging in the evaluation of functional recovery in rats with olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation after contusive spinal cord injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS Immunofluorescence staining was performed to determine the purity of olfactory ensheathing cells. Rats received cell transplantation at week 1 after injury. Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score was used to assess the functional recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging was applied weekly, including

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2017 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research

45. Clinical Significance and Prognostic Implications of Quantifying Pulmonary Contusion Volume in Patients with Blunt Chest Trauma (PubMed)

Clinical Significance and Prognostic Implications of Quantifying Pulmonary Contusion Volume in Patients with Blunt Chest Trauma BACKGROUND Pulmonary contusion (PC) is the most frequent blunt chest injury which could be used to identify patients at high-risk of clinical deterioration. We aimed to investigate the clinical correlation between PC volume and outcome in patients with blunt chest trauma (BCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS BCT patients with PC were identified retrospectively from (...) the prospectively collected trauma registry database over a 2-year period. Contusion volume was measured and expressed as percentage of total lung (CTCV) volume using three-dimensional reconstruction of thoracic CT images on admission. Data included patients' demographics, mechanism of injury (MOI) and injury severity, associated injuries, CTCV, mechanical ventilation, complications, and mortality. RESULTS A total of 226 BCT patients were identified to have PC with a mean age of 35.2 years. Motor vehicle crash

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2017 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research

46. Clinical study on the changes of lung-specific proteins: CC16 after lung contusion (PubMed)

Clinical study on the changes of lung-specific proteins: CC16 after lung contusion The aim of the present study was to examine the clinical value of continuously monitoring serum CC16 levels in diagnosing pulmonary contusion, estimating its severity degree and predicting disease progression. Thirty-one acute trauma patients with lung contusion diagnosed by chest computed tomography (CT) were included, and chest CT was re-examined on day 1, 3 and 7 after injury. Calculating all the contusion (...) volume by the Siemens syngo volume calculation program, complications such as pleural effusion or atelectasis were observed and recorded. ELISA was employed to measure the levels of CC16 in all the patients for seven days, and another 15 serum samples were obtained from healthy volunteers to provide the reference value. Correlation analysis was further conducted for the CC16 levels and pulmonary contusion volume and its variations. Serum concentrations of CC16 in all the lung contusion patients were

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2017 Experimental and therapeutic medicine

47. Compression Decreases Anatomical and Functional Recovery and Alters Inflammation after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury (PubMed)

Compression Decreases Anatomical and Functional Recovery and Alters Inflammation after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Experimental models of spinal cord injury (SCI) typically utilize contusion or compression injuries. Clinically, however, SCI is heterogeneous and the primary injury mode may affect secondary injury progression and neuroprotective therapeutic efficacy. Specifically, immunomodulatory agents are of therapeutic interest because the activation state of SCI macrophages may facilitate (...) pathology but also improve repair. It is unknown currently how the primary injury biomechanics affect macrophage activation. Therefore, to determine the effects of compression subsequent to spinal contusion, we examined recovery, secondary injury, and macrophage activation in C57/BL6 mice after SCI with or without a 20 sec compression at two contusion impact forces (50 and 75 kdyn). We observed that regardless of the initial impact force, compression increased tissue damage and worsened functional

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2017 Journal of neurotrauma

48. Motor cortex and spinal cord neuromodulation promote corticospinal tract axonal outgrowth and motor recovery after cervical contusion spinal cord injury (PubMed)

Motor cortex and spinal cord neuromodulation promote corticospinal tract axonal outgrowth and motor recovery after cervical contusion spinal cord injury Cervical injuries are the most common form of SCI. In this study, we used a neuromodulatory approach to promote skilled movement recovery and repair of the corticospinal tract (CST) after a moderately severe C4 midline contusion in adult rats. We used bilateral epidural intermittent theta burst (iTBS) electrical stimulation of motor cortex (...) and injury+stimulation animals. The contusion eliminated the dorsal CST in all animals. tsDCS significantly enhanced motor cortex evoked responses after C4 injury. Using this combined spinal-M1 neuromodulatory approach, we found significant recovery of skilled locomotion and forepaw manipulation skills compared with injury-only controls. The spared CST axons caudal to the lesion in both animal groups derived mostly from lateral CST axons that populated the contralateral intermediate zone. Stimulation

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2017 Experimental neurology

49. Chronic spinal cord changes in a high-fat diet-fed male rat model of thoracic spinal contusion (PubMed)

Chronic spinal cord changes in a high-fat diet-fed male rat model of thoracic spinal contusion Individuals that suffer injury to the spinal cord can result in long-term, debilitating sequelae. Spinal cord-injured patients have increased risk for the development of metabolic disease, which can further hinder the effectiveness of treatments to rehabilitate the cord and improve quality of life. In the present study, we sought to understand the impact of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (...) on spinal cord injury (SCI) by examining transcriptome changes in the area of the injury and rostral and caudal to site of damage 12 wk after injury. Adult, male Long-Evans rats received either thoracic level contusion of the spinal cord or sham laminectomy and then were allowed to recover on normal rat chow for 4 wk and further on HFD for an additional 8 wk. Spinal cord tissues harvested from the rats were processed for Affymetrix microarray and further transcriptomic analysis. Diverse changes in gene

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2017 Physiological genomics

50. Identifying the Long-Term Role of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Using a Transgenic Mouse Model (PubMed)

Identifying the Long-Term Role of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Using a Transgenic Mouse Model Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a potent mediator of oxidative stress during neuroinflammation triggered by neurotrauma or neurodegeneration. We previously demonstrated that acute iNOS inhibition attenuated iNOS levels and promoted neuroprotection and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study investigated the effects of chronic (...) iNOS ablation after SCI using inos-null mice. iNOS-/- knockout and wild-type (WT) control mice underwent a moderate thoracic (T8) contusive SCI. Locomotor function was assessed weekly, using the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS), and at the endpoint (six weeks), by footprint analysis. At the endpoint, the volume of preserved white and gray matter, as well as the number of dorsal column axons and perilesional blood vessels rostral to the injury, were quantified. At weeks two and three after SCI, iNOS-/- mice

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2017 International journal of molecular sciences

51. Derivation of a Predictive Score for Hemorrhagic Progression of Cerebral Contusions in Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (PubMed)

Derivation of a Predictive Score for Hemorrhagic Progression of Cerebral Contusions in Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury After traumatic brain injury (TBI), hemorrhagic progression of contusions (HPCs) occurs frequently. However, there is no established predictive score to identify high-risk patients for HPC.Consecutive patients who were hospitalized (2008-2013) with non-penetrating moderate or severe TBI were studied. The primary outcome was HPC, defined by both a relative increase (...) in contusion volume by ≥30 % and an absolute increase by ≥10 mL on serial imaging. Logistic regression models were created to identify independent risk factors for HPC. The HPC Score was then derived based on the final model.Among a total of 286 eligible patients, 61 (21 %) patients developed HPC. On univariate analyses, HPC was associated with older age, higher initial blood pressure, antiplatelet medications, anticoagulants, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) subdural hematoma (SDH), skull fracture, frontal

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2017 Neurocritical care

52. ST-segment elevation after blunt chest trauma: myocardial contusion with normal coronary arteries or myocardial infarction following coronary lesions (PubMed)

ST-segment elevation after blunt chest trauma: myocardial contusion with normal coronary arteries or myocardial infarction following coronary lesions Cardiac lesions secondary to blunt chest trauma vary from insignificant arrhythmias to fatal cardiac rupture. Of these, a distinction remains difficult; face to ST-segment elevation on ECG with positive cardiac biomarkers, is it a myocardial contusion or a genuine myocardial infarction (MI) secondary to coronary lesions? We report the case (...) of a patient admitted for multiple trauma. Initial assessment showed an ST segment elevation on ECG, along with multiple fractures and abdominal injuries. We would like to discuss, through this case, the similarities and the differences between myocardial infarction due to coronary lesions and myocardial contusion in a traumatic context, but also emphasize the difficulty of striking the right balance between thrombotic and bleeding risks in this situation, and insist on the importance

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2017 The Pan African medical journal

53. Normobaric hyperoxia does not improve derangements in diffusion tensor imaging found distant from visible contusions following acute traumatic brain injury (PubMed)

Normobaric hyperoxia does not improve derangements in diffusion tensor imaging found distant from visible contusions following acute traumatic brain injury We have previously shown that normobaric hyperoxia may benefit peri-lesional brain and white matter following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study examined the impact of brief exposure to hyperoxia using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to identify axonal injury distant from contusions. Fourteen patients with acute moderate/severe TBI

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2017 Scientific reports

54. Functional Recovery of Contused Spinal Cord in Rat with the Injection of Optimal‐Dosed Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles (PubMed)

Functional Recovery of Contused Spinal Cord in Rat with the Injection of Optimal‐Dosed Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Spinal cord injury (SCI) produces excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can exacerbate secondary injury and lead to permanent functional impairment. Hypothesizing that cerium oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) as an effective ROS scavenger may offset this damaging effect, it is first demonstrated in vitro that CONPs suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) generation (...) and enhanced cell viability of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-insulted cortical neurons. Next, CONPs are administered at various does (50-4000 µg mL-1) to a contused spinal cord rat model and monitored the disease progression for up to eight weeks. At one day postinjury, the number of iNOS+ cells decreases in the treated groups compared with the control. At one week, the cavity size and inflammatory cells are substantially reduced, and the expression of proinflammatory and apoptotic molecules is downregulated

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2017 Advanced Science

55. Localization of Fibrinogen in the Vasculo-Astrocyte Interface after Cortical Contusion Injury in Mice (PubMed)

Localization of Fibrinogen in the Vasculo-Astrocyte Interface after Cortical Contusion Injury in Mice Besides causing neuronal damage, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is involved in memory reduction, which can be a result of alterations in vasculo-neuronal interactions. Inflammation following TBI is involved in elevation of blood content of fibrinogen (Fg), which is known to enhance cerebrovascular permeability, and thus, enhance its deposition in extravascular space. However, the localization (...) of Fg in the extravascular space and its possible interaction with nonvascular cells are not clear. The localization of Fg deposition in the extravascular space was defined in brain samples of mice after cortical contusion injury (CCI) and sham-operation (control) using immunohistochemistry and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Memory changes were assessed with new object recognition and Y-maze tests. Data showed a greater deposition of Fg in the vascular and astrocyte endfeet interface in mice

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2017 Brain sciences

56. RNA-seq profiling reveals differentially expressed genes as potential markers for vital reaction in skin contusion: a pilot study (PubMed)

RNA-seq profiling reveals differentially expressed genes as potential markers for vital reaction in skin contusion: a pilot study Detection of the vitality of wounds is essential in forensic practice. The present study used Illumina RNA-seq technology to determine gene expression profiles in contused mouse skin. In obtained high quality sequencing reads, the reads were mapped onto a reference transcriptome (Mus_musculus.GRCm38.83). The results revealed that there were 659 up-regulated and 996 (...) down-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in contused mouse skin. The DEGs were further analyzed using the Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. Genes from different functional categories and signalling pathways were enriched, including the immune system process, immune response, defense response, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, complement and coagulation cascades and chemokine signalling pathway. Expression patterns of 11 DEGs were verified

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2017 Forensic sciences research

57. Spinal Cord Molecular and Cellular Changes Induced by Adenoviral Vector- and Cell-Mediated Triple Gene Therapy after Severe Contusion (PubMed)

Spinal Cord Molecular and Cellular Changes Induced by Adenoviral Vector- and Cell-Mediated Triple Gene Therapy after Severe Contusion The gene therapy has been successful in treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) in several animal models, although it still remains unavailable for clinical practice. Surprisingly, regardless the fact that multiple reports showed motor recovery with gene therapy, little is known about molecular and cellular changes in the post-traumatic spinal cord following viral

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2017 Frontiers in pharmacology

58. In Reply to the Letter to the Editor Regarding "Effects of Oral Glibenclamide on Brain Contusion Volume and Functional Outcome of Patients with Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injuries: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial". (PubMed)

In Reply to the Letter to the Editor Regarding "Effects of Oral Glibenclamide on Brain Contusion Volume and Functional Outcome of Patients with Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injuries: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial". 28847125 2017 09 14 2018 12 02 1878-8769 105 2017 09 World neurosurgery World Neurosurg In Reply to the Letter to the Editor Regarding "Effects of Oral Glibenclamide on Brain Contusion Volume and Functional Outcome of Patients with Moderate (...) Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Heydari Seyed Taghi ST Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. eng Letter Comment United States World Neurosurg 101528275 1878-8750 SX6K58TVWC Glyburide IM World Neurosurg. 2017 Sep;105:1020 28847124 Brain Contusion Brain Injuries Brain Injuries, Traumatic Contusions Double-Blind Method Glyburide Humans Treatment

2017 World neurosurgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

59. Letter to the Editor Regarding "Effects of Oral Glibenclamide on Brain Contusion Volume and Functional Outcome of Patients with Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injuries: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial". (PubMed)

Letter to the Editor Regarding "Effects of Oral Glibenclamide on Brain Contusion Volume and Functional Outcome of Patients with Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injuries: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial". 28847124 2017 09 14 2018 12 02 1878-8769 105 2017 09 World neurosurgery World Neurosurg Letter to the Editor Regarding "Effects of Oral Glibenclamide on Brain Contusion Volume and Functional Outcome of Patients with Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injuries (...) 28185976 World Neurosurg. 2017 Sep;105:1021 28847125 Brain Contusion Brain Injuries Brain Injuries, Traumatic Contusions Double-Blind Method Glyburide Humans Treatment Outcome 2017 06 03 2017 06 05 2017 8 30 6 0 2017 8 30 6 0 2017 9 15 6 0 ppublish 28847124 S1878-8750(17)30926-9 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.06.034

2017 World neurosurgery Controlled trial quality: predicted high

60. Effects of Oral Glibenclamide on Brain Contusion Volume and Functional Outcome of Patients with Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury; A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. (PubMed)

Effects of Oral Glibenclamide on Brain Contusion Volume and Functional Outcome of Patients with Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury; A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. This study investigated effects of oral glibenclamide on brain contusion volume and functional outcome of patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injuries.A randomized clinical trial including 66 patients with moderate (Glasgow Coma Scale score 9-12) to severe (Glasgow Coma Scale score 5 (...) -8) traumatic brain injury and brain contusions of <30 mL volume was conducted from May 2015 to August 2016 in a Level I trauma center in southern Iran. Patients who required surgical intervention were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 10 mg oral glibenclamide daily for 10 days (n = 29) or placebo in the same dosage (n = 23). Brain contusion volumetry was performed on days 0, 3, and 7 using spiral thin-cut brain computed tomography scan (1-mm thickness). Outcome measures

2017 World neurosurgery Controlled trial quality: predicted high

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