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41. Effective over-the-counter acne treatments. (Abstract)

antibacterial agent, and salicylic acid, a mild comedolytic and antiinflammatory medication. Other, less-common OTC ingredients include sulfur, sodium sulfacetamide, and alpha hydroxy acids. Zinc, vitamin A, tea tree oil, and ayurvedic therapies also are available OTC for acne. Additional and better studies are needed to clarify the benefit of these latter medications.

2008 Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery

42. Pharmacology of RALGA, a mixture of retinaldehyde and glycolic acid. (Abstract)

study the pharmacological properties of RALGA.The bioavailability of RAL into the skin after topical RALGA was studied by HPLC, and its bioconversion to RA was analysed by measuring the enzyme activity of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase and the RA content in the epidermis and dermis. The retinoid activity of RALGA was studied on the modulation of Hhb4 keratin mRNA on the tail of C57BL/6 mice, and its comedolytic properties on the size and density of dermal cysts and the morphology of sebaceous glands

2005 Dermatology

43. Digital image analysis of the effect of topically applied linoleic acid on acne microcomedones. (Abstract)

was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized cross-over study. Evaluations were performed by digital image analysis of cyanoacrylate follicular biopsies. There was a significant effect of topically applied linoleic acid on the size of follicular casts and microcomedones, an almost 25% reduction in their overall size being achieved over a 1-month treatment period. In contrast, no change was found at placebo-treated sites. It is concluded that topical linoleic acid might play a role as a comedolytic

1998 Clinical and experimental dermatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

44. Comparison of CD271 (adapalene) and all-trans retinoic acid in human skin: dissociation of epidermal effects and CRABP-II mRNA expression. (Abstract)

Comparison of CD271 (adapalene) and all-trans retinoic acid in human skin: dissociation of epidermal effects and CRABP-II mRNA expression. A new synthetic retinoid analogue, adapalene (6-[3-(1-adamantyl)-4-methoxyphenyl]-2-naphthoic acid, CD271), which is relatively selective for retinoic acid receptor beta, was noted to be an effective comedolytic agent in the rhino mouse model and to have clinical efficacy against acne. In pursuit of this observation, we studied the effects of CD271

1993 The Journal of investigative dermatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

45. Comedolysis by a lipohydroxyacid formulation in acne-prone subjects. (Abstract)

formulation twice daily for 2 weeks. Ten of 14 other women who presented the same skin condition remained untreated as controls. The comedolytic effect was assessed using non-invasive ultraviolet-light video recording combined with computerized image analysis. The cornified follicular plugs were progressively cleared in 10/12 LHA-treated women and in 3/10 untreated volunteers. Analytical assessments showed a significant decrease in both the number and total size of microcomedones in the LHA-treated women (...) . By contrast, no quantitative change was disclosed in the untreated group. It is concluded that the tested LHA formulation exerts comedolytic properties that might help in preventing post-summertime acne exacerbations.

2003 European journal of dermatology : EJD Controlled trial quality: uncertain

46. A multicentre, single-blind, randomized comparison of a fixed clindamycin phosphate/tretinoin gel formulation (Velac) applied once daily and a clindamycin lotion formulation (Dalacin T) applied twice daily in the topical treatment of acne vulgaris. (Abstract)

with the comedolytic activity of tretinoin. There was a significantly greater absolute reduction in inflamed lesions (pustules, papules and nodules) from baseline to both end-point (last observed efficacy outcome; P = 0.043) and week 12 (P = 0.018) in the CTG group compared with the CLN group. Evaluation of the calculated overall acne severity score, considering all five lesion subtypes, demonstrated a significantly greater mean percentage reduction in the CTG group compared with the CLN group, both at end-point

2000 The British journal of dermatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

47. Efficacy of the fixed 1.2% clindamycin phosphate, 0.025% tretinoin gel formulation (Velac) and a proprietary 0.025% tretinoin gel formulation (Aberela) in the topical control of facial acne. (Abstract)

of safety as a consequence of treatment were observed, although the burning component of irritation was shown to be significantly less for CTG than for tretinoin gel. The observed adverse effects were considered minor. Treatment had to be discontinued in five patients on CTG and three on tretinoin.The addition of clindamycin to tretinoin, as in CTG, enhances the comedolytic efficacy of tretinoin in moderate to severe acne of the face, maintaining at the same time its anti-inflammatory efficacy thus

1998 Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV Controlled trial quality: uncertain

48. Topical treatment in acne: current status and future aspects. (Abstract)

and slow down the development of resistance. BPO is still the gold standard for papular-pustular acne of mild-to-moderate type in concentrations of 2-5%. Azelaic acid is an alternative with efficacy on the comedo and is antibacterial without development of resistances. Finally, the physical removal by electrocautery or CO(2) laser of multiple densely packed closed comedones, macrocomedones and microcysts is necessary to enhance the efficacy of topical comedolytic agents and to speed up the therapeutic

2003 Dermatology

49. Comedolytic effect of topically applied active vitamin D3 analogue on pseudocomedones in the rhino mouse. (Abstract)

Comedolytic effect of topically applied active vitamin D3 analogue on pseudocomedones in the rhino mouse. Retinoids and active vitamin D(3) analogues regulate the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes and are effective in the treatment of psoriasis. Retinoids are known to be effective against acne vulgaris through comedolysis. However, the comedolytic effect of active vitamin D(3) analogues has not been reported.To investigate whether maxacalcitol, one of the active vitamin D(3 (...) ) analogues, has a comedolytic effect by using spontaneously comedogenic rhino mice.Rhino mice were treated topically with tretinoin and maxacalcitol once daily for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. The dermal side of the epidermal sheet was observed to determine the size of the utricle. Haematoxylin and eosin-stained vertical sections were used to measure utricle diameter and density and to evaluate histological changes.Maxacalcitol (25 microg g(-1)) and tretinoin (0.1%) significantly decreased the size

2006 British Journal of Dermatology

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