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41. Expert committee recommendations for acne management. (PubMed)

changes occurred in the management routines for acne. The greatest change arose on the basis of improved understanding of acne pathophysiology. The recommendation now is that acne treatments should be combined to target as many pathogenic factors as possible. A topical retinoid should be the foundation of treatment for most patients with acne, because retinoids target the microcomedo, the precursor to all acne lesions. Retinoids also are comedolytic and have intrinsic antiinflammatory effects, thus

2006 Pediatrics

42. Digital image analysis of the effect of topically applied linoleic acid on acne microcomedones. (PubMed)

was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized cross-over study. Evaluations were performed by digital image analysis of cyanoacrylate follicular biopsies. There was a significant effect of topically applied linoleic acid on the size of follicular casts and microcomedones, an almost 25% reduction in their overall size being achieved over a 1-month treatment period. In contrast, no change was found at placebo-treated sites. It is concluded that topical linoleic acid might play a role as a comedolytic

1998 Clinical and experimental dermatology

43. Comparison of CD271 (adapalene) and all-trans retinoic acid in human skin: dissociation of epidermal effects and CRABP-II mRNA expression. (PubMed)

Comparison of CD271 (adapalene) and all-trans retinoic acid in human skin: dissociation of epidermal effects and CRABP-II mRNA expression. A new synthetic retinoid analogue, adapalene (6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-methoxyphenyl]-2-naphthoic acid, CD271), which is relatively selective for retinoic acid receptor beta, was noted to be an effective comedolytic agent in the rhino mouse model and to have clinical efficacy against acne. In pursuit of this observation, we studied the effects of CD271

1993 The Journal of investigative dermatology

44. A multicentre, single-blind, randomized comparison of a fixed clindamycin phosphate/tretinoin gel formulation (Velac) applied once daily and a clindamycin lotion formulation (Dalacin T) applied twice daily in the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. (PubMed)

with the comedolytic activity of tretinoin. There was a significantly greater absolute reduction in inflamed lesions (pustules, papules and nodules) from baseline to both end-point (last observed efficacy outcome; P = 0.043) and week 12 (P = 0.018) in the CTG group compared with the CLN group. Evaluation of the calculated overall acne severity score, considering all five lesion subtypes, demonstrated a significantly greater mean percentage reduction in the CTG group compared with the CLN group, both at end-point

2000 The British journal of dermatology

45. Efficacy of the fixed 1.2% clindamycin phosphate, 0.025% tretinoin gel formulation (Velac) and a proprietary 0.025% tretinoin gel formulation (Aberela) in the topical control of facial acne. (PubMed)

of safety as a consequence of treatment were observed, although the burning component of irritation was shown to be significantly less for CTG than for tretinoin gel. The observed adverse effects were considered minor. Treatment had to be discontinued in five patients on CTG and three on tretinoin.The addition of clindamycin to tretinoin, as in CTG, enhances the comedolytic efficacy of tretinoin in moderate to severe acne of the face, maintaining at the same time its anti-inflammatory efficacy thus

1998 Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV

46. Comedolytic effect of topically applied active vitamin D3 analogue on pseudocomedones in the rhino mouse. (PubMed)

Comedolytic effect of topically applied active vitamin D3 analogue on pseudocomedones in the rhino mouse. Retinoids and active vitamin D(3) analogues regulate the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes and are effective in the treatment of psoriasis. Retinoids are known to be effective against acne vulgaris through comedolysis. However, the comedolytic effect of active vitamin D(3) analogues has not been reported.To investigate whether maxacalcitol, one of the active vitamin D(3 (...) ) analogues, has a comedolytic effect by using spontaneously comedogenic rhino mice.Rhino mice were treated topically with tretinoin and maxacalcitol once daily for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. The dermal side of the epidermal sheet was observed to determine the size of the utricle. Haematoxylin and eosin-stained vertical sections were used to measure utricle diameter and density and to evaluate histological changes.Maxacalcitol (25 microg g(-1)) and tretinoin (0.1%) significantly decreased the size

2006 British Journal of Dermatology

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