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Congenital Syphilis

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1. Antibiotic treatment for newborns with congenital syphilis. (PubMed)

Antibiotic treatment for newborns with congenital syphilis. Congenital syphilis continues to be a substantial public health problem in many parts of the world. Since the first use of penicillin for the treatment of syphilis in 1943, which was a notable early success, it has remained the preferred and standard treatment including for congenital syphilis. However, the treatment of congenital syphilis is largely based on clinical experience and there is extremely limited evidence on the optimal (...) (191 participants) met our inclusion criteria and none of these trials was funded by the industry. One trial (22 participants) compared benzathine penicillin with no intervention for infants with possible congenital syphilis. Low-quality evidence suggested that benzathine penicillin administration may not have decreased the rate of neonatal death due to any cause (risk ratio (RR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06 to 11.70), and showed a possible reduction into the proportion of neonates

2019 Cochrane

3. Cost-effectiveness of rapid point-of-care antenatal (POC) syphilis screening to prevent congenital syphilis in sub-Saharan Africa

Cost-effectiveness of rapid point-of-care antenatal (POC) syphilis screening to prevent congenital syphilis in sub-Saharan Africa Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record

2019 PROSPERO

4. Risk of congenital syphilis following treatment of maternal syphilis: results of a congenital syphilis control program in China. (PubMed)

Risk of congenital syphilis following treatment of maternal syphilis: results of a congenital syphilis control program in China. Early screening for syphilis among pregnant women and the effective treatment of maternal syphilis is fundamental to prevent congenital syphilis (CS).We obtained data from the Shenzhen Program for Prevention of CS (SPPCS) and estimated incidence rates of CS among infants born to syphilis-seropositive women treated with different regimens or untreated for maternal (...) syphilis.A total of 4746 matched cases of syphilis-seropositive mothers and their infants were included for analyses, and 162 infants were diagnosed with CS, providing an overall incidence of 3.41% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.91%-3.98%). Among infants born to syphilis-seropositive women who had syphilis and were adequately treated before pregnancy, the incidence was 0.22% (95% CI, .05%-.66%). There were 159 cases of CS occurring in 3519 infants born to women who were syphilis-seropositive during

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2017 Clinical Infectious Diseases

5. Fetal and infant mortality of congenital syphilis reported to the Health Information System. (PubMed)

Fetal and infant mortality of congenital syphilis reported to the Health Information System. Congenital syphilis (CS) is a major cause of mortality in several countries, especially in Latin America and the Caribbean. This study aimed to analyze fetal and infant mortality of CS reported to the Health Information System in a State in Northeastern Brazil.This was a cross-sectional study that analyzed the deaths of CS from 2010 to 2014 through the linkage of the Mortality Information System (SIM

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2019 PLoS ONE

6. Global burden of maternal and congenital syphilis and associated adverse birth outcomes-Estimates for 2016 and progress since 2012. (PubMed)

Global burden of maternal and congenital syphilis and associated adverse birth outcomes-Estimates for 2016 and progress since 2012. In 2007 the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the global initiative to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of syphilis (congenital syphilis, or CS). To assess progress towards the goal of <50 CS cases per 100,000 live births, we generated regional and global estimates of maternal and congenital syphilis for 2016 and updated the 2012 estimates.Maternal (...) syphilis estimates were generated using the Spectrum-STI model, fitted to sentinel surveys and routine testing of pregnant women during antenatal care (ANC) and other representative population data. Global and regional estimates of CS used the same approach as previous WHO estimates.The estimated global maternal syphilis prevalence in 2016 was 0.69% (95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.81%) resulting in a global CS rate of 473 (385-561) per 100,000 live births and 661,000 (538,000-784,000) total CS cases

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2019 PLoS ONE

7. High prevalence of syphilis in parturient women and congenital syphilis cases in public maternities in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil. (PubMed)

High prevalence of syphilis in parturient women and congenital syphilis cases in public maternities in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil. 29802689 2019 03 07 2019 03 07 1471-0528 125 10 2018 Sep BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology BJOG High prevalence of syphilis in parturient women and congenital syphilis cases in public maternities in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil. 1212-1214 10.1111/1471-0528.15304 Vargas L L LAPI, Laboratório de Pesquisa em Infectologia, Complexo Hospitalar Prof (...) epidemiology Prenatal Care Prevalence Risk Factors Sexual Partners Substance-Related Disorders epidemiology Syphilis epidemiology prevention & control transmission Syphilis, Congenital epidemiology Thrombocytopenia, Neonatal Alloimmune epidemiology microbiology 2018 05 18 2018 5 29 6 0 2019 3 8 6 0 2018 5 27 6 0 ppublish 29802689 10.1111/1471-0528.15304

2018 BJOG

8. Surveillance of Maternal Syphilis in China: Pregnancy Outcomes and Determinants of Congenital Syphilis (PubMed)

Surveillance of Maternal Syphilis in China: Pregnancy Outcomes and Determinants of Congenital Syphilis BACKGROUND We sought to describe the epidemiological characteristics of pregnant women with syphilis in Beijing, China, and to investigate the determinants of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital syphilis. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used data from laboratory-confirmed syphilis-infected women who delivered between 2013 and 2015 and were registered in China's Information Management (...) System for Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of Syphilis. Sociodemographic, clinical, and prevention predictors of adverse pregnancy outcomes (i.e., congenital syphilis, neonatal death, and neonatal asphyxia) were assessed using multivariable regression analyses. RESULTS Among 807 eligible pregnant women with syphilis in Beijing, the maternal syphilis ratios increased from 1.1 (in 2013) to 1.4 (in 2015) per 1000 live births, while adverse pregnancy outcomes decreased, including congenital

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2018 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research

9. Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of antenatal syphilis screening and treatment for the prevention of congenital syphilis in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia: results of qualitative formative research. (PubMed)

Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of antenatal syphilis screening and treatment for the prevention of congenital syphilis in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia: results of qualitative formative research. The impact of untreated syphilis during pregnancy on neonatal health remains a major public health threat worldwide. Given the high prevalence of syphilis during pregnancy in Zambia and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Preventive Congenital Syphilis Trial (PCS (...) Trial), a cluster randomized trial, was proposed to increase same-day screening and treatment of syphilis during antenatal care visits. To design an accepted and feasible intervention, we conducted a qualitative  formative research. Our objective was to identify context-specific  barriers and facilitators to the implementation of antenatal screening and treatment during pregnancy.Qualitative research included in-depth semi-structured interviews with clinic administrators, group interviews

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2017 BMC health services research

10. Congenital syphilis, a public health problem only in Brazil? (PubMed)

Congenital syphilis, a public health problem only in Brazil? 29878529 2019 02 28 2019 02 28 1471-0528 125 10 2018 09 BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology BJOG Congenital syphilis - a public health problem only in Brazil? 1215 10.1111/1471-0528.15318 Passos Mrl M Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil. eng Journal Article Comment England BJOG 100935741 1470-0328 AIM IM BJOG. 2018 Sep;125(10):1212-1214 29802689 Brazil Female Humans Pregnancy Complications (...) , Infectious Prevalence Public Health Syphilis Syphilis, Congenital 2018 6 8 6 0 2019 3 1 6 0 2018 6 8 6 0 ppublish 29878529 10.1111/1471-0528.15318

2018 BJOG

11. The Re-Emergence of Congenital Syphilis in Ohio. (PubMed)

The Re-Emergence of Congenital Syphilis in Ohio. The recent occurrence of congenital syphilis in Columbus, OH, raised concern for an increase in syphilis among women and infants. The objectives were to examine the rates of syphilis among men, women and infants in Ohio from 2003 to 2016 and compare these rates to the rest of the United States.This retrospective study evaluated cases of syphilis among men, women and infants from 2003 to 2016 using data from the Ohio Department of Health (...) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.In Ohio from 2003 to 2016, the number of all syphilis cases among women significantly increased from 153 (2.6/100,000) to 294 (5.2/100,000), respectively (b = 0.26; P = 0.001; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.137-0.382). From 2003 to 2016, congenital syphilis in Ohio also increased significantly from 3 (2/100,000) to 13 cases (9.3/100,000), respectively (b = 1.05; P ≤ 0.001; 95% CI: 0.687-1.408). The increase in congenital syphilis mirrored the increase in all

2018 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

12. Prevention of Congenital Syphilis Through Antenatal Screenings in Lusaka, Zambia: A Systematic Review. (PubMed)

Prevention of Congenital Syphilis Through Antenatal Screenings in Lusaka, Zambia: A Systematic Review. Congenital syphilis is one of the preventable diseases caused by the gram-negative bacteria Treponema pallidum; yet, it imposes a serious global health and economic burden, with more than half of the cases resulting in serious adverse outcomes, including infant mortality. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of syphilis is estimated at 3.6 million adjusted life years (DALYs) and around $309 (...) , which required laboratory equipment and electricity, but there are many newer tests available now that provide rapid results with high sensitivity and specificity, e.g., the immunochromatographic strip (ICS) and rapid syphilis tests (RST). Early syphilis can be completely eliminated with a single injection of penicillin, which is readily available, cheap, and highly effective, and treating pregnant women with penicillin is 98% effective at preventing congenital syphilis. Targeting women at a high

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2018 Cureus

13. Infectious and congenital syphilis in Canada, 2010–2015 (PubMed)

Infectious and congenital syphilis in Canada, 2010–2015 Syphilis is the third most commonly reported notifiable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Canada, following chlamydia and gonorrhea, respectively. Rates of this STI have been rising rapidly in Canada since 2001.To summarize trends observed in syphilis rates for 2010 to 2015 in Canada.Laboratory-confirmed cases of infectious syphilis and early congenital syphilis were reported to the Public Health Agency of Canada by all (...) of the Canadian provinces and territories. National infectious syphilis rates were computed, as were rates per sex, age group and province/territory. Rates of congenital syphilis were also calculated.From 2010 to 2015, the rate of infectious syphilis in Canada increased by 85.6%, from 5.0 to 9.3 cases per 100,000 population. In 2015, a total of 3,321 cases of infectious syphilis were reported, mainly in males (93.7%), among whom the rate was 17.5 cases per 100,000 males versus 1.2 per 100,000 females

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2018 Canada Communicable Disease Report

14. Social Vulnerability in Congenital Syphilis Case Mothers: Qualitative Assessment of Cases in Indiana, 2014–2016 (PubMed)

Social Vulnerability in Congenital Syphilis Case Mothers: Qualitative Assessment of Cases in Indiana, 2014–2016 Congenital syphilis occurs when a pregnant woman with syphilis is not diagnosed or treated and the infection is passed in utero, causing severe infant morbidity and mortality. Congenital syphilis is easily prevented if women receive timely and adequate prenatal care. Cases of congenital syphilis are considered indicators of problems in the safety net. However, maternal social (...) and behavioral factors can impede women's care, even when providers follow guidelines.We reviewed case interviews and maternal records for 23 congenital syphilis cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from Indiana between 2014 and 2016. We used qualitative methods to analyze narrative notes from maternal interviews to learn more about factors that potentially contributed to congenital syphilis cases.All providers followed Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and state

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2018 Sexually transmitted diseases

15. Factors Contributing to Congenital Syphilis Cases — New York City, 2010–2016 (PubMed)

Factors Contributing to Congenital Syphilis Cases — New York City, 2010–2016 Congenital syphilis occurs when syphilis is transmitted from a pregnant woman to her fetus; congenital syphilis can be prevented through screening and treatment during pregnancy. Transmission to the fetus can occur at any stage of maternal infection, but is more likely during primary and secondary syphilis, with rates of transmission up to 100% at these stages (1). Untreated syphilis during pregnancy can cause (...) spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and early infant death. During 2013-2017, national rates of congenital syphilis increased from 9.2 to 23.3 cases per 100,000 live births (2), coinciding with increasing rates of primary and secondary syphilis among women of reproductive age (3). In New York City (NYC), cases of primary and secondary syphilis among women aged 15-44 years increased 147% during 2015-2016. To evaluate measures to prevent congenital syphilis, the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

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2018 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

16. A Case of Congenital Syphilis Presenting with Unusual Skin Eruptions (PubMed)

A Case of Congenital Syphilis Presenting with Unusual Skin Eruptions Once believed to be a rare disease in developed countries, recent data suggest that there is a surge in incidence of congenital syphilis in many developed countries. Diagnosis of congenital syphilis can be difficult because more than two-thirds of affected infants are asymptomatic at birth, and signs of symptomatic infants may be nonspecific or subtle. On top of this, some affected infants may have atypical presentations (...) . Familiarity with the diverse presentations is essential to diagnosis. We report a 2-week-old male infant with congenital syphilis whose cutaneous manifestations included diffuse, erythematous keratoderma with desquamation and fissures on his hands and feet, multiple linear scaly fissures at the angles of his mouth, and onychauxis of the fingernails and toenails To our knowledge, diffuse, erythematous keratoderma of the hands and feet and thick nails have not been reported previously in congenital syphilis.

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2018 Case reports in pediatrics

17. Rise in congenital syphilis highlights pregnancy screening gaps

Rise in congenital syphilis highlights pregnancy screening gaps The AFP Community Blog: Rise in congenital syphilis highlights pregnancy screening gaps | Monday, October 8, 2018 - Kenny Lin, MD, MPH Last month, the that the number of reported cases of congenital syphilis in the U.S. rose from 362 in 2013 to 918 in 2017, paralleling increases in syphilis infections in reproductive-age women during this time period. From 2016 to 2017, congenital syphilis cases rose from 16 to 23 per 100,000 live (...) births. Although two-thirds of affected infants have no symptoms at birth, congenital syphilis is associated with increased neonatal mortality and a variety of , detailed in a . The first line of prevention against congenital syphilis is screening for syphilis in all pregnant women at the first prenatal visit, a well-established standard of care that the . Although some cases occur in infants whose mothers receive no prenatal care, about one-third of women who delivered a baby with congenital

2018 The AFP Community Blog

18. Syphilis infection

manifest in a number of ways. Diagnosis is usually straightforward after clinical examination and serological tests. Treatment is with penicillin. Untreated syphilis facilitates HIV transmission and causes considerable morbidity, such as cardiovascular and neurological disease, as well as a congenital syndrome in the newborn. Syphilis in pregnancy is a major cause of miscarriage, stillbirth, and perinatal morbidity and mortality in some parts of the world. Definition Syphilis is a sexually transmitted (...) infection caused by the spirochaetal bacterium Treponema pallidum , subspecies pallidum . It is found only in human hosts. Acquired infection is transmitted through direct person-to-person sexual contact with an individual with early syphilis. Vertical transmission from mother to baby causes a congenital infection. Most sexual transmission of syphilis probably occurs from the genital and mucous membrane lesions of primary and secondary syphilis. Syphilis has often been described as the great imitator

2018 BMJ Best Practice

19. Diagnosis and management of gonorrhoea and syphilis

% and reoccurrence of early secondary symptoms in 25% Up to 2 years after infection Late Latent • Asymptomatic Tertiary • In one-third of untreated cases: Gummatous disease (15% of patients); cardiovascular (10%) and late neurological complications (7%) 20-40 years after initial infection Note. Stages and symptoms of congenital syphilis were not reported in this table; ECDC: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control 18 Diagnosis and management of gonorrhoea and syphilis KCE Report 310 Figure 2 (...) trends, to assess the effectiveness of control and prevention measures, to allocate resources appropriately; to formulate prevention strategies; and to detect sudden changes in disease occurrence and distribution. However, next to an identical core of infectious diseases that have to be notified, each Region added a number of further infectious diseases. While chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis have to be notified in Brussels and Flanders, only congenital syphilis needs to be notified in Wallonia

2019 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

20. Factors associated with four atypical cases of congenital syphilis in England, 2016 to 2017: an ecological analysis. (PubMed)

Factors associated with four atypical cases of congenital syphilis in England, 2016 to 2017: an ecological analysis. Four isolated cases of congenital syphilis born to mothers who screened syphilis negative in the first trimester were identified between March 2016 and January 2017 compared with three cases between 2010 and 2015. The mothers were United Kingdom-born and had no syphilis risk factors. Cases occurred in areas with recent increases in sexually-transmitted syphilis among women

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2017 Euro Surveillance

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