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Cochlea

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1. Hydromechanical Structure of the Cochlea Supports the Backward Traveling Wave in the Cochlea In Vivo (PubMed)

Hydromechanical Structure of the Cochlea Supports the Backward Traveling Wave in the Cochlea In Vivo The discovery that an apparent forward-propagating otoacoustic emission (OAE) induced basilar membrane vibration has created a serious debate in the field of cochlear mechanics. The traditional theory predicts that OAE will propagate to the ear canal via a backward traveling wave on the basilar membrane, while the opponent theory proposed that the OAE will reach the ear canal via a compression (...) wave. Although accepted by most people, the basic phenomenon of the backward traveling wave theory has not been experimentally demonstrated. In this study, for the first time, we showed the backward traveling wave by measuring the phase spectra of the basilar membrane vibration at multiple longitudinal locations of the basal turn of the cochlea. A local vibration source with a unique and precise location on the cochlear partition was created to avoid the ambiguity of the vibration source in most

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2018 Neural plasticity

2. Cochlea-sparing acoustic neuroma treatment with 4Ï€ radiation therapy (PubMed)

Cochlea-sparing acoustic neuroma treatment with 4Ï€ radiation therapy This study investigates whether 4π noncoplanar radiation therapy can spare the cochleae and consequently potentially improve hearing preservation in patients with acoustic neuroma who are treated with radiation therapy.Clinical radiation therapy plans for 30 patients with acoustic neuroma were included (14 stereotactic radiation surgery [SRS], 6 stereotactic radiation therapy [SRT], and 10 intensity modulated radiation (...) significantly reduced the mean dose to both cochleae by 2.0 Gy (32%) for SRS, 3.2 Gy (29%) for SRT, and 10.0 Gy (32%) for IMRT. The maximum dose to both cochleae was also reduced with 4π by 1.6 Gy (20%), 2.2 Gy (15%), and 7.1 Gy (18%) for SRS, SRT, and IMRT plans, respectively. The reductions in mean/maximum brainstem dose with 4π were also statistically significant. Mean doses to other OARs were reduced by 19% to 56% on average. 4π plans had a similar CN and TCP, with a significantly higher average

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2018 Advances in radiation oncology

3. Computer modeling defines the system driving a constant current crucial for homeostasis in the mammalian cochlea by integrating unique ion transports (PubMed)

Computer modeling defines the system driving a constant current crucial for homeostasis in the mammalian cochlea by integrating unique ion transports The cochlear lateral wall-an epithelial-like tissue comprising inner and outer layers-maintains +80 mV in endolymph. This endocochlear potential supports hearing and represents the sum of all membrane potentials across apical and basolateral surfaces of both layers. The apical surfaces are governed by K+ equilibrium potentials. Underlying (...) extracellular and intracellular [K+] is likely controlled by the "circulation current," which crosses the two layers and unidirectionally flows throughout the cochlea. This idea was conceptually reinforced by our computational model integrating ion channels and transporters; however, contribution of the outer layer's basolateral surface remains unclear. Recent experiments showed that this basolateral surface transports K+ using Na+, K+-ATPases and an unusual characteristic of greater permeability to Na

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2017 NPJ systems biology and applications

4. Improving dosimetric outcome for hippocampus and cochlea sparing whole brain radiotherapy using spot-scanning proton arc therapy. (PubMed)

Improving dosimetric outcome for hippocampus and cochlea sparing whole brain radiotherapy using spot-scanning proton arc therapy. This feasibility study shows that Spot-scanning Proton Arc therapy (SPArc) is able to significantly reduce the dose to the hippocampus and cochlea compared to both Volumetric Modulated Arc Photon Therapy (VMAT) and the robust optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (ro-IMPT) plans in whole brain radiotherapy. Furthermore, SPArc not only improves plan robustness

2019 Acta Oncologica

5. The aging cochlea: Towards unraveling the functional contributions of strial dysfunction and synaptopathy. (PubMed)

The aging cochlea: Towards unraveling the functional contributions of strial dysfunction and synaptopathy. Strial dysfunction is commonly observed as a key consequence of aging in the cochlea. A large body of animal research, especially in the quiet-aged Mongolian gerbil, shows specific histopathological changes in the cochlear stria vascularis and the putatively corresponding effects on endocochlear potential and auditory nerve responses. However, recent work suggests that synaptopathy

2019 Hearing Research

6. Usher syndrome and non-syndromic deafness: Functions of different whirlin isoforms in the cochlea, vestibular organs, and retina. (PubMed)

Usher syndrome and non-syndromic deafness: Functions of different whirlin isoforms in the cochlea, vestibular organs, and retina. Usher syndrome (USH) is the leading cause of inherited combined vision and hearing loss. However, mutations in most USH causative genes lead to other diseases, such as hearing loss only or vision loss only. The molecular mechanisms underlying the variable disease manifestations associated with USH gene mutations are unclear. This review focuses on an USH type 2 (USH2

2019 Hearing Research

7. Vascular regeneration in adult mouse cochlea stimulated by VEGF-A<sub>165</sub> and driven by NG2-derived cells ex vivo. (PubMed)

Vascular regeneration in adult mouse cochlea stimulated by VEGF-A165 and driven by NG2-derived cells ex vivo. Can damaged or degenerated vessels be regenerated in the ear? The question is clinically important, as disruption of cochlear blood flow is seen in a wide variety of hearing disorders, including in loud sound-induced hearing loss (endothelial injury), ageing-related hearing loss (lost vascular density), and genetic hearing loss (e.g., Norrie disease: strial avascularization

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2019 Hearing Research

8. Circadian integration of inflammation and glucocorticoid actions: Implications for the cochlea. (PubMed)

Circadian integration of inflammation and glucocorticoid actions: Implications for the cochlea. Auditory function has been shown to be influenced by the circadian system. Increasing evidence point towards the regulation of inflammation and glucocorticoid actions by circadian rhythms in the cochlea. Yet, how these three systems (circadian, immune and endocrine) converge to control auditory function remains to be established. Here we review the knowledge on immune and glucocorticoid actions (...) , and how they interact with the circadian and the auditory system, with a particular emphasis on cochlear responses to noise trauma. We propose a multimodal approach to understand the mechanisms of noise-induced hearing loss by integrating the circadian, immune and endocrine systems into the bearings of the cochlea. Considering the well-established positive impact of chronotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of cardiovascular, asthma and cancer, an increased knowledge on the mechanisms where

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2019 Hearing Research

9. Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Leukemia: A Case Report Showing Intravascular Coagulation in the Cochlea and Vestibular Labyrinth. (PubMed)

Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Leukemia: A Case Report Showing Intravascular Coagulation in the Cochlea and Vestibular Labyrinth. Sensorineural hearing loss frequently has been described in patients with leukemia, and in fact, hearing loss may be the presenting symptom of this disease. However, the pathogenesis of sensorineural hearing loss in leukemia is not well understood.To describe the temporal bone histopathology in 1 patient with leukemia and sensorineural hearing loss.The histopathology (...) of the temporal bones of 1 patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia who suffered well-documented bilateral sequential profound sensorineural hearing loss 4 months before death was investigated using light microscopy.There was evidence of ischemic necrosis of the neuroepithelium and intravascular fibrin micro-thrombi suggestive of intravascular coagulation in the cochlea and vestibular labyrinth.Intravascular coagulation may be a contributing factor in the commonly reported finding of hemorrhage

2019 Rhinology and Laryngology

10. GSR is not essential for the maintenance of antioxidant defenses in mouse cochlea: Possible role of the thioredoxin system as a functional backup for GSR. (PubMed)

GSR is not essential for the maintenance of antioxidant defenses in mouse cochlea: Possible role of the thioredoxin system as a functional backup for GSR. Glutathione reductase (GSR), a key member of the glutathione antioxidant defense system, converts oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH) and maintains the intracellular glutathione redox state to protect the cells from oxidative damage. Previous reports have shown that Gsr deficiency results in defects in host defense (...) a significant decrease in GSR activity and GSH/GSSG ratios in the cytosol of the inner ears. However, Gsr deficiency did not affect ABR (auditory brainstem response) hearing thresholds, wave I amplitudes or wave I latencies in young mice. No histological abnormalities were observed in the cochlea of Gsr-/- mice. Furthermore, there were no differences in the activities of cytosolic glutathione-related enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase and glutamate-cysteine ligase, or the levels of oxidative damage

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2017 PLoS ONE

11. Dynamic Expression of Sox2, Gata3, and Prox1 during Primary Auditory Neuron Development in the Mammalian Cochlea. (PubMed)

Dynamic Expression of Sox2, Gata3, and Prox1 during Primary Auditory Neuron Development in the Mammalian Cochlea. Primary auditory neurons (PANs) connect cochlear sensory hair cells in the mammalian inner ear to cochlear nucleus neurons in the brainstem. PANs develop from neuroblasts delaminated from the proneurosensory domain of the otocyst and keep maturing until the onset of hearing after birth. There are two types of PANs: type I, which innervate the inner hair cells (IHCs), and type II

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2017 PLoS ONE

12. The impact of round window vs cochleostomy surgical approaches on interscalar excursions in the cochlea: Preliminary results from a flat-panel computed tomography study (PubMed)

The impact of round window vs cochleostomy surgical approaches on interscalar excursions in the cochlea: Preliminary results from a flat-panel computed tomography study To evaluate incidence of interscalar excursions between round window (RW) and cochleostomy approaches for cochlear implant (CI) insertion.This was a retrospective case-comparison. Flat-panel CT (FPCT) scans for 8 CI users with Med-El standard length electrode arrays were collected. Surgical technique was identified (...) by a combination of operative notes and FPCT imaging. Four cochleae underwent round window insertion and 4 cochleae underwent cochleostomy approaches anterior and inferior to the round window.In our pilot study, cochleostomy approaches were associated with a higher likelihood of interscalar excursion. Within the cochleostomy group, we found 29% of electrode contacts (14 of 48 electrodes) to be outside the scala tympani. On the other hand, 8.5% of the electrode contacts (4 of 47 electrodes) in the round window

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2016 World journal of otorhinolaryngology - head and neck surgery

13. Visualizing the 3D cytoarchitecture of the human cochlea in an intact temporal bone using synchrotron radiation phase contrast imaging (PubMed)

Visualizing the 3D cytoarchitecture of the human cochlea in an intact temporal bone using synchrotron radiation phase contrast imaging The gold standard method for visualizing the pathologies underlying human sensorineural hearing loss has remained post-mortem histology for over 125 years, despite awareness that histological preparation induces severe artifacts in biological tissue. Historically, the transition from post-mortem assessment to non-invasive clinical biomedical imaging in living (...) humans has revolutionized diagnosis and treatment of disease; however, innovation in non-invasive techniques for cellular-level intracochlear imaging in humans has been difficult due to the cochlea's small size, complex 3D configuration, fragility, and deep encasement within bone. Here we investigate the ability of synchrotron radiation-facilitated X-ray absorption and phase contrast imaging to enable visualization of sensory cells and nerve fibers in the cochlea's sensory epithelium in situ in 3D

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2018 Biomedical optics express

14. Vibration hotspots reveal longitudinal funneling of sound-evoked motion in the mammalian cochlea (PubMed)

Vibration hotspots reveal longitudinal funneling of sound-evoked motion in the mammalian cochlea The micromechanical mechanisms that underpin tuning and dynamic range compression in the mammalian inner ear are fundamental to hearing, but poorly understood. Here, we present new, high-resolution optical measurements that directly map sound-evoked vibrations on to anatomical structures in the intact, living gerbil cochlea. The largest vibrations occur in a tightly delineated hotspot centering near

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2018 Nature communications

15. Fast Ca2+ Transients of Inner Hair Cells Arise Coupled and Uncoupled to Ca2+ Waves of Inner Supporting Cells in the Developing Mouse Cochlea (PubMed)

Fast Ca2+ Transients of Inner Hair Cells Arise Coupled and Uncoupled to Ca2+ Waves of Inner Supporting Cells in the Developing Mouse Cochlea Before the onset of hearing, which occurs around postnatal day 12 (P12) in mice, inner hair cells (IHCs) of the immature cochlea generate sound-independent Ca2+ action potentials (APs), which stimulate the auditory pathway and guide maturation of neuronal circuits. During these early postnatal days, intercellular propagating Ca2+ waves elicited by ATP

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2018 Frontiers in molecular neuroscience

16. High-resolution transcriptional dissection of in vivo Atoh1-mediated hair cell conversion in mature cochleae identifies Isl1 as a co-reprogramming factor (PubMed)

High-resolution transcriptional dissection of in vivo Atoh1-mediated hair cell conversion in mature cochleae identifies Isl1 as a co-reprogramming factor In vivo direct conversion of differentiated cells holds promise for regenerative medicine; however, improving the conversion efficiency and producing functional target cells remain challenging. Ectopic Atoh1 expression in non-sensory supporting cells (SCs) in mouse cochleae induces their partial conversion to hair cells (HCs) at low efficiency

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2018 PLoS genetics

17. Postnatal Development of Microglia-Like Cells in Mouse Cochlea (PubMed)

Postnatal Development of Microglia-Like Cells in Mouse Cochlea Microglial cells are involved in surveillance and cleaning of the central nervous system. Recently, microglial-like cells (MLC) have been found in an adult cochlea and investigated for their role in cochlear inflammation. The presence and potential roles of MLCs during the development of the cochlea, however, remain unclear. In this study, immunostaining was performed using the MLC-specific marker IBA1 to characterize the presence (...) , distribution, and morphology of MLCs in the developing cochlea. From P0 to P14, MLCs were present in a variety of cochlear regions including the modiolus, spiral lamina, spiral ganglion, spiral ligament, and the organ of Corti. Interestingly, the overall number of MLCs in a mouse cochlea steadily increased since P0, peaks at P5, then gradually decreased from P5 to P14. In the spiral ligament, the distribution of the MLCs trends to shift from the type I/II fibrocyte-rich regions to the type III/IV fibrocyte

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2018 Neural plasticity

18. Unusual mechanical processing of sounds at the apex of the Guinea pig cochlea. (PubMed)

Unusual mechanical processing of sounds at the apex of the Guinea pig cochlea. One of the tenets of mammalian auditory physiology is that the frequency selectivity at the cochlear base decreases as a function of stimulus level. Changes in frequency selectivity have been shown to be accompanied by changes in response phases as a function of stimulus level. The existence of such nonlinear properties has been revealed by the analysis of either direct or indirect recordings of mechanical vibrations (...) of the cochlea. Direct measurements of cochlear mechanical vibrations, however, have been carried out with success primarily in cochlear regions that are tuned to frequencies >7 kHz, but not in regions sensitive to lower frequencies. In this paper we continue to analyze recently published data from measurements of sound-induced vibrations at four locations near the apex of the intact guinea pig cochlea, in a region encompassing approximately 25% of its total length. Analysis of the responses at all locations

2018 Hearing Research

19. Differential fates of tissue macrophages in the cochlea during postnatal development. (PubMed)

Differential fates of tissue macrophages in the cochlea during postnatal development. The cochlea contains macrophages. These cells participate in inflammatory responses to cochlear pathogenesis. However, it is not clear how and when these cells populate the cochlea during postnatal development. The current study aims to determine the postnatal development of cochlear macrophages with the focus on macrophage development in the organ of Corti and the basilar membrane. Cochleae were collected

2018 Hearing Research

20. Cochleostomy and facial recess packing alter cochlear implant electrode location in a human cochlea model. (PubMed)

Cochleostomy and facial recess packing alter cochlear implant electrode location in a human cochlea model. Determine the effect of cochleostomy and facial recess packing on cochlear implant electrode distance from the modiolus.Two otolaryngology residents (PGY5 and PGY6) and one attending ear surgeon performed electrode insertions on a human cochlea model using perimodiolar (Cochlear® Slim Modiolar 532™, CI532) and lateral wall electrodes (Cochlear® Slim Straight 522™, CI522) via a cochleostomy (...) . Packing material was simulated using cotton and placed in the cochleostomy and facial recess under the following conditions: 1) inferior to the electrode, 2) superior, 3) both inferior and superior, and 4) no packing. Distance of the electrode from the modiolus at the proximal, middle, and distal basal turn of the cochlea were measured by photomicrograph analysis.Packing superior to the CI532 resulted in a significant decrease in distance from the modiolus at the middle and distal basal turn compared

2018 American Journal of Otolaryngology

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