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Clostridium perfringens

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121. Bystander Host Cell Killing Effects of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin (PubMed)

Bystander Host Cell Killing Effects of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) binds to claudin receptors, e.g., claudin-4, and then forms a pore that triggers cell death. Pure cultures of host cells that do not express claudin receptors, e.g., fibroblasts, are unaffected by pathophysiologically relevant CPE concentrations in vitro However, both CPE-insensitive and CPE-sensitive host cells are present in vivo Therefore, this study tested whether CPE (...) -mediated apoptosis was found to be important for triggering release of the cytotoxic factor(s) from CPE-treated sensitive host cells. Furthermore, the cytotoxic factor(s) in these supernatants was shown to induce a caspase-3-mediated killing of fibroblasts. This bystander killing effect due to release of cytotoxic factors from CPE-treated sensitive cells could contribute to CPE-mediated disease.In susceptible host cells, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) binds to claudin receptors

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2016 mBio

122. A novel Hsp70 inhibitor prevents cell intoxication with the actin ADP-ribosylating Clostridium perfringens iota toxin (PubMed)

A novel Hsp70 inhibitor prevents cell intoxication with the actin ADP-ribosylating Clostridium perfringens iota toxin Hsp70 family proteins are folding helper proteins involved in a wide variety of cellular pathways. Members of this family interact with key factors in signal transduction, transcription, cell-cycle control, and stress response. Here, we developed the first Hsp70 low molecular weight inhibitor specifically targeting the peptide binding site of human Hsp70. After demonstrating (...) that the inhibitor modulates the Hsp70 function in the cell, we used the inhibitor to show for the first time that the stress-inducible chaperone Hsp70 functions as molecular component for entry of a bacterial protein toxin into mammalian cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Hsp70 protected cells from intoxication with the binary actin ADP-ribosylating iota toxin from Clostridium perfringens, the prototype of a family of enterotoxins from pathogenic Clostridia and inhibited translocation of its enzyme component

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2016 Scientific reports

123. Plasmid Characterization and Chromosome Analysis of Two netF+ Clostridium perfringens Isolates Associated with Foal and Canine Necrotizing Enteritis (PubMed)

Plasmid Characterization and Chromosome Analysis of Two netF+ Clostridium perfringens Isolates Associated with Foal and Canine Necrotizing Enteritis The recent discovery of a novel beta-pore-forming toxin, NetF, which is strongly associated with canine and foal necrotizing enteritis should improve our understanding of the role of type A Clostridium perfringens associated disease in these animals. The current study presents the complete genome sequence of two netF-positive strains, JFP55 (...) -encoding tcp-conjugative plasmid, a CPE/CPB2 toxins-encoding tcp-conjugative plasmid and a putative bacteriocin-encoding plasmid. The putative beta-pore-forming toxin genes, netF, netE and netG, were located in unique pathogenicity loci on tcp-conjugative plasmids. The C. perfringens JFP55 chromosome carries 2,825 protein-coding genes whereas the chromosome of JFP838 contains 3,014 protein-encoding genes. Comparison of these two chromosomes with three available reference C. perfringens chromosome

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2016 PloS one

124. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Clostridium perfringens in Natural and Processed Cheeses (PubMed)

Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Clostridium perfringens in Natural and Processed Cheeses This study evaluated the risk of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) foodborne illness from natural and processed cheeses. Microbial risk assessment in this study was conducted according to four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The hazard identification of C. perfringens on cheese was identified through literature (...) , and dose response models were utilized for hazard characterization of the pathogen. For exposure assessment, the prevalence of C. perfringens, storage temperatures, storage time, and annual amounts of cheese consumption were surveyed. Eventually, a simulation model was developed using the collected data and the simulation result was used to estimate the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption with @RISK. C. perfringens was determined to be low risk on cheese based

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2016 Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences

125. Analysis of the Spore Membrane Proteome in Clostridium perfringens Implicates Cyanophycin in Spore Assembly (PubMed)

Analysis of the Spore Membrane Proteome in Clostridium perfringens Implicates Cyanophycin in Spore Assembly Heat-resistant endospore formation plays an important role in Clostridium perfringens-associated foodborne illnesses. The spores allow the bacterium to survive heating during normal cooking processes, followed by germination and outgrowth of the bacterium in contaminated foods. To identify proteins associated with germination and other spore functions, a comparative spore membrane (...) , respectively. One protein that was detected only in germinated spore membranes was the enzyme cyanophycinase, a protease that cleaves the polymer cyanophycin, which is composed of l-arginine-poly(l-aspartic acid), to β-Asp-Arg. Genes encoding cyanophycinase and cyanophycin synthetase have been observed in many species of Clostridium, but their role has not been defined. To determine the function of cyanophycin in C. perfringens, a mutation was introduced into the cphA gene, encoding cyanophycin synthetase

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2016 Journal of bacteriology

126. Variable protection against experimental broiler necrotic enteritis after immunization with the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin and a non-toxic NetB variant (PubMed)

Variable protection against experimental broiler necrotic enteritis after immunization with the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin and a non-toxic NetB variant Necrotic enteritis toxin B (NetB) is a pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens and has been shown to play a key role in avian necrotic enteritis, a disease causing significant costs to the poultry production industry worldwide. The aim of this work was to determine whether immunization with a non (...) -toxic variant of NetB (NetB W262A) and the C-terminal fragment of C. perfringens alpha-toxin (CPA247-370) would provide protection against experimental necrotic enteritis. Immunized birds with either antigen or a combination of antigens developed serum antibody levels against NetB and CPA. When CPA247-370 and NetB W262A were used in combination as immunogens, an increased protection was observed after oral challenge by individual dosing, but not after in-feed-challenge.

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2016 Avian Pathology

127. RNA-seq analysis of virR and revR mutants of Clostridium perfringens (PubMed)

RNA-seq analysis of virR and revR mutants of Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens causes toxin-mediated diseases, including gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis) and food poisoning in humans. The production of the toxins implicated in gas gangrene, α-toxin and perfringolysin O, is regulated by the VirSR two-component regulatory system. In addition, RevR, an orphan response regulator, has been shown to affect virulence in the mouse myonecrosis model. RevR positively regulates (...) the expression of genes that encode hydrolytic enzymes, including hyaluronidases and sialidases.To further characterize the VirSR and RevR regulatory networks, comparative transcriptomic analysis was carried out with strand-specific RNA-seq on C. perfringens strain JIR325 and its isogenic virR and revR regulatory mutants. Using the edgeR analysis package, 206 genes in the virR mutant and 67 genes in the revR mutant were found to be differentially expressed. Comparative analysis revealed that VirR acts

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2016 BMC genomics

128. Uterine Perforation with Intra-Abdominal Clostridium perfringens Gas Gangrene: A Rare and Fatal Infection (PubMed)

Uterine Perforation with Intra-Abdominal Clostridium perfringens Gas Gangrene: A Rare and Fatal Infection Background:Clostridium perfringens gas gangrene is an extremely rare and fatal infection. Necrosis of the myometrium is rarely seen and has only been recorded in 18 cases to date. Of these 18 reported cases, only 5 have occurred in nonpregnant women. This article presents the 6th case of myometrium necrosis from C. perfringens.Case: A 72-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 2, presented (...) with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. After examinations, laboratory testing, and several surgical interventions, she was found to have C. perfringens infection and advanced high-grade serous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with >50% invasion into the myometrium. Results: Despite the surgical interventions and use of several antibiotics, this patient did not improve. She was weaned from treatment per her advance directive and died after weaning. Conclusions: Awareness of the many etiologies

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2016 Journal of Gynecologic Surgery

129. Clostridium perfringens Sporulation and Sporulation-Associated Toxin Production (PubMed)

Clostridium perfringens Sporulation and Sporulation-Associated Toxin Production The ability of Clostridium perfringens to form spores plays a key role during the transmission of this Gram-positive bacterium to cause disease. Of particular note, the spores produced by food poisoning strains are often exceptionally resistant to food environment stresses such as heat, cold, and preservatives, which likely facilitates their survival in temperature-abused foods. The exceptional resistance properties (...) of spores made by most type A food poisoning strains and some type C foodborne disease strains involve their production of a variant small acid-soluble protein-4 that binds more tightly to spore DNA than to the small acid-soluble protein-4 made by most other C. perfringens strains. Sporulation and germination by C. perfringens and Bacillus spp. share both similarities and differences. Finally, sporulation is essential for production of C. perfringens enterotoxin, which is responsible for the symptoms

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2016 Microbiology spectrum

130. Clostridium perfringens α-Toxin Impairs Innate Immunity via Inhibition of Neutrophil Differentiation (PubMed)

Clostridium perfringens α-Toxin Impairs Innate Immunity via Inhibition of Neutrophil Differentiation Although granulopoiesis is accelerated to suppress bacteria during infection, some bacteria can still cause life-threatening infections, but the mechanism behind this remains unclear. In this study, we found that mature neutrophils in bone marrow cells (BMCs) were decreased in C. perfringens-infected mice and also after injection of virulence factor α-toxin. C. perfringens infection interfered (...) with the replenishment of mature neutrophils in the peripheral circulation and the accumulation of neutrophils at C. perfringens-infected sites in an α-toxin-dependent manner. Measurements of bacterial colony-forming units in C. perfringens-infected muscle revealed that α-toxin inhibited a reduction in the load of C. perfringens. In vitro treatment of isolated BMCs with α-toxin (phospholipase C) revealed that α-toxin directly decreased mature neutrophils. α-Toxin did not influence the viability of isolated mature

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2016 Scientific reports

131. Prevalence of netF-positive Clostridium perfringens in foals in southwestern Ontario (PubMed)

Prevalence of netF-positive Clostridium perfringens in foals in southwestern Ontario NetF-producing Clostridium perfringens have recently been identified as a cause of necrotizing enteritis in neonatal foals, but little is known about its prevalence in clinically normal foals. Foals (n = 88) ranging in age from < 1 wk to 2 to 4 mo (median age 2 to 4 wk) on 8 horse-breeding farms in Ontario were examined on 1 or 2 occasions for the presence of C. perfringens. Of the foals that tested positive, 5 (...) isolates (n = 675) were examined for the netF and enterotoxin (cpe) genes. Colonization by C. perfringens was most marked in foals < 1 wk of age [4.85 ± 2.70 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)] and declined markedly over time (1.23 ± 1.06 log10 CFU at 1 to 2 mo of age). Only 2 isolates possessed the cpe gene and none possessed netF. We concluded that netF-positive C. perfringens does not colonize young foals with any detectable frequency in Ontario and this organism is not likely to be adapted

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2016 Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research

132. Toxin-neutralizing antibodies protect against Clostridium perfringens-induced necrosis in an intestinal loop model for bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis (PubMed)

Toxin-neutralizing antibodies protect against Clostridium perfringens-induced necrosis in an intestinal loop model for bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis Bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis is caused by Clostridium perfringens type A. Due to the rapid progress and fatal outcome of the disease, vaccination would be of high value. In this study, C. perfringens toxins, either as native toxins or after formaldehyde inactivation, were evaluated as possible vaccine antigens. We determined whether (...) antisera raised in calves against these toxins were able to protect against C. perfringens challenge in an intestinal loop model for bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis.Alpha toxin and perfringolysin O were identified as the most immunogenic proteins in the vaccine preparations. All vaccines evoked a high antibody response against the causative toxins, alpha toxin and perfringolysin O, as detected by ELISA. All antibodies were able to inhibit the activity of alpha toxin and perfringolysin O in vitro

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2016 BMC veterinary research

133. Regulation of Toxin Production in Clostridium perfringens (PubMed)

Regulation of Toxin Production in Clostridium perfringens The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens is widely distributed in nature, especially in soil and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. C. perfringens causes gas gangrene and food poisoning, and it produces extracellular enzymes and toxins that are thought to act synergistically and contribute to its pathogenesis. A complicated regulatory network of toxin genes has been reported that includes a two (...) -component system for regulatory RNA and cell-cell communication. It is necessary to clarify the global regulatory system of these genes in order to understand and treat the virulence of C. perfringens. We summarize the existing knowledge about the regulatory mechanisms here.

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2016 Toxins

134. Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens using Bacteriophages and Bacteriocin Producing Strains (PubMed)

Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens using Bacteriophages and Bacteriocin Producing Strains In this study, we isolated and characterized a bacteriocin-producing strain and two bacteriophages (P4, A3), showing antimicrobial effects against Clostridium perfringens, from chicken and swine feces by the spot-on-the lawn antagonism method. The selected strain was identified as Streptococcus hyointestinalis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The bacteriocin from the isolated strain exhibited strong (...) inhibitory activity against four strains of C. perfringens and all the tested strains of Listeria monocytogenes, and the bacteriocin were highly heat- and pH-stable even at pH 2, pH 10 and 121℃ for 15 min. We also evaluated the combined effects of the isolated bacteriocin and phages. Combining the phage treatments and bacteriocin resulted in a synergetic effect compared with the phage or the bacteriocin alone. In addition, during the probiotic test, the bacteriocin-producing S. hyointestinalis B19 strain

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2018 Korean journal for food science of animal resources

135. Isolation, molecular characterization and prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in sheep and goats of Kashmir Himalayas, India (PubMed)

Isolation, molecular characterization and prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in sheep and goats of Kashmir Himalayas, India The study was conducted to report the occurrence of the Clostridium perfringens in sheep and goats of the Kashmir valley for the 1st time and to characterize them molecularly with respect to toxin genes to determine the prevalence of the various toxinotypes.A total of 177 samples (152 from sheep and 25 from goats) collected from healthy, diarrheic animals, and morbid (...) material of animals suspected to have died of enterotoxaemia were screened for C. perfringens toxinotypes. The presumptive positive isolates were confirmed using 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the confirmed isolates were screened for six toxin genes, namely; cpa, cpb, etx, cpi, cpb2, and cpe using a multiplex PCR.The PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene revealed that out of 177 samples collected, 125 (70.62%) were found positive for C. perfringens, of which 110 (72.36%) were

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2017 Veterinary world

136. The Potential Therapeutic Agent Mepacrine Protects Caco-2 Cells against Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin Action (PubMed)

The Potential Therapeutic Agent Mepacrine Protects Caco-2 Cells against Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin Action Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) causes the diarrhea associated with a common bacterial food poisoning and many antibiotic-associated diarrhea cases. The severity of some CPE-mediated disease cases warrants the development of potential therapeutics. A previous study showed that the presence of mepacrine inhibited CPE-induced electrophysiology effects in artificial lipid (...) , mepacrine was also shown to inhibit CPE pores when already present in Caco-2 cells. These in vitro studies, which identified two mepacrine-sensitive steps in CPE-induced cytotoxicity, add support to further testing of the therapeutic potential of mepacrine against CPE-mediated disease. IMPORTANCEClostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) causes the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of a common bacterial food poisoning and several nonfoodborne human GI diseases. A previous study showed that, via

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2017 mSphere

137. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes city, Morocco (PubMed)

Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes city, Morocco In Morocco, the consumption of meat products has experienced a sharp increase in recent years despite the presence of pathogenic bacteria due to hygiene failure. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes city (Morocco) and to study the different factors affecting it contamination with this bacterium. To this end, 156 samples of sausages were taken (...) in various shopping sites during one year from March 2014 to February 2015. The microbiological analysis was carried out using the specific medium for isolation and identification of C. perfringens. ANOVA test was used for Statistical analysis (p< 0.05). The results of this study showed the presence of C. perfringens in 77.56% (121 of 156) samples, with 88.88% (32 of 36) in street vendors, 79.16% (19 of 24) in a weekly market, 70.83% (51 of 72) in butchery and 62.5% (15 of 24) in a supermarket

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2017 Open veterinary journal

138. A Thermophilic Phage Endolysin Fusion to a Clostridium perfringens-Specific Cell Wall Binding Domain Creates an Anti-Clostridium Antimicrobial with Improved Thermostability (PubMed)

A Thermophilic Phage Endolysin Fusion to a Clostridium perfringens-Specific Cell Wall Binding Domain Creates an Anti-Clostridium Antimicrobial with Improved Thermostability Clostridium perfringens is the third leading cause of human foodborne bacterial disease and is the presumptive etiologic agent of necrotic enteritis among chickens. Treatment of poultry with antibiotics is becoming less acceptable. Endolysin enzymes are potential replacements for antibiotics. Many enzymes are added to animal (...) feed during production and are subjected to high-heat stress during feed processing. To produce a thermostabile endolysin for treating poultry, an E. coli codon-optimized gene was synthesized that fused the N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase domain from the endolysin of the thermophilic bacteriophage ɸGVE2 to the cell-wall binding domain (CWB) from the endolysin of the C. perfringens-specific bacteriophage ɸCP26F. The resulting protein, PlyGVE2CpCWB, lysed C. perfringens in liquid and solid

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2015 Viruses

139. Effect of a Probiotic on Prevention of Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens Shedding in Foals. (PubMed)

Effect of a Probiotic on Prevention of Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens Shedding in Foals. Up to 60% of foals develop diarrhea within 6 months after birth. Preventive measures are limited but potentially probiotics could be used.To evaluate the effect of a newly designed probiotic on the incidence of foal diarrhea in a randomized field trial.Seventy-two healthy neonatal foals.Randomized, placebo-controlled field trial. Foals were administered a placebo or probiotic (...) for 3 weeks and monitored for an additional week. A total of 3 fecal samples were taken from each foal at biweekly intervals. Statistical modeling was applied for comparison of incidence and duration of diarrhea and fecal shedding of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile between treatment and age groups.The overall incidence of diarrhea was 41 of 72 (59%) and did not differ (P = 0.37) between treatment groups. Foals treated with probiotics were more likely to develop diarrhea requiring

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2015 Journal of veterinary internal medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine

140. Preterm Infant-Associated Clostridium tertium, Clostridium cadaveris, and Clostridium paraputrificum Strains: Genomic and Evolutionary Insights (PubMed)

Preterm Infant-Associated Clostridium tertium, Clostridium cadaveris, and Clostridium paraputrificum Strains: Genomic and Evolutionary Insights Clostridium species (particularly Clostridium difficile, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens) are associated with a range of human and animal diseases. Several other species including Clostridium tertium, Clostridium cadaveris, and Clostridium paraputrificum have also been linked with sporadic human infections, however (...) , and potentially harmful enzymes, including multiple phospholipases and toxins. The availability of genomic data in open databases, in tandem with our initial insights into the genomic content and virulence traits of these pathogenic Clostridium species, should enable the scientific community to further investigate the disease-causing mechanisms of these bacteria with a view to enhancing clinical diagnosis and treatment.© The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society

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2017 Genome biology and evolution

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