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Contraction Stress Test

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2561. Acute changes of cerebral venous blood flow in growth-restricted human fetuses in response to uterine contractions. (PubMed)

Acute changes of cerebral venous blood flow in growth-restricted human fetuses in response to uterine contractions. The fetal cerebral venous circulation during acute hypoxic stress provoked by uterine contractions has not been studied previously. The aim of this study was to explore the cerebral venous circulation during an oxytocin challenge test (OCT) in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses.Doppler recordings of blood flow in the vein of Galen (GV), straight sinus (SS (...) ) and transverse sinus (TS) before and during uterine contractions and relaxation were obtained at the same time as electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring in 44 term IUGR fetuses. The OCT was classified as negative (normal FHR) or positive (late FHR decelerations). Non-parametric statistics were used to test differences between OCT groups.In OCT-negative cases (n = 39), de novo pulsations occurred in the GV, and SS flow velocities increased during contractions compared with basal measurements. There were

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2004 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

2562. Breast stimulation test and oxytocin challenge test in fetal surveillance: a prospective randomized study. (PubMed)

Breast stimulation test and oxytocin challenge test in fetal surveillance: a prospective randomized study. Fifty healthy gravidas with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies at a gestational age of 35 to 42 weeks were assigned at random for the performance of either a breast stimulation test or an oxytocin challenge test after a nonreactive nonstress test. A satisfactory contraction stress test was achieved in 21 of 25 women in the breast stimulation test group and in 24 of 25 women (...) in the oxytocin challenge test group (nonsignificant difference). Significant differences were found in the cumulative rate of achieved contraction stress tests: in the breast stimulation test group 17 of 21 after 20 minutes and 21 of 21 at 50 minutes whereas in the oxytocin challenge test group only four of 24 at 20 minutes, eight of 24 at 50 minutes, and 21 of 24 at 150 minutes. The mean duration for the achievement of a contraction stress test was 20.9 +/- 11.5 minutes for the breast stimulation test group

1987 American journal of obstetrics and gynecology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2563. Comparison of the acoustic stimulation test with nonstress test. A randomized, controlled clinical trial. (PubMed)

to occur. It can be concluded, therefore, that AST offers a greater advantage over NST by lowering both the incidence of nonreactive tests and testing time, thereby resulting in less of a need for the contraction stress test and biophysical profile. (...) Comparison of the acoustic stimulation test with nonstress test. A randomized, controlled clinical trial. The nonstress test (NST) is a helpful adjunct in the management of high-risk pregnancies. It has high predictability and a low false-negative rate but unfortunately has fairly high false-positive results. Attempts have been made to find a suitable stimulant to help decrease nonreactive results as well as to shorten the duration of testing: the recently introduced fetal acoustic stimulation

1994 Journal of Reproductive Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2564. Model for left ventricular contraction combining the force length velocity relationship with the time varying elastance theory. (PubMed)

a mechanical activation function, assumed as half a sinusoidal wave, to describe the time-dependent isometric stress for the activated cardiac muscle. This, in turn, results in the time-varying elastance function and represents the instantaneous activity of the muscle contractile proteins. The model is tested for a set of boundary conditions that determine preload, afterload, and the inherent properties of the muscle, i.e., the contractility. The computed results of the isovolumic contraction, auxotonic (...) Model for left ventricular contraction combining the force length velocity relationship with the time varying elastance theory. A model for the contraction of the left ventricle (LV) is developed for a spheroidal geometry. The classical force-length-velocity relationship for a single muscle fiber is assumed. The linear maximum pressure volume relationship (maximum elastance), a measure of muscle contractility, is further extended into a time-varying function. This is achieved by utilizing

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1984 Biophysical journal

2565. Pelvic Floor Muscle Contraction During a Cough and Decreased Vesical Neck Mobility (PubMed)

Pelvic Floor Muscle Contraction During a Cough and Decreased Vesical Neck Mobility To test the hypothesis that a voluntary pelvic muscle contraction initiated in preparation for a cough, a maneuver we call the Knack, significantly reduces vesical neck displacement.A convenience sample of 22 women consisted of 11 young, continent nulliparas (mean age [+/- standard deviation] 24.8 +/- 7.0 years) and 11 older, incontinent paras (mean age [+/-SD] 66.9 +/- 3.9 years). With the use of perineal (...) 4.6 (19.5) to 0.0 (17.0) mm (P =.007), and the older incontinent women demonstrated a median (range) decrease from 6.2 (10.0) to 3.5 (15.4) mm (P =.003). At rest, the median vesical neck position in the group of older incontinent women was significantly further dorsocaudal (P =.001) than in the younger women.A pelvic floor muscle contraction in preparation for, and throughout, a cough can augment proximal urethra support during stress, thereby reducing the amount of dorsocaudal displacement.

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2001 Obstetrics and Gynecology

2566. Influence of vibration on endurance of maximal isometric contraction. (PubMed)

Influence of vibration on endurance of maximal isometric contraction. In order to investigate how vibration affects endurance during muscular contraction, knee-joint extension efforts were performed with and without superimposed vibrations. Fourteen healthy non-smoking 20-year-old males performed maximal isometric and sustained knee-joint extension efforts (angle 90 degrees) in sitting posture three times with each leg, with or without vibration. The tests were done once with each leg (...) in a randomly chosen order. The frequency of the vibration was 20 Hz and the acceleration 20 m/s2 RMS, applied in a horizontal sagittal direction to the ankle. The endurance was defined as the time in seconds that it took for the exerted force to decrease by 10% of the initial value. The endurance time averages 22.5 s without vibration and 15.8 s with vibration. The vibratory stress reduced endurance by 6.7 +/- 1.84 s (mean +/- SEM) (P less than 0.005). The difference in maximal force recorded initially

1989 Clinical physiology (Oxford, England) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2567. Correlation between urodynamic test results, perineal ultrasound and degree of stress urinary incontinence. (PubMed)

Correlation between urodynamic test results, perineal ultrasound and degree of stress urinary incontinence. To evaluate whether the results of urodynamic tests and the perineal ultrasound were different between grade 1 and 2 stress urinary incontinence.Forty premenopausal women with a diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence according to urodynamic tests were enrolled in this study. Stress urinary incontinence was defined as urine leakage during stress without detrusor contraction. Twenty (...) patients had grade 1 and 20 had grade 2 stress urinary incontinence. We compared the parameters of uroflowmetry, filling cystometry, urethral pressure profile, dynamic urethral function test, perineal ultrasound and stress urethral axis between grade 1 and 2 levels of stress urinary incontinence.There were no significant differences in age, parity or body mass index between the grade 1 and 2 patients. Uroflowmetry results showed that there were no significant differences in maximal flow rate, average

2003 Journal of Reproductive Medicine

2568. Alternatives in polymerization contraction stress management. (PubMed)

-stress-testing methods and contraction stress values of current composites, and discusses the validity of contraction stress studies in relation to results from microleakage tests. The effects of lower curing rates and alternative curing routines on contraction stress values are also discussed, as well as the use of low-elastic-modulus liners. Moreover, studies with experimental dimethacrylate-based composites and recent developments in low-shrinkage monomers are described. (...) Alternatives in polymerization contraction stress management. Polymerization contraction stress of dental composites is often associated with marginal and interfacial failures of bonded restorations. The magnitude of stress depends on composite composition (filler content and matrix composition) and its ability to flow before gelation, which is related to the cavity configuration and curing characteristics of the composite. This article reviews variations among studies regarding contraction

2004 Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine

2569. Sympathoadrenal and cardiovascular responses to mental stress, isometric handgrip, and cold pressor test in asymptomatic young men with primary T wave abnormalities in the electrocardiogram. (PubMed)

Sympathoadrenal and cardiovascular responses to mental stress, isometric handgrip, and cold pressor test in asymptomatic young men with primary T wave abnormalities in the electrocardiogram. 7295424 1982 01 20 2018 11 13 0007-0769 46 3 1981 Sep British heart journal Br Heart J Sympathoadrenal and cardiovascular responses to mental stress, isometric handgrip, and cold pressor test in asymptomatic young men with primary T wave abnormalities in the electrocardiogram. 311-9 Atterhög J H JH Eliasson (...) K K Hjemdahl P P eng Journal Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't England Br Heart J 0370634 0007-0769 0 Catecholamines 7C0697DR9I Atropine AIM IM S Adolescent Adrenal Glands drug effects physiopathology Adult Atropine pharmacology Catecholamines blood Cold Temperature Electrocardiography Hemodynamics Humans Isometric Contraction Male Stress, Psychological physiopathology Sympathetic Nervous System drug effects physiopathology 1981 9 1 1981 9 1 0 1 1981 9 1 0 0 ppublish 7295424 PMC482650

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1981 British Heart Journal

2570. [The diagnostic and prognostic value of echo-dipyridamole in patients with suspected coronary disease: a comparison with the stress test]. (PubMed)

[The diagnostic and prognostic value of echo-dipyridamole in patients with suspected coronary disease: a comparison with the stress test]. The aim of the study was to assess the relative diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of high-dose dipyridamole echocardiography test (DET: 2D-echo monitoring during dipyridamole infusion up to 0.84 mg/kg over 10') vs maximal symptom limited bicycle exercise electrocardiography test (EET) in patients with chest pain addressed to coronary angiography. We (...) initially considered 477 consecutive patients, meeting the following inclusion criteria: 1) history of chest pain; 2) off antianginal therapy; 3) no previous myocardial infarction and/or obvious regional left ventricular dyssynergy of contraction. All patients were submitted to a DET and EET--on different days and in random order--within 1 week of coronary angiography (which was performed independently of test results). DET could not be performed in 32 patients for a poor acoustic window in resting

1991 Giornale italiano di cardiologia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2571. [The atropine test in patients with stress incontinence and their treatment with a combination of diltiazem and oxyphenonium]. (PubMed)

[The atropine test in patients with stress incontinence and their treatment with a combination of diltiazem and oxyphenonium]. The authors applied the Atropine test in 28 patients with the motor type of urgent incontinence in an attempt to establish the prognosis of the success of treatment with parasymthatholytics. Atropine was administered in amounts of 0.01 mg/kg body weight by the i.m. route and after 30 mins. a urodynamic control examination was made. The assumption that a reduced (...) frequency or amplitude of detrusor contractions will occur or that they will disappear in patients, where subsequent treatment with parasympatholytics will be successful, was not confirmed. The patients were subsequently treated by a combination of dilthiazem (Diacordin), 3 X 30 mg by the oral route per day and oxyphenonium (Oxyphenon dupl.) 2 X 10 mg by the oral route per day. After evaluation of the therapeutic results the group was divided into two sub-groups. The first one comprised patients where

1990 Ceskoslovenská gynekologie

2572. Contraction stress of flowable composite materials and their efficacy as stress-relieving layers. (PubMed)

Contraction stress of flowable composite materials and their efficacy as stress-relieving layers. The authors compared the polymerization contraction stress produced by flowable resin-based composites with stress values produced by nonflowable composites. They also measured the stress reduction produced by placing a precured layer of flowable composite under a nonflowable composite.The authors first tested four flowable and six nonflowable composite materials for contraction stress (...) in a tensiometer. In the second part of the study, they applied a 1.4-millimeter-thick layer of flowable composite or unfilled resin and precured it in the test apparatus to assess the stress relief produced by a low-modulus material during light curing of a subsequent layer of highly filled composite. Flexural moduli of the precured materials were determined via a three-point bending test.The stress values ranged between 6.04 and 9.10 megapascals. The authors found no significant differences in stress between

2003 Journal of the American Dental Association

2573. Contraction stress test versus ductus venosus Doppler evaluation for the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome in growth-restricted fetuses with non-reassuring non-stress test. (PubMed)

Contraction stress test versus ductus venosus Doppler evaluation for the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome in growth-restricted fetuses with non-reassuring non-stress test. To compare Doppler evaluation of the ductus venosus and contraction stress test (CST) in the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome in growth-restricted fetuses with evidence of hemodynamic redistribution and a non-reactive non-stress test (NST).Data were collected from all singleton pregnancies seen in our Fetal (...) delivered within 3 days of their antenatal test. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relation between predictive and outcome variables.Sixty-eight women met the inclusion criteria for the study. The positive predictive value of the CST was 45% for admission to the NICU, 13% for significant neonatal morbidity, 26% for need of neonatal intubation and 29% for umbilical artery pH < 7.10. The positive predictive values of abnormal ductus venosus waveform (ADVW) were 81.5%, 26%, 48% and 55

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2003 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

2574. Nonstress and contraction stress fetal heart rate monitoring. A randomized trial to determine which is the faster primary test. (PubMed)

Nonstress and contraction stress fetal heart rate monitoring. A randomized trial to determine which is the faster primary test. Antepartum fetal heart rate monitoring can be performed with either the nonstress or contraction stress method. The recent introduction of nipple stimulation as a means of achieving uterine contraction has simplified performance of contraction stress tests and raises the possibility that that test may be a more rapid approach to antepartum fetal heart rate testing than (...) the nonstress test. In order to investigate the time taken to achieve a satisfactory end point of fetal heart rate monitoring, 186 women were randomized to either "intention to perform nonstress test" or "intention to perform nipple stimulation contraction stress test." Neither approach was found to be significantly faster than the other. One-third of all completed contraction stress tests were classified as equivocal and required further investigation or management. The nipple stimulation contraction

1988 Journal of Reproductive Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2575. Comparison of the nipple stimulation and exogenous oxytocin contraction stress tests. A randomized, prospective study. (PubMed)

Comparison of the nipple stimulation and exogenous oxytocin contraction stress tests. A randomized, prospective study. In a prospective, randomized trial, 103 women underwent a total of 203 antenatal stress tests. One hundred four nipple stimulation contraction stress tests (BSTs) and 99 oxytocin challenge tests (OCTs) were performed. The patient populations were similar for the two groups. Uterine hyperstimulation with abnormal fetal heart rate patterns occurred with 2.9% and 1% of the BSTs (...) and OCTs, respectively. The failure rate for the BST group was 22%. Maternal age and weight, parity and gestational age were not associated with test failure. Only one patient failed more than one BST, but she did not fail every such test. When test time (time from initiation to completion of the test) was compared between the two groups, a significant difference was found when the BST was successful. However, when test time in the total BST group (successful and unsuccessful BSTs followed by an OCT

1989 Journal of Reproductive Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2576. The value of a negative antepartum test: contraction stress test and modified biophysical profile. (PubMed)

The value of a negative antepartum test: contraction stress test and modified biophysical profile. To examine the outcome of pregnancies in high-risk patients whose last antepartum fetal assessment was a negative contraction stress test (CST) or a negative modified biophysical profile.Twenty-nine hundred ninety-four women who received modified biophysical profiles were compared with 2450 who had CSTs during the preceding 3 years. Pregnancy outcomes were evaluated in patients whose last test (...) was negative.Seventeen hundred fifty-three patients had negative modified biophysical profiles as the last test before delivery, and 1337 had negative CSTs as the last test before delivery. Adverse perinatal outcomes included perinatal death or death before nursery discharge, cesarean delivery for fetal distress within the first 2 hours of labor, 5-minute Apgar score less than 7, neonatal seizures, or grade III or grade IV central nervous system hemorrhage. Adverse outcomes occurred in 90 patients (5.1%) whose last

1994 Obstetrics and Gynecology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2577. Patterns of uterine contractions and prolonged uterine activity using three methods of breast stimulation for contraction stress tests. (PubMed)

Patterns of uterine contractions and prolonged uterine activity using three methods of breast stimulation for contraction stress tests. The contraction patterns in 378 breast-stimulated contraction stress tests administered to 213 women are described. The subjects were assigned sequentially to one of four intervention groups: bilateral manual breast massage, unilateral pump stimulation, heating pad stimulation, and placebo. There was a marked increase in the proportion of tests with three (...) to four contractions in 5-minute intervals after the interventions occurred. Twenty-five percent of all tests showed prolonged uterine activity, occurring most frequently in women with postdate gestations using manual massage or breast pump stimulation. The duration of prolonged contractions ranged from 1.5-8 minutes, with 19% lasting from 4.5-8 minutes. There was no difference in the incidence of fetal heart rate abnormalities between tests with and without prolonged uterine activity, and no late

1989 Obstetrics and Gynecology

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