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Clostridium perfringens

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161. Investigating an outbreak of Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis in a school using smartphone technology, London, March 2013. (PubMed)

Investigating an outbreak of Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis in a school using smartphone technology, London, March 2013. On 22 March 2013, 150 of 1,255 students (13–17 years) and staff at a school in London reported gastrointestinal symptoms; onset peaked 8 to 12 hours after a lunch served in the school on 21 March. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all students and staff. We defined cases as school attenders on 20 and 21 March with onset of gastrointestinal symptoms between (...) ). Clostridium perfringens was detected in all 19 stool samples collected. Within eight school hours of its launch, 412 of 561 (73%) responders had completed the survey. Hygienic standards in the kitchen were satisfactory. The investigation was done rapidly due to smartphone technology and we recommend considering this technology in future outbreaks.

2014 Euro Surveillance

162. Clostridium perfringens in apheresis platelets: an unusual contaminant underscores the importance of clinical vigilance for septic transfusion reactions (CME). (PubMed)

Clostridium perfringens in apheresis platelets: an unusual contaminant underscores the importance of clinical vigilance for septic transfusion reactions (CME). Posttransfusion sepsis is typically caused by aerobic bacteria in apheresis platelets (PLTs) that escape detection by routine quality control cultures performed on every donation before components are distributed. We report the first case to implicate an anaerobic isolate, Clostridium perfringens, in apheresis PLTs and investigate its (...) detection in vitro by approved tests.The C. perfringens strain was inoculated at high (10-100 colony-forming units [CFUs]/mL) or low (1-10 CFUs/mL) concentrations into apheresis PLTs and evaluated for growth over 5 to 7 days by qualitative plate cultures, culture-based assays (BacT/ALERT 3D), and rapid (PLT PGD) tests.C. perfringens grew in only 3 of 8 apheresis PLT units after inoculation at either high (2 units) or low (1 unit) concentrations. The PGD test detected the isolate after 5 days in 1 unit

2014 Transfusion

163. Genotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolated from healthy and diseased ostriches (Struthio camelus) (PubMed)

Genotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolated from healthy and diseased ostriches (Struthio camelus) Clostridium perfringens is more prevalent type of clostridia genus isolated from the intestinal tract of ostrich (Struthio camelus). Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a potentially fatal gastrointestinal (GI) disease of poultry and other avian species, which produces marked destruction of intestinal lining in digestive tract caused by C. perfringens. Pathogenicity and lesions are correlated (...) with the toxins produced, thus toxin typing of the bacterium has diagnostic and epidemiological significance. The aims of the present study were to determine the biotypes of C. perfringens among ostrich's farms either diseased and healthy ones and to screen the isolates for major toxin genes (cpa, cpb, etx, and iA, cpb2, and cpe).Thirty isolates of C. perfringens were obtained from NE-positive and NE-negative ostrich flocks in Khorasan-e-Razavi porvince and analyzed by multiplex PCR assay.All isolates were

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2014 Iranian journal of microbiology

164. Membrane vesicles of Clostridium perfringens Type A strains induce innate and adaptive immunity (PubMed)

Membrane vesicles of Clostridium perfringens Type A strains induce innate and adaptive immunity Vesicle shedding from bacteria is a universal process in most Gram-negative bacteria and a few Gram-positive bacteria. In this report, we isolate extracellular membrane vesicles (MVs) from the supernatants of Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens). We demonstrated vesicle production in a variety of virulent and nonvirulent type A strains. MVs did not contain alpha-toxin (...) and NetB toxin demonstrated by negative reaction to specific antibody and absence of specific proteins identified by LC-MS/MS. C. perfringens MVs contained DNA components such as 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA), alpha-toxin gene (plc) and the perfringolysin O gene (pfoA) demonstrated by PCR. We also identified a total of 431 proteins in vesicles by 1-D gel separation and LC-MS/MS analysis. In vitro studies demonstrated that vesicles could be internalized into murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells without

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2014 International journal of medical microbiology : IJMM

165. Challenging the roles of CD44 and lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor in conveying Clostridium perfringens iota toxin cytotoxicity in breast cancer (PubMed)

Challenging the roles of CD44 and lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor in conveying Clostridium perfringens iota toxin cytotoxicity in breast cancer Translational exploration of bacterial toxins has come to the forefront of research given their potential as a chemotherapeutic tool. Studies in select tissues have demonstrated that Clostridium perfringens iota toxin binds to CD44 and lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) cell-surface proteins. We recently demonstrated that LSR

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2014 Molecular Cancer

166. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium perfringens Strain JJC, a Highly Efficient Hydrogen Producer Isolated from Landfill Leachate Sludge (PubMed)

Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium perfringens Strain JJC, a Highly Efficient Hydrogen Producer Isolated from Landfill Leachate Sludge Clostridium perfringens strain JJC is an effective biohydrogen and biochemical producer that was isolated from landfill leachate sludge. Here, we present the assembly and annotation of its genome, which may provide further insights into the gene interactions involved in efficient biohydrogen production.

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2014 Genome Announcements

167. Perfrin, a novel bacteriocin associated with netB positive Clostridium perfringens strains from broilers with necrotic enteritis (PubMed)

Perfrin, a novel bacteriocin associated with netB positive Clostridium perfringens strains from broilers with necrotic enteritis Necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens is associated with netB positive Clostridium perfringens type A strains. It is known that C. perfringens strains isolated from outbreaks of necrotic enteritis are more capable of secreting factors inhibiting growth of other C. perfringens strains than strains isolated from the gut of healthy chickens. This characteristic could (...) lead to extensive and selective presence of a strain that contains the genetic make-up enabling to secrete toxins that cause gut lesions. This report describes the discovery, purification, characterization and recombinant expression of a novel bacteriocin, referred to as perfrin, produced by a necrotic enteritis-associated netB-positive C. perfringens strain. Perfrin is a 11.5 kDa C-terminal fragment of a 22.9 kDa protein and showed no sequence homology to any currently known bacteriocin. The 11.5

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2014 Veterinary Research

168. Distribution of Clostridium perfringens Isolates from Piglets in South Korea (PubMed)

Distribution of Clostridium perfringens Isolates from Piglets in South Korea Clostridium perfringens causes various digestive system disease symptoms in pigs. In the present study, 11 C. perfringens isolates were obtained from diarrheic piglets and 18 from healthy piglets. All of the C. perfringens isolates were shown to be type A using a multiplex PCR assay. The β2 toxin gene was detected in 27/29 C. perfringens isolates, i.e., 81% (9/11) of diarrheic piglets and 100% (18/18) of healthy (...) piglets, and all of the genes had the same sequence. In conclusion, the β2 toxin gene of C. perfringens was distributed widely in Korean piglets regardless of the incidence of diarrhea, and there was no clear relationship with enteric disease. A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of DNA digested using SmaI demonstrated the non-clonal spread of C. perfringens isolates from piglets.

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2014 The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

169. A Synthetic Peptide Corresponding to the Extracellular Loop 2 Region of Claudin-4 Protects against Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin In Vitro and In Vivo (PubMed)

A Synthetic Peptide Corresponding to the Extracellular Loop 2 Region of Claudin-4 Protects against Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin In Vitro and In Vivo Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) action starts when the toxin binds to claudin receptors. Claudins contain two extracellular loop domains, with the second loop (ECL-2) being slightly smaller than the first. CPE has been shown to bind to ECL-2 in receptor claudins. We recently demonstrated that Caco-2 cells (a naturally CPE-sensitive

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2014 Infection and immunity

170. Contributions of NanI Sialidase to Caco-2 Cell Adherence by Clostridium perfringens Type A and C Strains Causing Human Intestinal Disease (PubMed)

Contributions of NanI Sialidase to Caco-2 Cell Adherence by Clostridium perfringens Type A and C Strains Causing Human Intestinal Disease Previous studies showed that Clostridium perfringens type D animal disease strain CN3718 uses NanI sialidase for adhering to enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. The current study analyzed whether NanI is similarly important when type A and C human intestinal disease strains attach to Caco-2 cells. A PCR survey determined that the nanI gene was absent from typical (...) type A food poisoning (FP) strains carrying a chromosomal enterotoxin (CPE) gene or the genetically related type C Darmbrand (Db) strains. However, the nanI gene was present in type A strains from healthy humans, type A strains causing CPE-associated antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) or sporadic diarrhea (SD), and type C Pig-Bel strains. Consistent with NanI sialidase being the major C. perfringens sialidase when produced, FP and Db strains had little supernatant sialidase activity compared

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2014 Infection and immunity

171. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens in the feces of adult horses and foals with acute enterocolitis (PubMed)

Characterization of Clostridium perfringens in the feces of adult horses and foals with acute enterocolitis Up to 60% of cases of equine colitis have no known cause. To improve understanding of the causes of acute colitis in horses, we hypothesized that Clostridium perfringens producing enterotoxin (CPE) and/or beta2 toxin (CPB2) are common and important causes of severe colitis in horses and/or that C. perfringens producing an as-yet-undescribed cytotoxin may also cause colitis in horses (...) . Fecal samples from 55 horses (43 adults, 12 foals) with clinical evidence of colitis were evaluated by culture for the presence of Clostridium difficile, C. perfringens, and Salmonella. Feces were also examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for C. difficile A/B toxins and C. perfringens alpha toxin (CPA), beta2 toxin (CPB2), and enterotoxin (CPE). Five C. perfringens isolates per sample were genotyped for the following genes: cpa, cpb, cpb2 consensus, cpb2 atypical, cpe (enterotoxin

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2014 Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research

172. Circular RNA expression profile of spleen in a Clostridium perfringens type C‐induced piglet model of necrotizing enteritis (PubMed)

Circular RNA expression profile of spleen in a Clostridium perfringens type C‐induced piglet model of necrotizing enteritis Clostridium perfringens type C is a pathogen that causes necrotizing enteritis (NE), which is an intestinal tract disease in piglets. The pathogenesis of C. perfringens type C-induced NE is still unclear, leading to a lack of effective therapies. Earlier studies have reported that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are involved in the pathogenic processes of various diseases (...) . However, it is not known if circRNAs in spleen play a role in C. perfringens type C infection in NE. To address this question, we infected 7-day-old piglets with C. perfringens type C to induce NE. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of small intestine revealed inflammation, atrophy and shedding of intestinal villi, and intestinal mucosal necrosis. We observed increased expression of cytokine genes (such as IL-1β and IL-6) and inflammation in the spleen. In addition, we used RNA-seq and bioinformatics

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2018 FEBS open bio

173. Detection of toxins A/B and isolation of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens from dogs in Minas Gerais, Brazil (PubMed)

Detection of toxins A/B and isolation of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens from dogs in Minas Gerais, Brazil The objective of this study was to detect C. difficile A/B toxins and to isolate strains of C. perfringens and C. difficile from diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs in Brazil. Stool samples were collected from 57 dogs, 35 of which were apparently healthy, and 22 of which were diarrheic. C. difficile A/B toxins were detected by ELISA, and C. perfringens and C. difficile were (...) identified by multiplex PCR. C. difficile A/B toxins were detected in 21 samples (36.8%). Of these, 16 (76.2%) were from diarrheic dogs, and five (23.8%) were from non-diarrheic dogs. Twelve C. difficile strains (21.1%) were isolated, of which ten were A(+)B(+) and two were A(-)B(-). All non-toxigenic strains were isolated from non-diarrheic animals. The binary toxin gene cdtB was found in one strain, which was A(+)B(+) and was derived from a non-diarrheic dog. C. perfringens strains were isolated from

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2013 Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

174. Clostridium perfringens Type A Food Poisoning I. Response of the Rabbit Ileum as an Indication of Enteropathogenicity of Strains of Clostridium perfringens in Monkeys (PubMed)

Clostridium perfringens Type A Food Poisoning I. Response of the Rabbit Ileum as an Indication of Enteropathogenicity of Strains of Clostridium perfringens in Monkeys Diarrhea and vomiting have been experimentally produced in monkeys after oral challenge with viable cells or culture filtrates of certain strains of Clostridium perfringens that previously had been shown to produce either fluid accumulation in the ligated ileum or overt diarrhea in the nonligated ileum of the rabbit, or both

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1971 Infection and immunity

175. Clostridium perfringens Type A Food Poisoning II. Response of the Rabbit Ileum as an Indication of Enteropathogenicity of Strains of Clostridium perfringens in Human Beings (PubMed)

Clostridium perfringens Type A Food Poisoning II. Response of the Rabbit Ileum as an Indication of Enteropathogenicity of Strains of Clostridium perfringens in Human Beings The effect of feeding human beings individual strains of Clostridium perfringens or culture filtrates thereof was examined. The strains selected for challenge included both those which had previously been shown to produce fluid accumulation in the ligated ileum or overt diarrhea when injected into the nonligated ileum (...) consuming filtrates from rabbit-positive strains developed diarrhea. All subjects fed filtrates from rabbit-negative strains remained free from diarrhea. Serological tests were carried out to compare the identity of the strains of C. perfringens consumed by the subjects and those excreted in the feces. Heat resistance measured as D(100) values varied greatly among the rabbit-positive strains.

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1971 Infection and immunity

176. Prevalence of C. Botulinum and C. Perfringens Spores in Food Products Available on Polish Market (PubMed)

Prevalence of C. Botulinum and C. Perfringens Spores in Food Products Available on Polish Market The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens in food samples purchased from Polish producers.The analyses were performed on 260 food samples collected in Lublin and Subcarpathian regions: 56 of smoked meat, 21 of pork meat, 20 of dairy products, 26 of vegetable and fruit preserves, 40 of ready-to-eat meals, 27 of fish preserves, and 70 (...) of honey collected directly from apiaries.C. botulinum strains were isolated from 2.3% (6/260) of samples and the isolates were classified as toxin types A (4/260) and B (2/260). C. perfringens strains were isolated from 14% (37/260) of samples. All the isolates were classified as toxin type A, 28 of them were able also to produce α toxin and 9 - β2 toxin.On the basis of the obtained results it could be suggested that risk assessment, especially regarding the entire honey harvesting process, should

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2017 Journal of Veterinary Research

177. Sequence of Two Plasmids from Clostridium perfringens Chicken Necrotic Enteritis Isolates and Comparison with C. perfringens Conjugative Plasmids (PubMed)

Sequence of Two Plasmids from Clostridium perfringens Chicken Necrotic Enteritis Isolates and Comparison with C. perfringens Conjugative Plasmids Twenty-six isolates of Clostridium perfringens of different MLST types from chickens with necrotic enteritis (NE) (15 netB-positive) or from healthy chickens (6 netB-positive, 5 netB-negative) were found to contain 1-4 large plasmids, with most netB-positive isolates containing 3 large and variably sized plasmids which were more numerous and larger (...) . perfringens conjugative plasmids. Comparative genomic analysis of nine CpCPs, including the two plasmids described here, showed extensive gene rearrangements including pathogenicity locus and accessory gene insertions around rather than within the backbone region. The pattern that emerges from this analysis is that the major toxin-containing regions of the variety of virulence-associated CpCPs are organized as complex pathogenicity loci. How these different but related CpCPs can co-exist in the same host

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2012 PloS one

178. Effect of 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid in a broiler Clostridium perfringens infection model. (PubMed)

Effect of 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid in a broiler Clostridium perfringens infection model. In an effort to explore strategies to control Clostridium perfringens, we investigated the synergistic effect of a ubiquitous bacterial second messenger 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) with penicillin G in a broiler challenge model. All chicks were inoculated in the crop by gavage on d 14, 15, and 16 with a mixture of 4 C. perfringens strains. Birds were treated with saline (control group) or 20 (...) . perfringens virulence genes showed a prevalence of 30% for the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin gene (cpa) from d 21 to 35 in the IM-treated group, whereas the occurrence of the cpa gene increased from 10 to 60% in the other 2 groups (control and gavage) from d 21 to 35. Detection of β-lactamase genes (blaCMY-2, blaSHV, and blaTEM) indicative of gram-negative bacteria in the same samples from d 21 to 35 did not show significant treatment effects. Amplified fragment-length polymorphism showed

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2013 Poultry science

179. A novel watery diarrhoea caused by the co-infection of neonatal piglets with Clostridium perfringens type A and Escherichia coli (K88, 987P). (PubMed)

A novel watery diarrhoea caused by the co-infection of neonatal piglets with Clostridium perfringens type A and Escherichia coli (K88, 987P). In 2011, a novel watery diarrhoea in 1-7 day-old piglets occurred in Changchun, China, characterized by high pathogenicity and mortality. Investigation of clinical signs, examination for viruses, and isolation and identification of bacteria showed that co-infection by Clostridium perfringens type A and Escherichia coli (K88, 987P) was the most likely (...) cause of the disease. Newborn piglets challenged with a mixture of Clostridium perfringens type A and Escherichia coli (K88, 987P) died within 3 days with clinical signs and gross lesions similar to those in the piglets that died in the outbreak. A subsequent study showed that the use in sows of an inactivated vaccine against the two causal bacteria was effective at reducing the incidence of the watery diarrhoea in piglets. Piglets from sows given the inactivated vaccine had a incidence of watery

2013 Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997)

180. Bacillus subtilis PB6 improves intestinal health of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis. (PubMed)

Bacillus subtilis PB6 improves intestinal health of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an enterotoxemic disease caused by Clostridium perfringens that results in significant economic losses, averaging damage of $0.05 per bird. The present study investigated the influence of a dietary supplement, Bacillus subtilis PB6, on performance, intestinal health, and gut integrity against C. perfringens-induced NE in broiler (...) birds. Bacillus subtilis PB6 (ATCC-PTA 6737) is a natural strain isolated from healthy chicken gut that has been shown in in vitro to produce antimicrobial substances with broad activity against various strains of Campylobacter and Clostridium species. The animal study was conducted on broiler chickens (Cobb 400) for the period of 35 d using a completely randomized design. The experimental design included 3 treatments groups. Each treatment group contained 6 replicates, 3 male and 3 female, with 12

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2013 Poultry science

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