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181. From tissue to silicon to plastic: three-dimensional printing in comparative anatomy and physiology (Full text)

by reproduction on flat inherently 2D screens. One way to circumvent this problem is in the production of 3D-printed scale models. We have applied computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging to produce digital models of animal anatomy well suited to be printed on low-cost 3D printers. In this communication, we report how to apply such technology in comparative anatomy and physiology to aid discovery, description, comprehension and communication, and we seek to inspire fellow researchers in these fields

2016 Royal Society Open Science

182. A Protocol for Bioinspired Design: A Ground Sampler Based on Sea Urchin Jaws (Full text)

observation, specimen characterization, device fabrication and mechanism bioexploration. The last step of bioexploration allows for a deeper understanding of the initial biology. The design architecture of the Aristotle's lantern is analyzed with micro-computed tomography and individual teeth are examined with scanning electron microscopy to identify the microstructure. Bioinspired designs are fabricated with a 3D printer, assembled and tested to determine the most efficient lantern opening and closing

2016 Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE

183. 3D Printing in the Laboratory: Maximize Time and Funds with Customized and Open-Source Labware (Full text)

3D Printing in the Laboratory: Maximize Time and Funds with Customized and Open-Source Labware 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, is the computer-guided process of fabricating physical objects by depositing successive layers of material. It has transformed manufacturing across virtually every industry, bringing about incredible advances in research and medicine. The rapidly growing consumer market now includes convenient and affordable "desktop" 3D printers. These are being used (...) several years, 3D printers could be commonplace within the home; with so many practical uses for 3D printing, we anticipate that the technology will also play an increasingly important role in the laboratory. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

2016 Journal of laboratory automation

184. Practical alignment method for X-ray spectral measurement in micro-CT system based on 3D printing technology (Full text)

Practical alignment method for X-ray spectral measurement in micro-CT system based on 3D printing technology This study presents a practical alignment method for X-ray spectral measurement in a rotating gantry based micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) system using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. In order to facilitate the spectrometer placement inside the gantry, supporting structures including a cover and a stand were dedicatedly designed and printed using a 3D printer. According

2016 Biomedical physics & engineering express

185. 3D Printed replica of articular fractures for surgical planning and patient consent: a two years multi-centric experience (Full text)

3D Printed replica of articular fractures for surgical planning and patient consent: a two years multi-centric experience CT scanning with 3D reconstructed images are currently used to study articular fractures in orthopedic and trauma surgery. A 3D-Printer creates solid objects, starting from a 3D Computer representation.We report from two year of multicenter experience in 3D printing of articular fractures.During the study period, 102 patients (distal radius fractures, radial head, tibial

2016 3D Printing in Medicine

186. Macro-to-micro interfacing to microfluidic channels using 3D-printed templates: Application to time-resolved secretion sampling of endocrine tissue (Full text)

fluidic reservoirs. We previously introduced the concept of using hand fabricated polymer inserts to template cell culture and sampling reservoirs into PDMS devices, allowing rapid stimulation and sampling of endocrine tissue. However, fabrication of the fluidic reservoirs was time consuming, tedious, and was prone to errors during device curing. Here, we have implemented computer-aided design and 3D printing to circumvent these fabrication obstacles. In addition to rapid prototyping and design (...) by temporally assaying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from <10 pancreatic islets and glycerol secretion from 2 mm adipose tissue explants, suggesting that 3D-printed interface templates could be applicable to a variety of cells and tissue types. More generally, this work validates desktop 3D printers as versatile interfacing tools in microfluidic laboratories.

2016 The Analyst

187. Low-cost Design and Manufacturing of Surgical Guides for Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Fibula (Full text)

Low-cost Design and Manufacturing of Surgical Guides for Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Fibula Surgical cutting guides are used in mandibular reconstruction involving osteotomy of the mandible and fibula. Cutting guides produced using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technologies have been reported recently. These guides aim to increase the benefits to patients by improving the accuracy, shortening the operating time, and correcting occlusion. However (...) , the availability of these advanced technologies is limited in some regions of the world. To test whether we could produce low-cost surgical cutting guides, we made surgical guides and investigated their accuracy.Using free CAD software, we designed surgical cutting guides for the mandible and fibula and used these to perform virtual mandibular segmental osteotomies and fibula transplants in 12 model surgeries. The cutting guides were printed on a 3-dimensional (3D) printer. The model surgeries were performed

2016 Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Global Open

188. Effect of Three-Dimensional Printed Personalized Moisture Chamber Spectacles on the Periocular Humidity (Full text)

Effect of Three-Dimensional Printed Personalized Moisture Chamber Spectacles on the Periocular Humidity Purpose. To assess the effect of three-dimensional (3D) printed personalized moisture chamber spectacles (PMCS) on the periocular humidity. Methods. Facial computed tomography (CT) scanning was conducted on 10 normal subjects. PMCS was designed based on volume rendered CT images and produced using a 3D printer. Periocular humidity of PMCS and commercially available uniformed moisture chamber (...) spectacles (UMCS) were measured for 30 minutes via microhydrometer. Results. The mean ambient humidity was 15.76 ± 1.18%. The mean periocular humidity was 52.14 ± 3.00% in PMCS and 37.67 ± 8.97% in UMCS. The difference was significant (P < 0.001). Additionally, PMCS always demonstrated lower humidity than dew points. Conclusion. PMCS made by 3D printer provides appropriate fitness for the semiclosed humid chamber. PMCS showed higher performance than UMCS. The wearing of PMCS would be an effective method

2016 Journal of ophthalmology

189. A depth-sensing technique on 3D-printed compensator for total body irradiation patient measurement and treatment planning (Full text)

measurements from computed tomography (CT) scan images. The thickness, source to surface distance, and off-axis distance of the phantom at different body section were measured for TBI treatment planning. A detailed compensator design was calculated to achieve a uniform dose distribution throughout the phantom. The compensator was fabricated using a 3D printer, silicone molding, and a mixture of wax and tungsten powder. In vivo dosimetry measurements were performed using optically stimulated luminescent (...) detectors.The scan of the phantom took approximately 30 s. The mean error for thickness measurements at each section of phantom relative to CT was 0.48 ± 0.27 cm. The average fabrication error for the 3D-printed compensator was 0.16 ± 0.15 mm. In vivo measurements for an end-to-end test showed that overall dose differences were within 5%.A technique for planning and fabricating a compensator for TBI treatment using a depth camera equipped tablet and a 3D printer was demonstrated to be sufficiently accurate

2016 Medical physics

190. 3D Printed Dry EEG Electrodes (Full text)

3D Printed Dry EEG Electrodes Electroencephalography (EEG) is a procedure that records brain activity in a non-invasive manner. The cost and size of EEG devices has decreased in recent years, facilitating a growing interest in wearable EEG that can be used out-of-the-lab for a wide range of applications, from epilepsy diagnosis, to stroke rehabilitation, to Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI). A major obstacle for these emerging applications is the wet electrodes, which are used as part of the EEG (...) setup. These electrodes are attached to the human scalp using a conductive gel, which can be uncomfortable to the subject, causes skin irritation, and some gels have poor long-term stability. A solution to this problem is to use dry electrodes, which do not require conductive gel, but tend to have a higher noise floor. This paper presents a novel methodology for the design and manufacture of such dry electrodes. We manufacture the electrodes using low cost desktop 3D printers and off-the-shelf

2016 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

191. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances: A proof of concept. (PubMed)

process without the need for a physical model of the patient's dentition.Plaster models can be superfluous for orthodontic treatment as digital models can be used in all phases of a full digital workflow in orthodontics. The arduous task of making a multicomponent dental appliance that involves bending wires can possibly be replaced by a computer, design software, a 3D printer, and a bending robot.Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. (...) Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances: A proof of concept. The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow.The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner (Lava Chairside Oral Scanner C.O.S., 3M). A digital impression was used to design 2 multicomponent orthodontic appliances

2016 Journal of the American Dental Association

192. Radiopaque Three-dimensional Printing: A Method to Create Realistic CT Phantoms. (Full text)

, reproduction of patient anatomy was tested by printing computed tomographic (CT) images of a real patient abdomen scan. In a second step, gray scales, iodine deposition, and Hounsfield units were investigated by printing geometric phantoms with gray scales ranging from 0% (white) to 100% (black). On the basis of these results, a gray-scale-correction procedure was developed to achieve realistic Hounsfield units in the patient phantom. In a third step, reproduction of the real patient's Hounsfield units (...) template gray scales and printer deposition. Application of a correction procedure to the template gray scales allowed for a linear correlation (r = 0.9946; 95% confidence interval: 0.9916, 0.9966). After the same correction procedure was applied to the abdomen phantom, linear correlation of phantom and patient Hounsfield units was confirmed (r = 0.9925; 95% confidence interval: 0.9635, 0.9985). Conclusion The method presented in this work can realize realistic and customizable phantoms for diagnostic

2016 Radiology

193. Three-dimensional assessment of the effects of high-density embolization material on the absorbed dose in the target for Gamma Knife radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations. (Full text)

hypothesized that this was partly caused by dosimetric deficiency. The actual dose delivered to the target may be smaller than the intended dose because of increased photon attenuation by high-density embolic materials. The authors performed a phantom-based study to quantitatively evaluate the 3D dosimetric effect of embolic material on GKRS. METHODS A 16-cm-diameter and 12-cm-long cylindrical phantom with a 16-cm-diameter hemispherical dome was printed by a 3D printer. The phantom was filled (...) treatment planning system (version 10.1.1). The plan was created to cover a fictitious AVM target volume near the embolization areas with eleven 8-mm shots and a prescription dose of 20 Gy to 50% isodose level. Dose distributions were computed using both tissue maximum ratio (TMR) 10 and convolution dose-calculation algorithms. These two 3D dose distributions were compared using an in-house program. Additionally, the same analysis method was applied to evaluate the dosimetric effects for 2 patients

2016 Journal of Neurosurgery

194. Three-dimensional printed final occlusal splint for orthognathic surgery: design and validation. (Full text)

Three-dimensional printed final occlusal splint for orthognathic surgery: design and validation. Orthognathic surgery is indicated for the treatment of significant skeletal malocclusion and is normally prepared using conventional face bows combined with two-dimensional cephalometric analysis and manually made splints. With recent developments in oral imaging, more orthognathic surgeries are being planned using three-dimensional computer-aided design and manufacturing (3D CAD/CAM) software (...) . The purpose of this study was to present a protocol for the design and 3D printing of final digital occlusal splints based on 3D planning of orthognathic surgery and to validate the accuracy of these splints. The 3D virtual planning was performed in PROPLAN software (Materialise). The required data were then exported into 3-matic software (Materialise) to design the splints, which were 3D printed in biocompatible material using an Objet Connex 350 printer (Stratasys). To validate the accuracy

2016 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

195. Semi-automated delineation of breast cancer tumors and subsequent materialization using three-dimensional printing (rapid prototyping). (PubMed)

methods-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT), and 3D ultrasound-were used to capture 3D data for breast cancer tumors. The volumes of the breast tumors were calculated to assess the comparability of the breast tumor models, and the MRI information was used to render models on a commercially available 3D printer to materialize the tumors.The tumor volumes calculated from the different 3D methods appeared to be comparable. Tumor models with volumes between 325 mm3 (...) and 7,770 mm3 were printed and compared with the models rendered from MRI. The materialization of the tumors reflected the computer models of them.3D printing (rapid prototyping) appears to be feasible. Scenarios for the clinical use of the technology might include presenting the model to the surgeon to provide a better understanding of the tumor's spatial characteristics in the breast, in order to improve decision-making in relation to neoadjuvant chemotherapy or surgical approaches. J. Surg. Oncol

2016 Journal of Surgical Oncology

196. 3D-printed pediatric endoscopic ear surgery simulator for surgical training. (PubMed)

, fabricate, and test a low-cost and reusable 3D-printed TEES simulator.The TEES simulator was designed in computer-aided design (CAD) software using anatomic measurements taken from anthropometric studies. Cross sections from external auditory canal samples were traced as vectors and serially combined into a mesh construct. A modified tympanic cavity with a modular testing platform for simulator tasks was incorporated. Components were fabricated using calcium sulfate hemihydrate powder and multiple (...) is feasible for TEES simulation. Otolaryngology training programs with access to a 3D printer may readily fabricate a TEES simulator, resulting in inexpensive yet high-fidelity surgical simulation.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

2016 International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

197. 3D-printing and the effect on medical costs: a new era? (PubMed)

3D-printing and the effect on medical costs: a new era? 3D-printing (3DP) is the art and science of printing in a new dimension using 3D printers to transform 3D computer aided designs (CAD) into life-changing products. This includes the design of more effective and patient-friendly pharmaceutical products as well as bio-inspired medical devices. It is poised as the next technology revolution for the pharmaceutical and medical-device industries. After decorous implementation scientists

2016 Expert review of pharmacoeconomics & outcomes research

198. Assessment and Planning for a Pediatric Bilateral Hand Transplant Using 3-Dimensional Modeling: Case Report. (PubMed)

not be appropriate. We present an 8-year-old child evaluated for a bilateral hand transplant following bilateral amputation. The recipient forearms and model hands were modeled from computed tomography imaging studies and replicated as anatomic models with a 3-dimensional printer. We modified the scale of the printed hand to produce 3 proportions, 80%, 100% and 120%. The transplant team used the anatomical models during evaluation of a donor for appropriate match based on size. The donor's hand size matched

2016 Journal of Hand Surgery - American

199. Content Validity of Temporal Bone Models Printed Via Inexpensive Methods and Materials. (PubMed)

Content Validity of Temporal Bone Models Printed Via Inexpensive Methods and Materials. Computed tomographic (CT) scans of the 3-D printed temporal bone models will be within 15% accuracy of the CT scans of the cadaveric temporal bones.Previous studies have evaluated the face validity of 3-D-printed temporal bone models designed to train otolaryngology residents. The purpose of the study was to determine the content validity of temporal bone models printed using inexpensive printers (...) and materials.Four cadaveric temporal bones were randomly selected and clinical temporal bone CT scans were obtained. Models were generated using previously described methods in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic using the Makerbot Replicator 2× and Hyrel printers. Models were radiographically scanned using the same protocol as the cadaveric bones. Four images from each cadaveric CT series and four corresponding images from the model CT series were selected, and voxel values were normalized to black

2016 Otology and Neurotology

200. 3D Geplante Osteosynthesen Mit Patientenspezifischen Zielvorrichtungen

by the National Library of Medicine related topics: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: patient specific guides fracture fixation with 3D planning and use of patient-specific instruments Device: fracture fixation with patient specific guides Using the preoperative computed tomography scan, a 3D planning of the fracture Fixation is made and patient-specific guides for fracure fixation are produced using a 3D Printer. These Patient-specific guides are used for fracture fixation (...) : Balgrist University Hospital Collaborator: University of Zurich Information provided by (Responsible Party): Balgrist University Hospital Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Goal of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of 3D computer-planned fracture fixation with patient-specific instruments for clavicle, upper extremity, lower extremity and pelvis fractures compared with the standard procedure of fracture fixation. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Fracture

2016 Clinical Trials

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