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Clostridium perfringens

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141. Comparative transcriptome analysis by RNAseq of necrotic enteritis Clostridium perfringens during in vivo colonization and in vitro conditions Full Text available with Trip Pro

Comparative transcriptome analysis by RNAseq of necrotic enteritis Clostridium perfringens during in vivo colonization and in vitro conditions Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by netB-positive type A Clostridium perfringens is an important bacterial disease of poultry. Through its complex regulatory system, C. perfringens orchestrates the expression of a collection of toxins and extracellular enzymes that are crucial for the development of the disease; environmental conditions play an important (...) role in their regulation. In this study, and for the first time, global transcriptomic analysis was performed on ligated intestinal loops in chickens colonized with a netB-positive C. perfringens strain, as well as the same strain propagated in vitro under various nutritional and environmental conditions.Analysis of the respective pathogen transcriptomes revealed up to 673 genes that were significantly expressed in vivo. Gene expression profiles in vivo were most similar to those of C. perfringens

2016 BMC microbiology

142. A case of acute onset postoperative gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens Full Text available with Trip Pro

A case of acute onset postoperative gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens Gas gangrene is a necrotic infection of soft tissue associated with high mortality rates. We report a case of postoperative gas gangrene with very acute onset and rapid progression of symptoms. To our knowledge, this case is the most acute onset of postoperative gas gangrene ever reported.A 65-year-old Japanese female patient developed a shock state 16 h after radical cystectomy with ileal conduit reconstruction (...) emergency fasciotomy. Subsequently, multidisciplinary treatment, including empirical therapy using multiple antibiotics, mechanical ventilation, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column direct hemoperfusion, and continuous hemodiafiltration, was commenced. Culture of the debris from a wound abscess removed by emergency fasciotomy detected the presence of Clostridium perfringens. We hypothesized that the source of infection in this case may have been the ileum used for bladder

2016 BMC research notes

143. Cloning and expression of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine strain epsilon toxin gene in E. coli as a recombinant vaccine candidate Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cloning and expression of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine strain epsilon toxin gene in E. coli as a recombinant vaccine candidate Clostridium perfringens, a Gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium, is able to form resistant spores which are widely distributed in the environment. C. perfringens is subdivided into five types A to E based on its four major alpha, beta, epsilon and iota toxins. The aim of the present study was cloning and expression of C. perfringens type D vaccine strain (...) epsilon toxin gene.Genomic DNA was extracted and the epsilon toxin gene was amplified using Pfu DNA polymerase. The PCR product was cloned into pJET1.2/blunt cloning vector. The recombinant vector (pJETε) was sequenced using universal primers. At the next step epsilon toxin gene was subcloned into pET22b(+) expression vector and transformed into E. coli Rosetta (DE3) host strain.The recombinant protein has been expressed in E. coli Rosetta (DE3) cells after subcloning of C. perfringens etx gene (1008

2016 Iranian journal of microbiology

144. Effects of Bacillus licheniformis on the growth performance and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Bacillus licheniformis on the growth performance and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Clostridium perfringens, has cost the poultry industry $2 billion in losses. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Bacillus licheniformis as dietary supplement on the growth, serum antioxidant status, and expression of lipid-metabolism genes of broiler (...) chickens with C. perfringens-induced NE.A total of 240 one-day-old broilers were randomly grouped into four: a negative control, an NE experimental model (PC), chickens fed a diet supplemented with 30 % of fishmeal from day 14 onwards and challenged with coccidiosis vaccine (FC), and NE group supplied with feed containing 1.0 × 10(6) CFU/g B. licheniformis (BL).Body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, serum antioxidant status, and lipid-metabolism-gene expression were analyzed. In the PC group, FCR

2016 Lipids in health and disease

145. Identification and Characterization of a New Enterotoxin Produced by Clostridium perfringens Isolated from Food Poisoning Outbreaks Full Text available with Trip Pro

Identification and Characterization of a New Enterotoxin Produced by Clostridium perfringens Isolated from Food Poisoning Outbreaks There is a strain of Clostridium perfringens, W5052, which does not produce a known enterotoxin. We herein report that the strain W5052 expressed a homologue of the iota-like toxin components sa and sb of C. spiroforme, named Clostridium perfringens iota-like enterotoxin, CPILE-a and CPILE-b, respectively, based on the results of a genome sequencing analysis (...) enterotoxic activity. The evidence presented in this communication will facilitate the epidemiological, etiological, and toxicological studies of C. perfringens food poisoning, and also stimulate studies on the transfer of the toxins' gene(s) among the Genus Clostridium.

2015 PloS one

146. Membrane-Binding Mechanism of Clostridium perfringens Alpha-Toxin Full Text available with Trip Pro

Membrane-Binding Mechanism of Clostridium perfringens Alpha-Toxin Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin is a key mediator of gas gangrene, which is a life-threatening infection that manifests as fever, pain, edema, myonecrosis, and gas production. Alpha-toxin possesses phospholipase C and sphingomyelinase activities. The toxin is composed of an N-terminal domain (1-250 aa, N-domain), which is the catalytic site, and a C-terminal domain (251-370 aa, C-domain), which is the membrane-binding site (...) . Immunization of mice with the C-domain of alpha-toxin prevents the gas gangrene caused by C. perfringens, whereas immunization with the N-domain has no effect. The central loop domain (55-93 aa), especially H….SW(84)Y(85)….G, plays an important role in the interaction with ganglioside GM1a. The toxin binds to lipid rafts in the presence of a GM1a/TrkA complex, and metabolites from phosphatidylcholine to diacylglycerol through the enzymatic activity of alpha-toxin itself. These membrane dynamics leads

2015 Toxins

147. Roles of Asp179 and Glu270 in ADP-Ribosylation of Actin by Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin Full Text available with Trip Pro

Roles of Asp179 and Glu270 in ADP-Ribosylation of Actin by Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin Clostridium perfringens iota toxin is a binary toxin composed of the enzymatically active component Ia and receptor binding component Ib. Ia is an ADP-ribosyltransferase, which modifies Arg177 of actin. The previously determined crystal structure of the actin-Ia complex suggested involvement of Asp179 of actin in the ADP-ribosylation reaction. To gain more insights into the structural requirements

2015 PloS one

148. In vitro antibacterial activity of thymol and carvacrol and their effects on broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro antibacterial activity of thymol and carvacrol and their effects on broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens In the post-antibiotic era, essential oils (EO) are promising alternatives to growth-promoting antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activities of an EO product and its components thymol and carvacrol in vitro, and the efficacy of EO to control Clostridium perfringens challenge in broiler chickens.The in vitro minimum (...) inhibitory concentration assay showed strong antibacterial activity of the EO product, thymol, and carvacrol against pathogenic Escherichia coli, C. perfringens, and Salmonella strains, and weak activity towards beneficial Lactobacillus strains. Besides, an additive effect was observed between thymol and carvacrol. The in vivo study was carried out with 448 male broiler chicks following a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement to test the effects of EO supplementation (0, 60, 120, or 240 mg/kg EO in wheat-based

2015 Journal of animal science and biotechnology

149. Functional analysis of a bacitracin resistant determinant located on ICECp1, a novel Tn916-like element from a conjugative plasmid in Clostridium perfringens. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Functional analysis of a bacitracin resistant determinant located on ICECp1, a novel Tn916-like element from a conjugative plasmid in Clostridium perfringens. Bacitracins are mixtures of structurally related cyclic polypeptides with antibiotic properties. They act by interfering with the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall. In this study, we analyzed an avian necrotic enteritis strain of Clostridium perfringens that was resistant to bacitracin and produced NetB toxin. We identified (...) a bacitracin resistance locus that resembled a bacitracin resistance determinant from Enterococcus faecalis. It contained the structural genes bcrABD and a putative regulatory gene, bcrR. Mutagenesis studies provided evidence that both bcrA and bcrB are essential for bacitracin resistance, and that evidence was supported by the results of experiments in which the introduction of both the bcrA and bcrB genes into a bacitracin-susceptible C. perfringens strain was required to confer bacitracin resistance

2015 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

150. Genotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolated from broiler meat in northeastern of Iran Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genotyping of Clostridium perfringens isolated from broiler meat in northeastern of Iran Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is an important cause of bacterial food poisoning worldwide. The disease is caused by C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) encoded by cpe gene. The aim of this research was to identify the different types of C. perfringens and the presence of cpe gene in isolated bacteria from broilers' meat marketed in retail meat shops of Mashhad city in Northeastern of Iran. After (...) isolation of C. perfringens using conventional culture method and confirmation by specific 16S rDNA gene, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay with specific primers, were performed for toxin typing of isolates. Clostridium perfringens was isolated from 31 broilers' meat samples (15.50%) out of 200 samples and for toxin typing the results showed 9 isolates as type A (29.03%) and 22 isolates as type C (70.96%). In this study, cpe-positive C. perfringens were detected in eight isolates of type C

2015 Veterinary Research Forum

151. An unusual necrotic myositis by Clostridium perfringens in a German Shepherd dog: A clinical report, bacteriological and molecular identification Full Text available with Trip Pro

An unusual necrotic myositis by Clostridium perfringens in a German Shepherd dog: A clinical report, bacteriological and molecular identification Clostridial myositis, considered to be rare in pet animals, is an acutely fatal toxaemic condition. Some species of clostridia are responsible for necrotic myositis. A 2-year-old male German shepherd dog was admitted with non-weight bearing lameness and massive swelling of the left hind limb. Clostridium perfringens type A with alpha toxin

2015 Veterinary Research Forum

152. Structural and biochemical analyses of a Clostridium perfringens sortase D transpeptidase Full Text available with Trip Pro

Structural and biochemical analyses of a Clostridium perfringens sortase D transpeptidase The assembly and anchorage of various pathogenic proteins on the surface of Gram-positive bacteria is mediated by the sortase family of enzymes. These cysteine transpeptidases catalyze a unique sorting signal motif located at the C-terminus of their target substrate and promote the covalent attachment of these proteins onto an amino nucleophile located on another protein or on the bacterial cell wall. Each (...) of the six distinct classes of sortases displays a unique biological role, with sequential activation of multiple sortases often observed in many Gram-positive bacteria to decorate their peptidoglycans. Less is known about the members of the class D family of sortases (SrtD), but they have a suggested role in spore formation in an oxygen-limiting environment. Here, the crystal structure of the SrtD enzyme from Clostridium perfringens was determined at 1.99 Å resolution. Comparative analysis of the C

2015 Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography

153. Specific binding of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin fragment to Claudin-b and modulation of zebrafish epidermal barrier. (Abstract)

Specific binding of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin fragment to Claudin-b and modulation of zebrafish epidermal barrier. Claudins (Cldn) are the major components of tight junctions (TJs) sealing the paracellular cleft in tissue barriers of various organs. Zebrafish Cldnb, the homolog of mammalian Cldn4, is expressed at epithelial cell-cell contacts and is important for regulating epidermal permeability. The bacterial toxin Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) has been shown to bind

2015 Experimental Dermatology

154. Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin Causes Selective Death of Mature Oligodendrocytes and Central Nervous System Demyelination Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin Causes Selective Death of Mature Oligodendrocytes and Central Nervous System Demyelination Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ε-toxin) is responsible for a devastating multifocal central nervous system (CNS) white matter disease in ruminant animals. The mechanism by which ε-toxin causes white matter damage is poorly understood. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which ε-toxin causes pathological changes (...) of microorganisms that play an essential role in health and homeostasis. Disruption of this symbiotic relationship has been implicated in influencing or causing disease in distant organ systems such as the brain. Epsilon toxin (ε-toxin)-carrying Clostridium perfringens strains are responsible for a devastating white matter disease in ruminant animals that shares similar features with human multiple sclerosis. In this report, we define the mechanism by which ε-toxin causes white matter disease. We find that ε

2015 mBio

155. The Myelin and Lymphocyte Protein MAL Is Required for Binding and Activity of Clostridium perfringens ε-Toxin Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Myelin and Lymphocyte Protein MAL Is Required for Binding and Activity of Clostridium perfringens ε-Toxin Clostridium perfringens ε-toxin (ETX) is a potent pore-forming toxin responsible for a central nervous system (CNS) disease in ruminant animals with characteristics of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction and white matter injury. ETX has been proposed as a potential causative agent for Multiple Sclerosis (MS), a human disease that begins with BBB breakdown and injury to myelin forming

2015 PLoS pathogens

156. C-Terminal Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin-Mediated Antigen Delivery for Nasal Pneumococcal Vaccine Full Text available with Trip Pro

C-Terminal Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin-Mediated Antigen Delivery for Nasal Pneumococcal Vaccine Efficient vaccine delivery to mucosal tissues including mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues is essential for the development of mucosal vaccine. We previously reported that claudin-4 was highly expressed on the epithelium of nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and thus claudin-4-targeting using C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) effectively delivered

2015 PloS one

157. Identification of the replication region in pBCNF5603, a bacteriocin-encoding plasmid, in the enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens strain F5603 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Identification of the replication region in pBCNF5603, a bacteriocin-encoding plasmid, in the enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens strain F5603 Most recent studies of Clostridium perfringens plasmids have focused on toxin-encoding or antibiotic resistance plasmids. To cause intestinal disease, a toxigenic strain must grow in the intestines to levels allowing for sufficient toxin production and this in vivo growth often involves overcoming the normal intestinal microbial population (...) . For this purpose, bacteriocin production might be important.In this study, as the first step in the genetic analysis of a co-existing plasmid with an enterotoxin gene (cpe)-encoding plasmid, the bacteriocin gene-encoding plasmid, pBCNF5603, was completely sequenced. This plasmid has some homology with two previously sequenced C. perfringens plasmids, namely, pCP13 carrying a cpb2 gene and pIP404 carrying a bcn gene. Using recombinant plasmids, the rep gene homologous to the PCP63 gene on pCP13 appeared

2015 BMC microbiology

158. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling of Clostridium perfringens SM101 during Sporulation Extends the Core of Putative Sporulation Genes and Genes Determining Spore Properties and Germination Characteristics Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling of Clostridium perfringens SM101 during Sporulation Extends the Core of Putative Sporulation Genes and Genes Determining Spore Properties and Germination Characteristics The formation of bacterial spores is a highly regulated process and the ultimate properties of the spores are determined during sporulation and subsequent maturation. A wide variety of genes that are expressed during sporulation determine spore properties such as resistance to heat (...) ; this study therefore suggests that those homologs are functional in C. perfringens. A comprehensive homology search revealed that approximately half of the upregulated genes in the two clusters are conserved within a broad range of sporeforming Firmicutes. Another 30% of upregulated genes in the two clusters were found only in Clostridium species, while the remaining 20% appeared to be specific for C. perfringens. These newly identified genes may add to the repertoire of genes with roles in sporulation

2015 PloS one

159. Perfringolysin O: The Underrated Clostridium perfringens Toxin? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Perfringolysin O: The Underrated Clostridium perfringens Toxin? The anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens expresses multiple toxins that promote disease development in both humans and animals. One such toxin is perfringolysin O (PFO, classically referred to as θ toxin), a pore-forming cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC). PFO is secreted as a water-soluble monomer that recognizes and binds membranes via cholesterol. Membrane-bound monomers undergo structural changes that culminate (...) in the formation of an oligomerized prepore complex on the membrane surface. The prepore then undergoes conversion into the bilayer-spanning pore measuring approximately 250-300 Å in diameter. PFO is expressed in nearly all identified C. perfringens strains and harbors interesting traits that suggest a potential undefined role for PFO in disease development. Research has demonstrated a role for PFO in gas gangrene progression and bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis, but there is limited data available

2015 Toxins

160. Clostridium perfringens Alpha-Toxin Induces Gm1a Clustering and Trka Phosphorylation in the Host Cell Membrane Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clostridium perfringens Alpha-Toxin Induces Gm1a Clustering and Trka Phosphorylation in the Host Cell Membrane Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin elicits various immune responses such as the release of cytokines, chemokines, and superoxide via the GM1a/TrkA complex. Alpha-toxin possesses phospholipase C (PLC) hydrolytic activity that contributes to signal transduction in the pathogenesis of gas gangrene. Little is known about the relationship between lipid metabolism and TrkA activation

2015 PloS one

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