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Contingency Table

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1. A Systemic Inflammation Mortality Risk Assessment Contingency Table for Severe Sepsis

A Systemic Inflammation Mortality Risk Assessment Contingency Table for Severe Sepsis PEDSCCM.org Criteria abstracted from series in Review Posted: founded 1995 Questions or comments?

2017 PedsCCM Evidence-Based Journal Club

2. Using weighted regression model for estimating cohort effect in age-period contingency table data (PubMed)

Using weighted regression model for estimating cohort effect in age-period contingency table data Recently, the multiphase method was proposed to estimate cohort effects after removing the effects of age and period in age-period contingency table data. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of the liver and is strongly associated with cirrhosis, due to both alcohol and viral etiologies. In epidemiology, age-period-cohort (APC) model can be used to describe (...) the cohort effects in age-period contingency table data.The regression model can be modified through the weighted average estimate of the effects with narrower CI of each cohort.After isolating the residuals during the median polish phase, the final phase is to estimate the magnitude of the cohort effects using the regression model of these residuals on the cohort category with the weight equal to the occupied proportion according to the number of death of HCC in each cohort.

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2018 Oncotarget

3. Employing a spatio-temporal contingency table for the analysis of cork oak cover change in the Sa Serra region of Sardinia (PubMed)

Employing a spatio-temporal contingency table for the analysis of cork oak cover change in the Sa Serra region of Sardinia Land cover change analyses are common and, especially in the absence of explanatory variables, they are mainly carried out by employing qualitative methods such as transition matrices or raster operations. These methods do not provide any estimation of the statistical significance of the changes, or the uncertainty of the model and data, and are usually limited (...) in supporting explicit biological/ecological interpretation of the processes determining the changes. Here we show how the original nearest-neighbour contingency table, proposed by Dixon to evaluate spatial segregation, has been extended to the temporal domain to map the intensity, statistical significance and uncertainty of land cover changes. This index was then employed to quantify the changes in cork oak forest cover between 1998 and 2016 in the Sa Serra region of Sardinia (Italy). The method showed

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2018 Scientific reports

4. Exact Bayesian p-values for a Test of Independence in a 2 × 2 Contingency Table with Missing Data (PubMed)

Exact Bayesian p-values for a Test of Independence in a 2 × 2 Contingency Table with Missing Data Altham (Altham PME. Exact Bayesian analysis of a 2 × 2 contingency table, and Fisher's "exact" significance test. J R Stat Soc B 1969; 31: 261-269) showed that a one-sided p-value from Fisher's exact test of independence in a 2 × 2 contingency table is equal to the posterior probability of negative association in the 2 × 2 contingency table under a Bayesian analysis using an improper prior. We (...) derive an extension of Fisher's exact test p-value in the presence of missing data, assuming the missing data mechanism is ignorable (i.e., missing at random or completely at random). Further, we propose Bayesian p-values for a test of independence in a 2 × 2 contingency table with missing data using alternative priors; we also present results from a simulation study exploring the Type I error rate and power of the proposed exact test p-values. An example, using data on the association between blood

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2017 Statistical methods in medical research

5. A Systemic Inflammation Mortality Risk Assessment Contingency Table for Severe Sepsis. (PubMed)

A Systemic Inflammation Mortality Risk Assessment Contingency Table for Severe Sepsis. We tested the hypothesis that a C-reactive protein and ferritin-based systemic inflammation contingency table can track mortality risk in pediatric severe sepsis.Prospective cohort study.Tertiary PICU.Children with 100 separate admission episodes of severe sepsis were enrolled.Blood samples were attained on day 2 of sepsis and bi-weekly for biomarker batch analysis. A 2 × 2 contingency table using C-reactive (...) ]). Sixty-three children underwent sequential blood sampling; those who were initially in the low-risk category (n = 24) and those who subsequently migrated (n = 19) to the low-risk category all survived, whereas those who remained in the "at-risk" categories had increased mortality (7/20 [35%]; p < 0.05).A C-reactive protein- and ferritin-based contingency table effectively assessed mortality risk. Reduction in systemic inflammation below a combined threshold C-reactive protein of 4.08 mg/dL

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2016 Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

6. 400 or more participants needed for stable contingency table estimates of clinical prediction rule performance. (PubMed)

400 or more participants needed for stable contingency table estimates of clinical prediction rule performance. To quantify variability in the results of statistical analyses based on contingency tables and discuss the implications for the choice of sample size for studies that derive clinical prediction rules.An analysis of three pre-existing sets of large cohort data (n = 4,062-8,674) was performed. In each data set, repeated random sampling of various sample sizes, from n = 100 up to n (...)  = 2,000, was performed 100 times at each sample size and the variability in estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, posttest probabilities, odds ratios, and risk/prevalence ratios for each sample size was calculated.There were very wide, and statistically significant, differences in estimates derived from contingency tables from the same data set when calculated in sample sizes below 400 people, and typically, this variability stabilized in samples of 400-600

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2016 Journal of Clinical Epidemiology

7. Contingency Table

Contingency Table Contingency Table Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Contingency Table Contingency Table Aka (...) : Contingency Table , Contingency Grid , Cross Tabulation , Cross Tab , Statistics Example From Related Chapters II. Technique: Setting up grid for test efficacy or risk factor Examples Test efficacy: How well does a test detect a certain condition Risk Factor: How much is a particular risk associated with a given condition Draw 2x2 grid Labels Upper Boxes: Across the top (x-axis) place the Disease State Labels Left Box: Disease present (e.g. ) Right Box: Disease not present (e.g. Not ) Left Boxes: Across

2018 FP Notebook

8. Default “Gunel and Dickey” Bayes factors for contingency tables (PubMed)

Default “Gunel and Dickey” Bayes factors for contingency tables The analysis of R×C contingency tables usually features a test for independence between row and column counts. Throughout the social sciences, the adequacy of the independence hypothesis is generally evaluated by the outcome of a classical p-value null-hypothesis significance test. Unfortunately, however, the classical p-value comes with a number of well-documented drawbacks. Here we outline an alternative, Bayes factor method (...) to quantify the evidence for and against the hypothesis of independence in R×C contingency tables. First we describe different sampling models for contingency tables and provide the corresponding default Bayes factors as originally developed by Gunel and Dickey (Biometrika, 61(3):545-557 (1974)). We then illustrate the properties and advantages of a Bayes factor analysis of contingency tables through simulations and practical examples. Computer code is available online and has been incorporated

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2016 Behavior research methods

9. Reconstructing 2 x 2 contingency tables from odds ratios using the Di Pietrantonj method: difficulties, constraints and impact in meta-analysis results. (PubMed)

Reconstructing 2 x 2 contingency tables from odds ratios using the Di Pietrantonj method: difficulties, constraints and impact in meta-analysis results. A problem that is frequently encountered during the systematic review process is when studies that meet the inclusion criteria do not provide the appropriate numerical estimates to include in a meta-analysis. For dichotomous outcomes, a method has been suggested by Di Pietrantonj for reconstructing the 2 × 2 table when the Odds Ratio (...) (OR), the Standard Error (SE(lnOR)) and the sample sizes are provided. The method produces two possible 2 × 2 tables; and to select the correct one, the Control Group Risk (CGR) is used. As CGR is typically unknown and only rounded figures of the OR and SE(lnOR) are provided, the accuracy of the reconstruction method varies. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of the method using simulated and empirical data. Small studies with large OR and CGR away from 50% are reconstructed satisfactorily, and the use

2015 Research synthesis methods

10. A systematic review of contingency management interventions for substance misuse in psychosis/severe mental illness

A systematic review of contingency management interventions for substance misuse in psychosis/severe mental illness Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated (...) . No metastases/ only primary tumor 4. No control group 5. Combination therapy or contamination 6. Not about analgesics used in the clinic Full text-screening: As above, with the addition of: 7. No relevant outcome measure reported ">Prioritise the exclusion criteria Example: Two reviewers will independently extract data from each article. We first try to extract numerical data from tables, text or figures. If these are not reported, we will extract data from graphs using digital ruler software. In case data

2019 PROSPERO

11. Automated Mobile Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation: A Pilot RCT

Behavioral: Standard Care Not Applicable Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Estimated Enrollment : 40 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: None (Open Label) Primary Purpose: Treatment Official Title: Automated Mobile Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation: A Pilot RCT Estimated Study Start Date : April 1, 2019 Estimated Primary Completion Date : February 1, 2020 Estimated Study Completion (...) Automated Mobile Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation: A Pilot RCT Automated Mobile Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation: A Pilot RCT - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more

2018 Clinical Trials

12. Mobile Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation (R01 Supplement)

Smoking Cessation Behavioral: Mobile Contingency Management Not Applicable Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Estimated Enrollment : 20 participants Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment Masking: None (Open Label) Primary Purpose: Treatment Official Title: Mobile Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation Among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Adults Actual Study Start Date : August 15, 2018 Estimated Primary Completion Date (...) Mobile Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation (R01 Supplement) Mobile Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation (R01 Supplement) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Mobile Contingency

2018 Clinical Trials

13. Mouse-gaze Contingent Attention Training (MCAT)

Mouse-gaze Contingent Attention Training (MCAT) Mouse-gaze Contingent Attention Training (MCAT) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Mouse-gaze Contingent Attention Training (MCAT) The safety (...) ability (e.g., psychoeducation). In the current study, the investigators aim to investigate whether a mouse-gaze based variant of the eye-gaze contingent attention training could be a promising intervention for relapse prevention in people vulnerable to depression. More specifically, the main aim is to explore whether a computer-delivered attention control training can improve depressive symptoms and cognitive emotion regulation ability (e.g., reappraisal ability), thereby increasing resilience

2018 Clinical Trials

14. Contingency Management for Alcohol Use Disorder

Contingency Management for Alcohol Use Disorder Contingency Management for Alcohol Use Disorder - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Contingency Management for Alcohol Use Disorder The safety (...) and efficacy of a minimum viable product (MVP) of a smartphone app for patients with alcohol use disorder who are in active treatment and recovery to perform self-tracking of their recovery behavior (e.g., abstinence) and focus on their motivation to maintain their desired health behaviors (i.e., abstinence). Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Estimated Enrollment : 60 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment

2018 Clinical Trials

15. Cannons and sparrows: an exact maximum likelihood non-parametric test for meta-analysis of k 2 × 2 tables (PubMed)

is the inverse-variance DerSimonian-Laird technique. However, both of these techniques are based on large sample, asymptotic assumptions and are, at best, an approximation especially when the number of cases observed in any cell of the corresponding contingency tables is small.This paper develops an exact, non-parametric test based on a maximum likelihood test statistic as an alternative to the asymptotic techniques. Further, the test can be used across a wide range of heterogeneity. Monte Carlo simulations (...) Cannons and sparrows: an exact maximum likelihood non-parametric test for meta-analysis of k 2 × 2 tables The use of meta-analysis to aggregate multiple studies has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. For meta-analysis of homogeneous data where the effect sizes for the studies contributing to the meta-analysis differ only by statistical error, the Mantel-Haenszel technique has typically been utilized. If homogeneity cannot be assumed or established, the most popular technique

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2018 Emerging themes in epidemiology

16. Effectiveness of Contingency Management in the Treatment of Crack Addiction in Brazil

for additional information Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No Keywords provided by André de Queiroz Constantino Miguel, Federal University of São Paulo: crack cocaine contingency management ambulatory treatment Brazil Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Behavior, Addictive Substance-Related Disorders Cocaine-Related Disorders Compulsive Behavior Impulsive Behavior Chemically-Induced Disorders Mental Disorders (...) Effectiveness of Contingency Management in the Treatment of Crack Addiction in Brazil Effectiveness of Contingency Management in the Treatment of Crack Addiction in Brazil - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before

2017 Clinical Trials

17. Gaze Contingent Feedback for Anxiety Disorders in Children

threat bias and Attentional control will also be measured to explore potential mediators of ABMT's effect on anxiety. Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment : 12 participants Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment Masking: None (Open Label) Primary Purpose: Treatment Official Title: Gaze-Contingent Music Reward Treatment for Anxiety Disorders in Children: A Case Series Actual Study Start Date : April 1, 2017 Actual (...) Gaze Contingent Feedback for Anxiety Disorders in Children Gaze Contingent Feedback for Anxiety Disorders in Children - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Gaze Contingent Feedback for Anxiety

2017 Clinical Trials

18. Mortality Reduction After Oral Azithromycin Contingency: Mortality Study

administration) will be compared between the two re-randomized groups. Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Estimated Enrollment : 227000 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: None (Open Label) Primary Purpose: Treatment Official Title: Mortality Reduction After Oral Azithromycin Contingency: Mortality Study Actual Study Start Date : October 20, 2017 Estimated Primary Completion Date : July 31, 2019 (...) Mortality Reduction After Oral Azithromycin Contingency: Mortality Study Mortality Reduction After Oral Azithromycin Contingency: Mortality Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Mortality

2017 Clinical Trials

19. Analysis of contingency tables based on generalised median polish with power transformations and non-additive models (PubMed)

Analysis of contingency tables based on generalised median polish with power transformations and non-additive models Contingency tables are a very common basis for the investigation of effects of different treatments or influences on a disease or the health state of patients. Many journals put a strong emphasis on p-values to support the validity of results. Therefore, even small contingency tables are analysed by techniques like t-test or ANOVA. Both these concepts are based on normality (...) samples. Median polish is a robust alternative to analyse contingency tables providing much more insight than just a p-value. Median polish is a technique that provides more information than just a p-value. It explains the contingency table in terms of an overall effect, row and columns effects and residuals. The underlying model for median polish is an additive model which is sometimes too restrictive. In this paper, we propose two related approach to generalise median polish. A power transformation

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2013 Health Information Science and Systems

20. Relational models for contingency tables (PubMed)

Relational models for contingency tables The paper considers general multiplicative models for complete and incomplete contingency tables that generalize log-linear and several other models and are entirely coordinate free. Sufficient conditions of the existence of maximum likelihood estimates under these models are given, and it is shown that the usual equivalence between multinomial and Poisson likelihoods holds if and only if an overall effect is present in the model. If such an effect

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2012 Journal of multivariate analysis

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