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Cochlea

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1. Hydromechanical Structure of the Cochlea Supports the Backward Traveling Wave in the Cochlea In Vivo (PubMed)

Hydromechanical Structure of the Cochlea Supports the Backward Traveling Wave in the Cochlea In Vivo The discovery that an apparent forward-propagating otoacoustic emission (OAE) induced basilar membrane vibration has created a serious debate in the field of cochlear mechanics. The traditional theory predicts that OAE will propagate to the ear canal via a backward traveling wave on the basilar membrane, while the opponent theory proposed that the OAE will reach the ear canal via a compression (...) wave. Although accepted by most people, the basic phenomenon of the backward traveling wave theory has not been experimentally demonstrated. In this study, for the first time, we showed the backward traveling wave by measuring the phase spectra of the basilar membrane vibration at multiple longitudinal locations of the basal turn of the cochlea. A local vibration source with a unique and precise location on the cochlear partition was created to avoid the ambiguity of the vibration source in most

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2018 Neural plasticity

2. Cochlea-sparing acoustic neuroma treatment with 4Ï€ radiation therapy (PubMed)

Cochlea-sparing acoustic neuroma treatment with 4Ï€ radiation therapy This study investigates whether 4π noncoplanar radiation therapy can spare the cochleae and consequently potentially improve hearing preservation in patients with acoustic neuroma who are treated with radiation therapy.Clinical radiation therapy plans for 30 patients with acoustic neuroma were included (14 stereotactic radiation surgery [SRS], 6 stereotactic radiation therapy [SRT], and 10 intensity modulated radiation (...) significantly reduced the mean dose to both cochleae by 2.0 Gy (32%) for SRS, 3.2 Gy (29%) for SRT, and 10.0 Gy (32%) for IMRT. The maximum dose to both cochleae was also reduced with 4π by 1.6 Gy (20%), 2.2 Gy (15%), and 7.1 Gy (18%) for SRS, SRT, and IMRT plans, respectively. The reductions in mean/maximum brainstem dose with 4π were also statistically significant. Mean doses to other OARs were reduced by 19% to 56% on average. 4π plans had a similar CN and TCP, with a significantly higher average

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2018 Advances in radiation oncology

3. Computer modeling defines the system driving a constant current crucial for homeostasis in the mammalian cochlea by integrating unique ion transports (PubMed)

Computer modeling defines the system driving a constant current crucial for homeostasis in the mammalian cochlea by integrating unique ion transports The cochlear lateral wall-an epithelial-like tissue comprising inner and outer layers-maintains +80 mV in endolymph. This endocochlear potential supports hearing and represents the sum of all membrane potentials across apical and basolateral surfaces of both layers. The apical surfaces are governed by K+ equilibrium potentials. Underlying (...) extracellular and intracellular [K+] is likely controlled by the "circulation current," which crosses the two layers and unidirectionally flows throughout the cochlea. This idea was conceptually reinforced by our computational model integrating ion channels and transporters; however, contribution of the outer layer's basolateral surface remains unclear. Recent experiments showed that this basolateral surface transports K+ using Na+, K+-ATPases and an unusual characteristic of greater permeability to Na

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2017 NPJ systems biology and applications

4. Improving dosimetric outcome for hippocampus and cochlea sparing whole brain radiotherapy using spot-scanning proton arc therapy. (PubMed)

Improving dosimetric outcome for hippocampus and cochlea sparing whole brain radiotherapy using spot-scanning proton arc therapy. This feasibility study shows that Spot-scanning Proton Arc therapy (SPArc) is able to significantly reduce the dose to the hippocampus and cochlea compared to both Volumetric Modulated Arc Photon Therapy (VMAT) and the robust optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (ro-IMPT) plans in whole brain radiotherapy. Furthermore, SPArc not only improves plan robustness

2019 Acta Oncologica

5. The aging cochlea: Towards unraveling the functional contributions of strial dysfunction and synaptopathy. (PubMed)

The aging cochlea: Towards unraveling the functional contributions of strial dysfunction and synaptopathy. Strial dysfunction is commonly observed as a key consequence of aging in the cochlea. A large body of animal research, especially in the quiet-aged Mongolian gerbil, shows specific histopathological changes in the cochlear stria vascularis and the putatively corresponding effects on endocochlear potential and auditory nerve responses. However, recent work suggests that synaptopathy

2019 Hearing Research

6. Usher syndrome and non-syndromic deafness: Functions of different whirlin isoforms in the cochlea, vestibular organs, and retina. (PubMed)

Usher syndrome and non-syndromic deafness: Functions of different whirlin isoforms in the cochlea, vestibular organs, and retina. Usher syndrome (USH) is the leading cause of inherited combined vision and hearing loss. However, mutations in most USH causative genes lead to other diseases, such as hearing loss only or vision loss only. The molecular mechanisms underlying the variable disease manifestations associated with USH gene mutations are unclear. This review focuses on an USH type 2 (USH2

2019 Hearing Research

7. Vascular regeneration in adult mouse cochlea stimulated by VEGF-A<sub>165</sub> and driven by NG2-derived cells ex vivo. (PubMed)

Vascular regeneration in adult mouse cochlea stimulated by VEGF-A165 and driven by NG2-derived cells ex vivo. Can damaged or degenerated vessels be regenerated in the ear? The question is clinically important, as disruption of cochlear blood flow is seen in a wide variety of hearing disorders, including in loud sound-induced hearing loss (endothelial injury), ageing-related hearing loss (lost vascular density), and genetic hearing loss (e.g., Norrie disease: strial avascularization

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2019 Hearing Research

8. Circadian integration of inflammation and glucocorticoid actions: Implications for the cochlea. (PubMed)

Circadian integration of inflammation and glucocorticoid actions: Implications for the cochlea. Auditory function has been shown to be influenced by the circadian system. Increasing evidence point towards the regulation of inflammation and glucocorticoid actions by circadian rhythms in the cochlea. Yet, how these three systems (circadian, immune and endocrine) converge to control auditory function remains to be established. Here we review the knowledge on immune and glucocorticoid actions (...) , and how they interact with the circadian and the auditory system, with a particular emphasis on cochlear responses to noise trauma. We propose a multimodal approach to understand the mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss by integrating the circadian, immune and endocrine systems into the bearings of the cochlea. Considering the well-established positive impact of chronotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of cardiovascular, asthma and cancer, an increased knowledge on the mechanisms where

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2019 Hearing Research

9. Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Leukemia: A Case Report Showing Intravascular Coagulation in the Cochlea and Vestibular Labyrinth. (PubMed)

Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Leukemia: A Case Report Showing Intravascular Coagulation in the Cochlea and Vestibular Labyrinth. Sensorineural hearing loss frequently has been described in patients with leukemia, and in fact, hearing loss may be the presenting symptom of this disease. However, the pathogenesis of sensorineural hearing loss in leukemia is not well understood.To describe the temporal bone histopathology in 1 patient with leukemia and sensorineural hearing loss.The histopathology (...) of the temporal bones of 1 patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia who suffered well-documented bilateral sequential profound sensorineural hearing loss 4 months before death was investigated using light microscopy.There was evidence of ischemic necrosis of the neuroepithelium and intravascular fibrin micro-thrombi suggestive of intravascular coagulation in the cochlea and vestibular labyrinth.Intravascular coagulation may be a contributing factor in the commonly reported finding of hemorrhage

2019 Rhinology and Laryngology

10. Age-dependent alterations of Kir4.1 expression in neural crest-derived cells of the mouse and human cochlea. (PubMed)

Age-dependent alterations of Kir4.1 expression in neural crest-derived cells of the mouse and human cochlea. Age-related hearing loss (or presbyacusis) is a progressive pathophysiological process. This study addressed the hypothesis that degeneration/dysfunction of multiple nonsensory cell types contributes to presbyacusis by evaluating tissues obtained from young and aged CBA/CaJ mouse ears and human temporal bones. Ultrastructural examination and transcriptomic analysis of mouse cochleas (...) cells ensheathing spiral ganglion neurons. Expression alterations of Kir4.1 were observed in these same cell populations in the aged human cochlea. These results suggest that degeneration/dysfunction of neural crest-derived cells maybe an important contributing factor to both metabolic and neural forms of presbyacusis.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2019 Neurobiology of Aging

11. Expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in the cochlea: Implications for drug delivery and ototoxicity. (PubMed)

Expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in the cochlea: Implications for drug delivery and ototoxicity. Inner ear drug delivery is a major area of research and development, but relatively little is known about basic drug metabolism in the cochlea. Additionally, the use of potentially ototoxic drugs such as NSAIDs, chemotherapeutics and aminoglycosides is common, but little is known about the role of metabolism in ototoxicity of those drugs. To address those issues, we compared (...) expression of major Cytochromes P450 (Cyps), UDP-glucuronosyl-transferases (Ugts), sulfotransferases (Sults), and drug transporters between cochleae and liver, an organ with high expression, in mice using qPCR and enzyme kinetics. Together, the tested drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters account for metabolism of approximately 70-80% of all medically important drugs in the body. Expression of most Cyps was low in the cochlea compared to liver, but three displayed similar expression levels

2019 Hearing Research

12. Insulin Receptor and Glucose Transporters in the Mammalian Cochlea. (PubMed)

Insulin Receptor and Glucose Transporters in the Mammalian Cochlea. Insulin receptors are expressed on nerve cells in the mammalian brain, but little is known about insulin signaling and the expression of the insulin receptor (IR) and glucose transporters in the cochlea. We performed immunohistochemistry and gene/protein expression analysis to characterize the expression pattern of the IR and glucose transporters in the mouse organ of Corti (OC). We also performed glucose uptake assays

2019 Audiology & Neuro-Otology

13. Comparison of Frequency Transposition and Frequency Compression for People With Extensive Dead Regions in the Cochlea. (PubMed)

Comparison of Frequency Transposition and Frequency Compression for People With Extensive Dead Regions in the Cochlea. The objective was to determine the effects of two frequency-lowering algorithms (frequency transposition, FT, and frequency compression, FC) on audibility, speech identification, and subjective benefit, for people with high-frequency hearing loss and extensive dead regions (DRs) in the cochlea. A single-blind randomized crossover design was used. FT and FC were compared

2019 Trends in hearing Controlled trial quality: uncertain

14. GSR is not essential for the maintenance of antioxidant defenses in mouse cochlea: Possible role of the thioredoxin system as a functional backup for GSR. (PubMed)

GSR is not essential for the maintenance of antioxidant defenses in mouse cochlea: Possible role of the thioredoxin system as a functional backup for GSR. Glutathione reductase (GSR), a key member of the glutathione antioxidant defense system, converts oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH) and maintains the intracellular glutathione redox state to protect the cells from oxidative damage. Previous reports have shown that Gsr deficiency results in defects in host defense (...) a significant decrease in GSR activity and GSH/GSSG ratios in the cytosol of the inner ears. However, Gsr deficiency did not affect ABR (auditory brainstem response) hearing thresholds, wave I amplitudes or wave I latencies in young mice. No histological abnormalities were observed in the cochlea of Gsr-/- mice. Furthermore, there were no differences in the activities of cytosolic glutathione-related enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase and glutamate-cysteine ligase, or the levels of oxidative damage

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2017 PLoS ONE

15. Dynamic Expression of Sox2, Gata3, and Prox1 during Primary Auditory Neuron Development in the Mammalian Cochlea. (PubMed)

Dynamic Expression of Sox2, Gata3, and Prox1 during Primary Auditory Neuron Development in the Mammalian Cochlea. Primary auditory neurons (PANs) connect cochlear sensory hair cells in the mammalian inner ear to cochlear nucleus neurons in the brainstem. PANs develop from neuroblasts delaminated from the proneurosensory domain of the otocyst and keep maturing until the onset of hearing after birth. There are two types of PANs: type I, which innervate the inner hair cells (IHCs), and type II

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2017 PLoS ONE

16. The impact of round window vs cochleostomy surgical approaches on interscalar excursions in the cochlea: Preliminary results from a flat-panel computed tomography study (PubMed)

The impact of round window vs cochleostomy surgical approaches on interscalar excursions in the cochlea: Preliminary results from a flat-panel computed tomography study To evaluate incidence of interscalar excursions between round window (RW) and cochleostomy approaches for cochlear implant (CI) insertion.This was a retrospective case-comparison. Flat-panel CT (FPCT) scans for 8 CI users with Med-El standard length electrode arrays were collected. Surgical technique was identified (...) by a combination of operative notes and FPCT imaging. Four cochleae underwent round window insertion and 4 cochleae underwent cochleostomy approaches anterior and inferior to the round window.In our pilot study, cochleostomy approaches were associated with a higher likelihood of interscalar excursion. Within the cochleostomy group, we found 29% of electrode contacts (14 of 48 electrodes) to be outside the scala tympani. On the other hand, 8.5% of the electrode contacts (4 of 47 electrodes) in the round window

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2016 World journal of otorhinolaryngology - head and neck surgery

17. Visualizing the 3D cytoarchitecture of the human cochlea in an intact temporal bone using synchrotron radiation phase contrast imaging (PubMed)

Visualizing the 3D cytoarchitecture of the human cochlea in an intact temporal bone using synchrotron radiation phase contrast imaging The gold standard method for visualizing the pathologies underlying human sensorineural hearing loss has remained post-mortem histology for over 125 years, despite awareness that histological preparation induces severe artifacts in biological tissue. Historically, the transition from post-mortem assessment to non-invasive clinical biomedical imaging in living (...) humans has revolutionized diagnosis and treatment of disease; however, innovation in non-invasive techniques for cellular-level intracochlear imaging in humans has been difficult due to the cochlea's small size, complex 3D configuration, fragility, and deep encasement within bone. Here we investigate the ability of synchrotron radiation-facilitated X-ray absorption and phase contrast imaging to enable visualization of sensory cells and nerve fibers in the cochlea's sensory epithelium in situ in 3D

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2018 Biomedical optics express

18. Vibration hotspots reveal longitudinal funneling of sound-evoked motion in the mammalian cochlea (PubMed)

Vibration hotspots reveal longitudinal funneling of sound-evoked motion in the mammalian cochlea The micromechanical mechanisms that underpin tuning and dynamic range compression in the mammalian inner ear are fundamental to hearing, but poorly understood. Here, we present new, high-resolution optical measurements that directly map sound-evoked vibrations on to anatomical structures in the intact, living gerbil cochlea. The largest vibrations occur in a tightly delineated hotspot centering near

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2018 Nature communications

19. Fast Ca2+ Transients of Inner Hair Cells Arise Coupled and Uncoupled to Ca2+ Waves of Inner Supporting Cells in the Developing Mouse Cochlea (PubMed)

Fast Ca2+ Transients of Inner Hair Cells Arise Coupled and Uncoupled to Ca2+ Waves of Inner Supporting Cells in the Developing Mouse Cochlea Before the onset of hearing, which occurs around postnatal day 12 (P12) in mice, inner hair cells (IHCs) of the immature cochlea generate sound-independent Ca2+ action potentials (APs), which stimulate the auditory pathway and guide maturation of neuronal circuits. During these early postnatal days, intercellular propagating Ca2+ waves elicited by ATP

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2018 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

20. High-resolution transcriptional dissection of in vivo Atoh1-mediated hair cell conversion in mature cochleae identifies Isl1 as a co-reprogramming factor (PubMed)

High-resolution transcriptional dissection of in vivo Atoh1-mediated hair cell conversion in mature cochleae identifies Isl1 as a co-reprogramming factor In vivo direct conversion of differentiated cells holds promise for regenerative medicine; however, improving the conversion efficiency and producing functional target cells remain challenging. Ectopic Atoh1 expression in non-sensory supporting cells (SCs) in mouse cochleae induces their partial conversion to hair cells (HCs) at low efficiency

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2018 PLoS genetics

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