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181. Programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in the European Union

opinions; the evidence collection, appraisal and synthesis; the expert consultation and the first draft of this guidance were produced by Marije Vonk Noordegraaf-Schouten, Femke van Kessel and Anouk Oordt, members of a consortium of Pallas Health Research and Consultancy (Rotterdam) and Erasmus University Medical Center (framework contracts no ECDC/2013/005 and ECDC/2014/032). Invaluable input was received from ad hoc scientific panel chairs Gerard de Vries (the Netherlands) and Dominik Zenner (United (...) for risk of LTBI among vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations 13 Table 7. Evidence base on progression to active TB among vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations 13 Table 8. Evidence base for risk of LTBI and progression to active TB among occupational risk groups 14 Table 9. Evidence base for risk of LTBI and progression to active TB among other risk groups 15 Table 10. Evidence base for effectiveness of diagnostic test for LTBI 16 Table 11. Evidence base for cost-effectiveness of LTBI diagnostic

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

182. Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)

detection algorithm. (1B) We suggest that, when the true, reference serum creatinine (SCr) is uncertain, the presence of an active episode of AKI occurring in secondary care can be inferred from frequent SCr testing (e.g. at 12 and 24 hours after the index value). (2D) 2. Recognition of the patient at risk of AKI Guideline 2.1 - Adults and Paediatrics (unless otherwise stated) We recommend that: ? patients at risk of AKI should be identified by the most appropriate risk factor profile (...) for that population or, where no specific risk factor profile exists, through clinical judgement and recognition of generic risk factors for AKI; in this way, appropriate preventative measures may be instituted as early as possible (1C) ? in-patients deemed at high risk of AKI should be closely monitored for AKI, particularly if there has been a new exposure. Urine output should be monitored and serum creatinine tested daily (for adults) or regularly (for paediatric patients, reflecting the potential burden

2019 Renal Association

183. Guidelines For Professional Ultrasound Practice

SCREENING EXAMINATIONS USING ULTRASOUND 19 1.9 ERGONOMIC PRACTICE INCLUDING MANAGING THE HIGH BMI PATIENT 21 1.10 INTIMATE EXAMINATIONS AND CHAPERONES 23 1.11 EXAMINATION TIMES 24 1.12 THE 6 C’s, PATIENT IDENTIFICATION, COMMUNICATION AND CONSENT 25 1.13 CLINICAL GOVERNANCE 27 1.14 E-LEARNING FOR HEALTHCARE 29 1.15 IMAGING SERVICES ACCREDITATION SCHEME (ISAS) 29 1.16 ULTRASOUND EQUIPMENT AND QUALITY ASSURANCE TESTING 30 1.17 RAISING CONCERNS; SAFEGUARDING; STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS FOR REPORTING FEMALE (...) 2.7.5 Pelvic ultrasound reporting 57 2.7.6 Reporting Examples 57 2.8 ABDOMINAL ULTRASOUND EXAMINATIONS 59 2.8.1 General principles 59 2.8.2 Ultrasound examination of the liver 63 2.8.3 Ultrasound examination of the gallbladder and biliary tree 65 2.8.4 Transabdominal ultrasound examination of the pancreas 66 2.8.5 Ultrasound examination of the spleen 68 2.8.6 Ultrasound examination of the abdominal aorta 71 2.8.7 Ultrasound examination of the bowel 72 2.9 URO-GENITAL SYSTEM INCLUDING TESTES

2019 British Medical Ultrasound Society

184. Overview of pregnancy complications

. 2016;388:891-897. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(16)30902-3/fulltext http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27372398?tool=bestpractice.com It is recommended that all pregnant women be tested for HIV infection as early as possible. Workowski KA, Bolan GA; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64:1-137. http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26042815?tool (...) the uterus may be caused by trauma, hypertension, or coagulopathy. Oyelese Y, Ananth CV. Placental abruption. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108:1005-1016. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17012465?tool=bestpractice.com It is a common cause of bleeding in the third trimester. Pre-term birth occurs between 24 and 37 weeks' gestation. In two-thirds of cases, it occurs following spontaneous onset of labour. Only a minority of women who present with pre-term contractions known as threatened pre-term labour (TPTL

2018 BMJ Best Practice

185. Cardiac arrhythmias in coronary heart disease

of ischaemic VT induced at electrophysiological study, sudden death and out-of-hospital collapse. R Revascularisation should be considered in patients who have had sustained VT or VF. 9 Patients with previous sustained VT/VF should undergo assessment for inducible ischaemia by stress testing or myocardial perfusion imaging followed, if appropriate, by coronary arteriography and revascularisation. These patients should all be considered for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy. 5.2.2 IMPLANTABLE

2018 SIGN

186. Premature labour

contractions preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) advanced cervical dilation cervical length <2 cm increased maternal or fetal heart rate non-specific lower abdominal or back pain fever vaginal bleeding previous premature labour previous cervical trauma previous induced abortion maternal infections multifetal pregnancies short cervical length positive fetal fibronectin test preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) fetal abnormalities smoking body mass index (BMI) <19 kg/m^2 social factors (...) and ethnicity polyhydramnios domestic violence poor dental hygiene Diagnostic investigations non-stress cardiotocogram tocography transvaginal ultrasound of the cervix cervico-vaginal swab for fetal fibronectin FBC CRP urine dipstick urine microscopy, culture, and sensitivity high vaginal/rectal swab nitrazine test microscopy of vaginal fluid Kleihauer blood test urine toxicology screen IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1) test placental alpha microglobulin-1 (PAMG-1) Treatment algorithm

2018 BMJ Best Practice

187. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardias

catecholaminergic polymorphic VT FHx of sudden death mental or physical stress Diagnostic investigations ECG electrolyte panel troponin CK-MB 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring echocardiogram cardiac catheterisation cardiac MRI with gadolinium electrophysiological testing stress testing genetic screening Treatment algorithm ONGOING Contributors Authors Professor of Medicine Mayo Medical School Division of Cardiovascular Diseases Department of Medicine Mayo Clinic Florida Jacksonville FL Disclosures FK declares (...) risk factors such as structural heart disease. Patients at risk for sudden cardiac death and who also have discordant contraction of left ventricular function may benefit from cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT). Prognosis dependent on presence or absence of cardiac disease. Left ventricular function in post-MI patients remains the most important prognostic tool for overall mortality and risk for sudden cardiac death. No increase in mortality demonstrated in those patients without associated

2018 BMJ Best Practice

188. Overview of pregnancy complications

. 2016;388:891-897. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(16)30902-3/fulltext http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27372398?tool=bestpractice.com It is recommended that all pregnant women be tested for HIV infection as early as possible. Workowski KA, Bolan GA; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2015;64:1-137. http://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26042815?tool (...) the uterus may be caused by trauma, hypertension, or coagulopathy. Oyelese Y, Ananth CV. Placental abruption. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108:1005-1016. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17012465?tool=bestpractice.com It is a common cause of bleeding in the third trimester. Pre-term birth occurs between 24 and 37 weeks' gestation. In two-thirds of cases, it occurs following spontaneous onset of labour. Only a minority of women who present with pre-term contractions known as threatened pre-term labour (TPTL

2018 BMJ Best Practice

189. Assessment of palpitations

aetiologies that occur during normal sinus rhythm. A significant proportion of palpitations are due to non-life-threatening, treatable cardiac conditions. They include premature ventricular contractions, premature atrial contractions, and supraventricular tachycardias such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia, atrial tachycardia, and atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia or Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Ironically, the most common rhythm seen when (...) evaluating patients for palpitations is sinus rhythm. A heightened sense of normal rhythm can be seen in settings of emotional or physical stress, or in conjunction with use of caffeine, alcohol, or other stimulants. However, palpitations are occasionally a manifestation of potentially life-threatening conditions, especially in the setting of structural heart disease - for example, ventricular tachycardia, which may lead to sudden cardiac death. Inherited conditions such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

2018 BMJ Best Practice

190. Diagnosis and management of epilepsy in adults

3.5 Hand-held video 11 3.6 Brain imaging 11 3.7 Electrocardiography 11 3.8 Genetic testing 12 4 Treatment 13 4.1 When to start antiepileptic treatment 13 4.2 Antiepileptic drug monotherapy 13 4.3 Management of drug-resistant epilepsy 14 4.4 Antiepileptic drug blood levels 16 4.5 Management of provoked seizures 17 4.6 Antiepileptic drug adverse effects 17 4.7 Antiepileptic drug withdrawal 19 4.8 Complementary therapy 20 4.9 Surgical referral 23 4.10 Management of prolonged seizures including status (...) CLINICAL FACTORS AND DIAGNOSIS Attack disorders such as faint and epilepsy produce their effects because some element of physiology becomes disordered, temporarily disturbing the function of the brain. For a test to positively identify the nature of an attack disorder, an attack must be recorded, and the disturbed physiology detected. As this is usually impractical, the routine diagnosis of attack disorders is largely clinical, based on history. The history should make clear what occurred before

2018 SIGN

191. What helps to support people affected by Adverse Childhood Experiences? A Review of Evidence

and running the stakeholder workshop. We are also grateful to Amber Derosa from the National Children’s Bureau, Young NCB, and the seven young people who contributed so generously to the stakeholder workshop. Funding This review was commissioned by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Policy Research Programme (PRP) for the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC). It was funded through the NIHR PRP contract with the EPPI Centre at UCL (Reviews facility to support national policy (...) a person who is under the age of 18. ABBREVIATIONS ACE Adverse Childhood Experience CBT Cognitive Behavioural Therapy CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention EMDR Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing Therapy nRCT Non-Randomised Controlled Trial OoHC Out-of-Home-Care PTSD Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder RCT Randomised Controlled Trial RoB Risk of Bias RoR Review of Reviews (used to describe the systematic review of systematic reviews) SMD Standardised Mean Difference TAU Treatment

2019 EPPI Centre

192. Canadian Urological Association guideline for the diagnosis, management, and surveillance of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction

, renal function) Review of relevant systems Bowel function Sexual function Coexisting non-NLUTD dysfunction (prostatic enlargement, stress incontinence) Gross hematuria Gynecological/pregnancy history Genitourinary/pelvic pain Motor abilities (hand function, ability to transfer) Cognitive function Support systems/caregivers CIC: clean intermittent catheterization; MS: multiple sclerosis; NLUTD: neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction; SCI: spinal cord injury; UTI: urinary tract infection.CUAJ (...) , and the behaviour of the urinary sphincters during voiding. The availability of videoUDS is not universal, and a voiding cystogram is an acceptable alternative in some cases. Urodynamic diagnoses, such as neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO), impaired compli- ance, reduced bladder capacity, or a high detrusor leak point pressure (DLPP, defined as the lowest vesical pressure at which urine leaks from the bladder in the absence of a detrusor contraction or increased abdominal straining) can identify a patient

2019 Canadian Urological Association

193. European Championships Glasgow 2018: survey of volunteer applicants

information obtained during the application phase with responses to an online questionnaire exploring expectations, experiences and potential influence of the volunteer programme on volunteer applicants and to reflect on how learning from the Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games recruitment strategy shaped this. 2.2 Survey design A draft questionnaire was developed predominately using questions tested in previous studies and validated scales. The questionnaire covered a variety of topics exploring experiences (...) % 46% 16% 5% Long-term condition or illness (n=2,331) Yes No 15% 85% Employment (n=2,341) Employed full time (including self-employed) Employed part time (including self-employed) Employed casually (e.g. temporary contract) Retired or pensioner Unemployed and/or looking for employment Full-time pupil or student Full-time carer or parent Other 39% 13% 2% 28% 3% 10% 1% 4% Ethnicity (n=2,344) White Scottish White English White Welsh White Northern Irish White British White Irish White Polish White

2019 Glasgow Centre for Population Health

194. Deployment of personnel to military operations: impact on mental health and social functioning Full Text available with Trip Pro

personnel, often based on group cohesion, to the cost of deployment on physical and mental stress ( ). In other words, individual assignment to deployment, even if that individual is eligible as per contract, is not random. Naturally, randomised studies would be eligible for this review should our search strategy uncover any such studies. It was more likely that there were studies where assignment locally produces high quality quasi‐experiments. Such studies may be available if the authors of primary (...) to a wide variety of stress factors, such as witnessing violent death, physical abuse, dead and/or decomposing bodies, maimed soldiers and civilians, been captured as prisoners of war, or witnessed movements of refugees as a result of civil war. Frequently, military personnel face deployment to theatres of insurgence or counter‐insurgency, where insurgents operate using guerrilla tactics such as suicide missions and road‐side bombings (for example, improvised explosive devices). Deployments

2018 Campbell Collaboration

195. Recovery schools for improving behavioral and academic outcomes among students in recovery from substance use disorders: a systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

of, and social norms that approve of alcohol consumption on campus. For example, a study of seven universities in Great Britain demonstrated that approximately 70% of enrolled students reported heavy drinking at least once during the previous two weeks. Across five New Zealand universities, 37% of student respondents reported at least one binge drinking episode during the previous week and approximately 68% scored in the hazardous drinking range on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test consumption (...) , 12‐Step meetings and counseling, recreational activities and social events, life‐skills training, educational supports and peer and family support, as well as linkages to community supports and services ( ; ; ). Some CRCs also require that members sign a behavioral and sobriety contract that may be implemented and enforced by a peer governance system ( ). Similar to RHSs, some CRCs also have admission criteria for their community programs. For example, one CRC at a large public university

2018 Campbell Collaboration

196. Effectiveness of interventions to reduce homelessness: a systematic review and meta?analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

, or a person with short‐term subletting contracts who has applied to social services or another organization for assistance in solving their housing situation. There were no population restrictions regarding mental illness, addiction problems, age, gender, ethnicity, race, national contexts, etc. However, distinct subgroups were separated in our analyses when there was sufficient information in included studies. Intervention: Housing programs or case management or a combination of the two types (...) analysed the data using (standardized) mean difference ((S)MD) with the corresponding 95% CI. We used SMD when length of time was measured different between pooled studies (e.g. in days versus months, etc.). We conducted meta‐analyses using RevMan 5,using a random‐effects model and inverse‐variance approach(38). This method allowed us to weight each study according to the degree of variation in the confidence in the effect estimate. In cases where the means, number of participants and test statistics

2018 Campbell Collaboration

197. School?based interventions for reducing disciplinary school exclusion: a systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

to have a clear role in predicting exclusion. For other variables of interest such as sex, age or socio‐economic status most of the evidence is limited to bivariate associations. Regarding the outcomes, while there is a stark link between misbehaviour (e.g., school drop‐out and delinquency) and school exclusion, there is no clear causal relationship. Notwithstanding decades of research on school exclusion and its impact on later behaviour, we are still at an initial stage for testing causal (...) , tested data from 365 schools and a total number of 43,320 students. They concluded that when comparing those students eligible for free or reduced‐cost lunches with their non‐eligible peers, the first were more likely to get out‐of‐school exclusions (OR= 1.27; p<.05). However, contrary to expectations, the eligibility for free or reduced meals resulted in a negative predictor of permanent exclusion (OR= 0.03; p<.05). Special educational needs (SEN) Although an increasing amount of research has

2018 Campbell Collaboration

198. Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Cervical Screening and Cervical Cancer

/04.” (Cancer Research UK, 2014b) Key findings supporting the UK NSC recommendations • The HPV vaccination offered to girls aged 12 to 13 strengthens the rationale for primary HPV screening. The vaccination will offer prevention of HPV and result in a falling number of women who remain at risk of [contracting] HPV and developing cervical cancer. • A primary test for HPV will save more lives by determining a woman’s risk earlier. Work to assess extending the screening interval with HPV screening (...) informed of the reason for the procedure and the implications for their future health and wellbeing. A screening test should be taken in such a way as to provide an adequate sample for assessment, with the minimum of distress or discomfort. The importance of action, regular screening and effective follow up cannot be over emphasised – early diagnosis and treatment saves lives, plus reduces stress and anxiety for the woman and her family. Access to services should be local and easily accessible

2018 Royal College of Nursing

199. Thinking ahead: Exploring support provided by employers to help staff plan for their future

in some workplaces. l Strengthening capability to support others, for example training employees to be career coaches or mental health ?rst-aiders. l Networks and peer support. Some employers united colleagues with a common interest or concern to discuss their experiences, provide support to each other, and feedback any organisational issues. Networks could be face-to-face or virtual. l Service provision. Employers contracted with a range of service providers. These included providers of health (...) supported networks for employees living with speci?c health conditions or caring for a family member. Recently, in recognition of workplace stress, and from a desire to combat the stigma of mental health conditions in the workplace, a few employers had trained and con?gured sta? as mental health ?rst-aiders. Some aspects of employer interventions o?ered on this theme were delivered by external providers, such as via an Employee Assistance Programme (eg a 24 hour helpline) or the o?er of a Healthy Heart

2018 The Centre for Ageing Better

200. Adapting for ageing: Good practice and innovation in home adaptations

of this information, advice, and associated support, falls well short of the Care Act Guidance in many areas. A number of the good-practice localities provide this information, advice and help as a core part of their service, including for those people who are not eligible for DFG or means- tested financial assistance. b There is an urgent need to ensure all local authorities are meeting the legislative requirement to provide these services. The Care Quality Commission could conduct a themed report (...) (e.g. using grab rails, stairlifts, ramps) and/or take care of their own personal care (e.g. modified bathrooms). Such adaptations can reduce anxiety and depression, impacting on mental as well as physical health. Home modifications can also benefit carers, improve confidence and help to reduce the risk of physical injury and stress. Home adaptations can help to prevent accidents, particularly injury from falls. Through extending older people’s ability to live safely and well at home, and they can

2018 The Centre for Ageing Better

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