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Contusion

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41. Balance and Gait Alterations Observed More Than 2 Weeks After Concussion: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (Abstract)

Balance and Gait Alterations Observed More Than 2 Weeks After Concussion: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The aim of the study was to systematically review and quantitatively synthesize the existing evidence of balance and gait alterations lasting more than 2 wks after concussion in adults.A systematic review was conducted through PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Investigations must include adult participants with at least one concussion, were measured for 14 days after (...) injury, and reported balance or gait measures. Balance error scoring system scores, center of pressure sway area and displacement, and gait velocity were extracted for the meta-analysis.Twenty-two studies were included. Balance alterations were observed for 2 wks after concussion when participants were tested with eyes closed, for longer durations of time, and with nonlinear regulatory statistics. The meta-analysis of center of pressure sway area with no visual feedback indicated that concussed

2020 American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation

42. History of concussion and risk of subsequent injury in athletes and service members: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (Abstract)

History of concussion and risk of subsequent injury in athletes and service members: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Risk of secondary injury after a primary concussion in sports and military contexts is an emerging area of interest in research. The purpose of this review was to provide an evidence synthesis describing risk of injury in athletic and military populations with and without a history of concussion. Electronic database searches were completed through September 7, 2018 (...) in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and SCOPUS. Peer-reviewed observational studies of any design with participants who were athletes or service members; measured the outcome of any type of injury; and compared injury between those with and without a history of concussion were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the Q-Coh II. Twenty-seven articles were included. Seventeen meta-analyses were completed for risk of any injury, risk of concussion, and risk of extremity injury using odds, hazard, and rate ratios

2020 Musculoskeletal science & practice

43. The Role of Subsymptom Threshold Aerobic Exercise for Persistent Concussion Symptoms in Patients With Postconcussion Syndrome: A Systematic Review. (Abstract)

The Role of Subsymptom Threshold Aerobic Exercise for Persistent Concussion Symptoms in Patients With Postconcussion Syndrome: A Systematic Review. In recent years, there has been a shift away from rest until total symptom resolution after concussion, due to the potential adverse consequences of inactivity. Aerobic exercise has been increasingly investigated for the treatment of postconcussion syndrome, whereby symptoms persist beyond 4 wks. The aim of this review was to systematically review

2020 American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation

44. Protease-Activated Receptor-1 Supports Locomotor Recovery by Biased Agonist Activated Protein C after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury. (Full text)

Protease-Activated Receptor-1 Supports Locomotor Recovery by Biased Agonist Activated Protein C after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury. Thrombin-induced secondary injury is mediated through its receptor, protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), by "biased agonism." Activated protein C (APC) acts through the same PAR-1 receptor but functions as an anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory protein, which counteracts many of the effects of thrombin. Although the working mechanism of PAR-1 is becoming clear (...) , the functional role of PAR-1 and its correlation with APC in the injured spinal cord remains to be elucidated. Here we investigated if PAR-1 and APC are determinants of long-term functional recovery after a spinal cord contusive injury using PAR-1 null and wild-type mice. We found that neutrophil infiltration and disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier were significantly reduced in spinal cord injured PAR-1 null mice relative to the wild-type group. Both locomotor recovery and ability to descend

2017 PLoS ONE PubMed abstract

45. Efficacy and tolerability of a new ibuprofen 200mg plaster in patients with acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion. (Abstract)

Efficacy and tolerability of a new ibuprofen 200mg plaster in patients with acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion. Ibuprofen is used for the treatment of non-serious pain. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of a new ibuprofen plaster for the treatment of pain associated with acute sports impact injuries/contusions.In this randomised, double-blind, multi-centre, placebo controlled, parallel group study, adults (n = 130; 18-58 years of age) diagnosed (...) with acute sports-related blunt soft tissue injury/contusion were randomized to receive either ibuprofen 200 mg plaster or placebo plaster. Plasters were administered once daily for five consecutive days. The primary assessment was area under the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain on movement (POM) over 0 to three days (VAS AUC0-3d). Other endpoints included algometry AUC from 0 to three days (AUC0-3d) and 0 to five days (AUC0-5d), to evaluate improvement of sensitivity at the injured site, and patient

2018 Postgraduate medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

46. Factors Related to the Use of Topical vs. Oral NSAIDs for Sprains, Strains, and Contusions in a Senior Population: A Retrospective Analysis of Administrative Claims Data. (Abstract)

Factors Related to the Use of Topical vs. Oral NSAIDs for Sprains, Strains, and Contusions in a Senior Population: A Retrospective Analysis of Administrative Claims Data. Research to date on sprains, strains, and contusions has focused mainly on the analysis of sports-related injuries, occupational injuries, injuries resulting from automobile accidents, and severe injuries that result in inpatient hospital stays. Little is known about real-world acute sprains, strains, and contusions (...) in an aging population. Patients may be treated with over-the-counter, oral, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for acute sprains, strains, and contusions or may require the use of prescription NSAIDs. For sprains, strains, and contusions treated with prescription NSAIDs, the choice of topical administration or oral administration likely depends on a number of factors such as age and comorbid conditions.The objective of the study was to identify factors associated with the use

2018 Drugs & Aging

47. A Sub-acute Cerebral Contusion Presenting with Medication-resistant Psychosis (Full text)

contusion with concussion was diagnosed on initial admission with increasing homicidal and suicidal ideations after 26 hours of insomnia. The patient accomplished rest after seven days of medication-resistant insomnia with the final combination of ziprasidone and lorazepam. After one night of sleep, the patient was alert and oriented with normal mood, affect, and cognition. The insomnia appeared to exacerbate this patient's symptoms, and an atypical insomnia treatment regimen was required to induce (...) A Sub-acute Cerebral Contusion Presenting with Medication-resistant Psychosis The most common symptoms of a cerebral contusion include headache, dizziness, concentration problems, and memory loss. Insomnia is reported by more than half of the patients and can exacerbate symptoms. A 24-year-old previously healthy male presented with psychosis, acute personality changes, auditory and visual hallucinations three weeks after falling 15 feet with concurrent head trauma. A right-sided cerebral

2018 Cureus PubMed abstract

48. Decrease in Cavity Size and Oligodendrocyte Cell Death Using Neurosphere-Derived Oligodendrocyte-Like Cells in Spinal Cord Contusion Model (Full text)

Decrease in Cavity Size and Oligodendrocyte Cell Death Using Neurosphere-Derived Oligodendrocyte-Like Cells in Spinal Cord Contusion Model Oligodendrocyte cell death is among the important features of spinal cord injury, which appears within 15 min and occurs intensely for 4 h after injury, in the rat spinal contusion model. Accordingly, the number of oligodendrocytes progressively reduced within 24 h after injury. Administration of oligodendrocyte-like cells (OLCs) into the lesion area is one (...) of the approaches to counterbalance this condition.Bone marrow stromal cells were transdifferentiated into neurospheres and then into neural stem cells and later were differentiated into OLCs using triiodothyronine and transplanted into the spinal cord contusion rats. The post-injury functional recovery was explored and compared with the control group using Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan and narrow beam behavioral tests. At the end of 12th week, spinal cord segments T12-L1 were histomorphologically studied

2018 Iranian biomedical journal PubMed abstract

49. Effects of dextrose prolotherapy on contusion-induced muscle injuries in mice (Full text)

Effects of dextrose prolotherapy on contusion-induced muscle injuries in mice Current treatment options for muscle injuries remain suboptimal and often result in delayed/incomplete recovery of damaged muscles. In this study, the effects of dextrose prolotherapy on inflammation and regeneration of skeletal muscles after a contusion injury were investigated. Mice were separated into five groups, including a normal control (NC), post-injury with no treatment (mass-drop injury, MDI), post-injury

2018 International journal of medical sciences PubMed abstract

50. L-Carnitine and extendin-4 improve outcomes following moderate brain contusion injury (Full text)

L-Carnitine and extendin-4 improve outcomes following moderate brain contusion injury There is a need for pharmaceutical agents that can reduce neuronal loss and improve functional deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous research suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a major role in neuronal damage after TBI. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate two drugs known to have antioxidant effects, L-carnitine and exendin-4, in rats with moderate (...) contusive TBI. L-carnitine (1.5 mM in drinking water) or exendin-4 (15 µg/kg/day, ip) were given immediately after the injury for 2 weeks. Neurological function and brain histology were examined (24 h and 6 weeks post injury). The rats with TBI showed slight sensory, motor and memory functional deficits at 24 h, but recovered by 6 weeks. Both treatments improved sensory and motor functions at 24 h, while only exendin-4 improved memory. Both treatments reduced cortical contusion at 24 h and 6 weeks

2018 Scientific reports PubMed abstract

51. Impact of contusion injury on intramuscular emm1 group a streptococcus infection and lymphatic spread (Full text)

Impact of contusion injury on intramuscular emm1 group a streptococcus infection and lymphatic spread Invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) is frequently associated with emm1 isolates, with an attendant mortality of around 20%. Cases occasionally arise in previously healthy individuals with a history of upper respiratory tract infection, soft tissue contusion, and no obvious portal of entry. Using a new murine model of contusion, we determined the impact of contusion on iGAS bacterial burden (...) and phenotype. Calibrated mild blunt contusion did not provide a focus for initiation or seeding of GAS that was detectable following systemic GAS bacteremia, but instead enhanced GAS migration to the local draining lymph node following GAS inoculation at the same time and site of contusion. Increased migration to lymph node was associated with emergence of mucoid bacteria, although was not specific to mucoid bacteria. In one study, mucoid colonies demonstrated a significant increase in capsular hyaluronan

2018 Virulence PubMed abstract

52. Pulmonary contusion after bumper car collision: Case report and review of the literature (Full text)

Pulmonary contusion after bumper car collision: Case report and review of the literature Thoracic trauma is a major source of morbi-mortality in injured children. Their pliable chest wall makes pulmonary contusion the most common chest injury. It is most often secondary to blunt trauma caused by traffic accidents. We report a case of severe chest trauma caused by a bumper car collision in an 8-years old girl. She sustained right lung contusion that led to complete atelectasis. After a week

2018 Respiratory Medicine Case Reports PubMed abstract

53. Distinguishing between enduring and dynamic concussion symptoms: applying Generalisability Theory to the Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) (Full text)

Distinguishing between enduring and dynamic concussion symptoms: applying Generalisability Theory to the Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) The Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ) is a widely-used, 16-item measure of concussion symptoms yet its ability to assess change in the symptom experience over time has come under criticism. We applied Generalisability theory to differentiate between dynamic and enduring aspects of post-concussion symptoms (...) by interaction between person and occasion. Items measuring concentration, fatigue, restlessness and irritability reflected more dynamic patterns compared to more enduring patterns of sensitivity to noise, impatience, nausea and sleep disturbance.The RPQ demonstrated strong reliability in assessing enduring post-concussion symptoms but its ability to assess dynamic symptoms is limited. Clinicians should exercise caution in use of the RPQ to track dynamic symptom change over time. Further investigation

2018 PeerJ PubMed abstract

54. Heart rate variability following youth concussion: how do autonomic regulation and concussion symptoms differ over time postinjury? (Full text)

Heart rate variability following youth concussion: how do autonomic regulation and concussion symptoms differ over time postinjury? Following youth concussion, objective physiological indicators are needed to corroborate changes in subjective clinical measures. The objectives of the current study were to: (1) explore the effect of concussion on heart rate variability (HRV) across days postinjury in youth athletes aged 13-18 years old, compared with healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls (...) and (2) examine the relationship between postconcussion symptom domains (physical, cognitive, fatigue and emotional) and HRV.Prospective, longitudinal, case-control study (N=44). This study comprised 29 concussed athletes between the ages of 13 and 18 years old (21 females, 8 males) and 15 age-matched and sex-matched controls). All participants completed baseline testing, which included demographic information (age, sex, concussion history), self-reported concussion symptoms (Post-Concussion Symptom

2018 BMJ Open Sport — Exercise Medicine PubMed abstract

55. Locomotor recovery following contusive spinal cord injury does not require oligodendrocyte remyelination (Full text)

Locomotor recovery following contusive spinal cord injury does not require oligodendrocyte remyelination Remyelination occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI) but its functional relevance is unclear. We assessed the necessity of myelin regulatory factor (Myrf) in remyelination after contusive SCI by deleting the gene from platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha positive (PDGFRα-positive) oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in mice prior to SCI. While OPC proliferation and density (...) -positive cell derived oligodendrocytes is indispensable for myelin regeneration following contusive SCI but that oligodendrocyte remyelination is not required for spontaneous recovery of stepping.

2018 Nature communications PubMed abstract

56. Ultrabiomicroscopy Anterior Segment Evaluation of Ocular Contusive Trauma Caused by Pressurized Bottled Drink Caps: A Case Report (Full text)

Ultrabiomicroscopy Anterior Segment Evaluation of Ocular Contusive Trauma Caused by Pressurized Bottled Drink Caps: A Case Report We report the case of a patient presented to the emergency department because of a contusive trauma from a pressurized bottled drink cap. During the visit, the patient indicated that he had been hit in his left eye by a cork while he was opening a sparkling wine bottle. He underwent a total ophthalmology examination. He had an important reduction of visual acuity

2018 Case reports in ophthalmology PubMed abstract

57. Cell Specific Changes of Autophagy in a Mouse Model of Contusive Spinal Cord Injury (Full text)

Cell Specific Changes of Autophagy in a Mouse Model of Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Autophagy is an essential process of cellular waist clearance that becomes altered following spinal cord injury (SCI). Details on these changes, including timing after injury, underlying mechanisms, and affected cells, remain controversial. Here we present a characterization of autophagy in the mice spinal cord before and after a contusive SCI. In the undamaged spinal cord, analysis of LC3 and Beclin 1 (...) autophagic markers reveals important differences in basal autophagy between neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes and even within cell populations. Following moderate contusion, western blot analyses of LC3 indicates that autophagy increases to a maximum at 7 days post injury (dpi), whereas unaltered Beclin 1 expression and increase of p62 suggests a possible blockage of autophagosome clearance. Immunofluorescence analyses of LC3 and Beclin 1 provide additional details that reveal a complex, cell

2018 Frontiers in cellular neuroscience PubMed abstract

58. Paraplegia Following Spinal Cord Contusion from an Indirect Gunshot Injury (Full text)

Paraplegia Following Spinal Cord Contusion from an Indirect Gunshot Injury Spinal cord injuries are debilitating and life threatening. Paraplegia due to direct traumatic gunshot injury to the spinal cord is common. The most common cause of spinal cord injury is road traffic accidents. This is followed by spinal cord injury due to a fall from a height. Most of the spinal cord injuries due to gunshot wounds occur as a result of direct traumatic effects. We present a rare case of a 49-year-old (...) male with trauma. He developed paraplegia after a gunshot wound injury to the neck and contusion to the spinal cord, with no direct trauma. Paraplegia due to direct gunshot injury can have many different outcomes. In our case, the patient was managed conservatively, and the outcome was favorable.

2018 Korean Journal of Neurotrauma PubMed abstract

59. Cerebral Microcirculation and Histological Mapping After Severe Head Injury: A Contusion and Acceleration Experimental Model (Full text)

Cerebral Microcirculation and Histological Mapping After Severe Head Injury: A Contusion and Acceleration Experimental Model Cerebral microcirculation after severe head injury is heterogeneous and temporally variable. Microcirculation is dependent upon the severity of injury, and it is unclear how histology relates to cerebral regional blood flow.This study assesses the changes of cerebral microcirculation blood flow over time after an experimental brain injury model in sheep and contrasts (...) region were reduced from baseline, although their confidence intervals crossing the horizontal ratio of 1 indicated that such reduction was not statistically significant. Histological analysis demonstrated the presence of moderate and severe score on the amyloid staining throughout both hemispheres.Microcirculation at the ipsilateral and contralateral site of a contusion and the ipsilateral thalamus and medulla showed a consistent decline over time. Our data suggest that after severe head injury

2018 Frontiers in neurology PubMed abstract

60. Heparin-free extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a patient with severe pulmonary contusions and bronchial disruption (Full text)

Heparin-free extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in a patient with severe pulmonary contusions and bronchial disruption Pulmonary contusion complicated with endobronchial hemorrhage is potentially life-threatening, particularly in patients with tracheobronchial tree disruption and severe airway bleeding after blunt trauma, and pose a high mortality risk. In such cases, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used as a salvage treatment modality. However, the use of ECMO for moribund (...) trauma patients with respiratory failure may be limited for several reasons, such as intractable bleeding. In this case report, we describe a patient with severe bilateral pulmonary contusions with tracheobronchial tree disruption that was successfully treated using heparin-free venovenous ECMO.

2018 Clinical and experimental emergency medicine PubMed abstract

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