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3. Bone contusion progression from traumatic knee injury: association of rate of contusion resolution with injury severity (Full text)

Bone contusion progression from traumatic knee injury: association of rate of contusion resolution with injury severity Bone contusions are frequently encountered in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Their role as indicators of injury severity remains unclear, primarily due to indeterminate levels of joint injury forces and to a lack of preinjury imaging.The purpose of this study was to 1) quantify bone contusion pathogenesis (...) following traumatic joint injuries using fixed imaging follow-ups, and 2) assess the feasibility of using longitudinal bone contusion volumes as an indicator of knee injury severity.Prospective sequential MRI follow-ups of a goat cohort exposed to controlled stifle trauma in vivo were compared to parallel clinical MRI follow-ups of a human ACL tear patient series.Reproducible cartilage impact damage of various energy magnitudes was applied in a survival goat model, coupled with partial resection

2017 Open access journal of sports medicine PubMed

4. A novel technique to develop thoracic spinal laminectomy and a methodology to assess the functionality and welfare of the contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) rat model. (Full text)

A novel technique to develop thoracic spinal laminectomy and a methodology to assess the functionality and welfare of the contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) rat model. This study reports the advantage of a novel technique employing a motorised dental burr to assist laminectomy over the conventional manual technique at T10-T11 vertebra level in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Twenty-four female rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) conventionally laminectomised, (2) dental burr (...) assisted laminectomised, (3) conventionally laminectomised with spinal cord contusion and (4) dental burr assisted laminectomised with spinal cord contusion. Basso Beattie Bresnahan (BBB) score, postoperative body weights, rat grimace scale (RGS), open cage activity and rearing was studied at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days postoperatively, and area of spinal tissue affected was evaluated histologically. Laminectomised and spinal cord injured rats from dental burr groups showed significantly more weight gain

2019 PLoS ONE PubMed

5. It was not a hip fracture - you were lucky this time - or perhaps not! A prospective study of clinical outcomes in patients with low-energy pelvic fractures and hip contusions. (PubMed)

It was not a hip fracture - you were lucky this time - or perhaps not! A prospective study of clinical outcomes in patients with low-energy pelvic fractures and hip contusions. Prehospital and hospital emergency care guidelines have been developed for patients with suspected hip fracture. Initial radiography can identify a number of patients with other injuries, generally pelvic fractures and hip contusions. Little is known about the prognosis for these patients. The aim of this study (...) , repeated prehospital emergency care and mortality were made between verified HF and OHI cases.449 patients were included, 400 in the HF and 149 in the OHI group (86 hip contusions, 46 pelvic fractures and 17 other injuries/diseases). The HF group had a significantly longer hospital stay (9.5 days vs. 6.3 for the OHI group; p < 0.001) and more adverse events while in hospital (34% vs. 19%; p < 0.001). We found no evidence that the groups differed with regard to other outcomes: mortality during hospital

2019 Injury

6. Protease-Activated Receptor-1 Supports Locomotor Recovery by Biased Agonist Activated Protein C after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury. (Full text)

Protease-Activated Receptor-1 Supports Locomotor Recovery by Biased Agonist Activated Protein C after Contusive Spinal Cord Injury. Thrombin-induced secondary injury is mediated through its receptor, protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), by "biased agonism." Activated protein C (APC) acts through the same PAR-1 receptor but functions as an anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory protein, which counteracts many of the effects of thrombin. Although the working mechanism of PAR-1 is becoming clear (...) , the functional role of PAR-1 and its correlation with APC in the injured spinal cord remains to be elucidated. Here we investigated if PAR-1 and APC are determinants of long-term functional recovery after a spinal cord contusive injury using PAR-1 null and wild-type mice. We found that neutrophil infiltration and disruption of the blood-spinal cord barrier were significantly reduced in spinal cord injured PAR-1 null mice relative to the wild-type group. Both locomotor recovery and ability to descend

2017 PLoS ONE PubMed

7. The swimming test is effective for evaluating spasticity after contusive spinal cord injury. (Full text)

The swimming test is effective for evaluating spasticity after contusive spinal cord injury. Spasticity is a frequent chronic complication in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the severity of spasticity varies in patients with SCI. Therefore, an evaluation method is needed to determine the severity of spasticity. We used a contusive SCI model that is suitable for clinical translation. In this study, we examined the feasibility of the swimming test and an EMG for evaluating (...) spasticity in a contusive SCI rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats received an injury at the 8th thoracic vertebra. Swimming tests were performed 3 to 6 weeks after SCI induction. We placed the SCI rats into spasticity-strong or spasticity-weak groups based on the frequency of spastic behavior during the swimming test. Subsequently, we recorded the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) and examined the immunoreactivity of serotonin (5-HT) and its receptor (5-HT2A) in the spinal tissues of the SCI rats. The spasticity

2017 PLoS ONE PubMed

8. Efficacy and tolerability of a new ibuprofen 200mg plaster in patients with acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion. (PubMed)

Efficacy and tolerability of a new ibuprofen 200mg plaster in patients with acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion. Ibuprofen is used for the treatment of non-serious pain. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of a new ibuprofen plaster for the treatment of pain associated with acute sports impact injuries/contusions.In this randomised, double-blind, multi-centre, placebo controlled, parallel group study, adults (n = 130; 18-58 years of age) diagnosed (...) with acute sports-related blunt soft tissue injury/contusion were randomized to receive either ibuprofen 200 mg plaster or placebo plaster. Plasters were administered once daily for five consecutive days. The primary assessment was area under the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain on movement (POM) over 0 to three days (VAS AUC0-3d). Other endpoints included algometry AUC from 0 to three days (AUC0-3d) and 0 to five days (AUC0-5d), to evaluate improvement of sensitivity at the injured site, and patient

2018 Postgraduate medicine

9. Effects of atorvastatin on brain contusion volume and functional outcome of patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury; a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. (PubMed)

Effects of atorvastatin on brain contusion volume and functional outcome of patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury; a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on brain contusion volume and functional outcome of patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study was conducted as a randomized clinical trial during a 16-month period from May 2015 and August 2016 (...) in a level I trauma center in Shiraz, Southern Iran. We included 65 patients with moderate (GCS: 9-13) to severe (GCS: 5-8) TBI who had brain contusions of less than 30cc volume. We excluded those who required surgical intervention. Patients were randomly assigned to receive daily 20mg atorvastatin for 10days (n=21) or placebo in the same dosage (n=23). The brain contusion volumetry was performed on days 0, 3 and 7 utilizing spiral thin-cut brain CT-Scan (1-mm thickness). The outcome measured included

2018 Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia

10. Effects of dextrose prolotherapy on contusion-induced muscle injuries in mice (Full text)

Effects of dextrose prolotherapy on contusion-induced muscle injuries in mice Current treatment options for muscle injuries remain suboptimal and often result in delayed/incomplete recovery of damaged muscles. In this study, the effects of dextrose prolotherapy on inflammation and regeneration of skeletal muscles after a contusion injury were investigated. Mice were separated into five groups, including a normal control (NC), post-injury with no treatment (mass-drop injury, MDI), post-injury

2018 International journal of medical sciences PubMed

11. Ultrabiomicroscopy Anterior Segment Evaluation of Ocular Contusive Trauma Caused by Pressurized Bottled Drink Caps: A Case Report (Full text)

Ultrabiomicroscopy Anterior Segment Evaluation of Ocular Contusive Trauma Caused by Pressurized Bottled Drink Caps: A Case Report We report the case of a patient presented to the emergency department because of a contusive trauma from a pressurized bottled drink cap. During the visit, the patient indicated that he had been hit in his left eye by a cork while he was opening a sparkling wine bottle. He underwent a total ophthalmology examination. He had an important reduction of visual acuity

2018 Case reports in ophthalmology PubMed

12. L-Carnitine and extendin-4 improve outcomes following moderate brain contusion injury (Full text)

L-Carnitine and extendin-4 improve outcomes following moderate brain contusion injury There is a need for pharmaceutical agents that can reduce neuronal loss and improve functional deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous research suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a major role in neuronal damage after TBI. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate two drugs known to have antioxidant effects, L-carnitine and exendin-4, in rats with moderate (...) contusive TBI. L-carnitine (1.5 mM in drinking water) or exendin-4 (15 µg/kg/day, ip) were given immediately after the injury for 2 weeks. Neurological function and brain histology were examined (24 h and 6 weeks post injury). The rats with TBI showed slight sensory, motor and memory functional deficits at 24 h, but recovered by 6 weeks. Both treatments improved sensory and motor functions at 24 h, while only exendin-4 improved memory. Both treatments reduced cortical contusion at 24 h and 6 weeks

2018 Scientific reports PubMed

13. Locomotor recovery following contusive spinal cord injury does not require oligodendrocyte remyelination (Full text)

Locomotor recovery following contusive spinal cord injury does not require oligodendrocyte remyelination Remyelination occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI) but its functional relevance is unclear. We assessed the necessity of myelin regulatory factor (Myrf) in remyelination after contusive SCI by deleting the gene from platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha positive (PDGFRα-positive) oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in mice prior to SCI. While OPC proliferation and density (...) -positive cell derived oligodendrocytes is indispensable for myelin regeneration following contusive SCI but that oligodendrocyte remyelination is not required for spontaneous recovery of stepping.

2018 Nature communications PubMed

14. Impact of contusion injury on intramuscular emm1 group a streptococcus infection and lymphatic spread (Full text)

Impact of contusion injury on intramuscular emm1 group a streptococcus infection and lymphatic spread Invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) is frequently associated with emm1 isolates, with an attendant mortality of around 20%. Cases occasionally arise in previously healthy individuals with a history of upper respiratory tract infection, soft tissue contusion, and no obvious portal of entry. Using a new murine model of contusion, we determined the impact of contusion on iGAS bacterial burden (...) and phenotype. Calibrated mild blunt contusion did not provide a focus for initiation or seeding of GAS that was detectable following systemic GAS bacteremia, but instead enhanced GAS migration to the local draining lymph node following GAS inoculation at the same time and site of contusion. Increased migration to lymph node was associated with emergence of mucoid bacteria, although was not specific to mucoid bacteria. In one study, mucoid colonies demonstrated a significant increase in capsular hyaluronan

2018 Virulence PubMed

15. Blossoming contusions: identifying factors contributing to the expansion of traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. (Full text)

Blossoming contusions: identifying factors contributing to the expansion of traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Here, the authors examined the factors involved in the volumetric progression of traumatic brain contusions. The variables significant in this progression are identified, and the expansion rate of a brain bleed can now effectively be predicted given the presenting characteristics of the patient.

2018 Journal of Neurosurgery PubMed

16. Paraplegia Following Spinal Cord Contusion from an Indirect Gunshot Injury (Full text)

Paraplegia Following Spinal Cord Contusion from an Indirect Gunshot Injury Spinal cord injuries are debilitating and life threatening. Paraplegia due to direct traumatic gunshot injury to the spinal cord is common. The most common cause of spinal cord injury is road traffic accidents. This is followed by spinal cord injury due to a fall from a height. Most of the spinal cord injuries due to gunshot wounds occur as a result of direct traumatic effects. We present a rare case of a 49-year-old (...) male with trauma. He developed paraplegia after a gunshot wound injury to the neck and contusion to the spinal cord, with no direct trauma. Paraplegia due to direct gunshot injury can have many different outcomes. In our case, the patient was managed conservatively, and the outcome was favorable.

2018 Korean Journal of Neurotrauma PubMed

17. Macrophage depletion and Schwann cell transplantation reduce cyst size after rat contusive spinal cord injury (Full text)

Macrophage depletion and Schwann cell transplantation reduce cyst size after rat contusive spinal cord injury Schwann cell transplantation is a promising therapy for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) and is currently in clinical trials. In our continuing efforts to improve Schwann cell transplantation strategies, we sought to determine the combined effects of Schwann cell transplantation with macrophage depletion. Since macrophages are major inflammatory contributors to the acute spinal (...) cord injury, and are the major phagocytic cells, we hypothesized that transplanting Schwann cells after macrophage depletion will improve cell survival and integration with host tissue after SCI. To test this hypothesis, rat models of contusive SCI at thoracic level 8 were randomly subjected to macrophage depletion or not. In rat subjected to macrophage depletion, liposomes filled with clodronate were intraperitoneally injected at 1, 3, 6, 11, and 18 days post injury. Rats not subjected

2018 Neural Regeneration Research PubMed

18. Cell Specific Changes of Autophagy in a Mouse Model of Contusive Spinal Cord Injury (Full text)

Cell Specific Changes of Autophagy in a Mouse Model of Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Autophagy is an essential process of cellular waist clearance that becomes altered following spinal cord injury (SCI). Details on these changes, including timing after injury, underlying mechanisms, and affected cells, remain controversial. Here we present a characterization of autophagy in the mice spinal cord before and after a contusive SCI. In the undamaged spinal cord, analysis of LC3 and Beclin 1 (...) autophagic markers reveals important differences in basal autophagy between neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes and even within cell populations. Following moderate contusion, western blot analyses of LC3 indicates that autophagy increases to a maximum at 7 days post injury (dpi), whereas unaltered Beclin 1 expression and increase of p62 suggests a possible blockage of autophagosome clearance. Immunofluorescence analyses of LC3 and Beclin 1 provide additional details that reveal a complex, cell

2018 Frontiers in cellular neuroscience PubMed

19. Cerebral Microcirculation and Histological Mapping After Severe Head Injury: A Contusion and Acceleration Experimental Model (Full text)

Cerebral Microcirculation and Histological Mapping After Severe Head Injury: A Contusion and Acceleration Experimental Model Cerebral microcirculation after severe head injury is heterogeneous and temporally variable. Microcirculation is dependent upon the severity of injury, and it is unclear how histology relates to cerebral regional blood flow.This study assesses the changes of cerebral microcirculation blood flow over time after an experimental brain injury model in sheep and contrasts (...) region were reduced from baseline, although their confidence intervals crossing the horizontal ratio of 1 indicated that such reduction was not statistically significant. Histological analysis demonstrated the presence of moderate and severe score on the amyloid staining throughout both hemispheres.Microcirculation at the ipsilateral and contralateral site of a contusion and the ipsilateral thalamus and medulla showed a consistent decline over time. Our data suggest that after severe head injury

2018 Frontiers in neurology PubMed

20. Decrease in Cavity Size and Oligodendrocyte Cell Death Using Neurosphere-Derived Oligodendrocyte-Like Cells in Spinal Cord Contusion Model (Full text)

Decrease in Cavity Size and Oligodendrocyte Cell Death Using Neurosphere-Derived Oligodendrocyte-Like Cells in Spinal Cord Contusion Model Oligodendrocyte cell death is among the important features of spinal cord injury, which appears within 15 min and occurs intensely for 4 h after injury, in the rat spinal contusion model. Accordingly, the number of oligodendrocytes progressively reduced within 24 h after injury. Administration of oligodendrocyte-like cells (OLCs) into the lesion area is one (...) of the approaches to counterbalance this condition.Bone marrow stromal cells were transdifferentiated into neurospheres and then into neural stem cells and later were differentiated into OLCs using triiodothyronine and transplanted into the spinal cord contusion rats. The post-injury functional recovery was explored and compared with the control group using Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan and narrow beam behavioral tests. At the end of 12th week, spinal cord segments T12-L1 were histomorphologically studied

2018 Iranian biomedical journal PubMed

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