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Clostridium perfringens

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121. Immunogenicity of a Trivalent Recombinant Vaccine Against Clostridium perfringens Alpha, Beta, and Epsilon Toxins in Farm Ruminants Full Text available with Trip Pro

Immunogenicity of a Trivalent Recombinant Vaccine Against Clostridium perfringens Alpha, Beta, and Epsilon Toxins in Farm Ruminants Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic bacterium that produces several toxins. Of these, the alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins are responsible for causing the most severe C. perfringens-related diseases in farm animals. The best way to control these diseases is through vaccination. However, commercially available vaccines are based on inactivated toxins and have (...)  ± 0.48, 4.34 ± 0.43, and 4.70 ± 0.58 IU/mL against alpha toxin, 13.71 ± 1.17 IU/mL (for all three species) against beta toxin, and 12.74 ± 1.70, 7.66 ± 1.69, and 8.91 ± 2.14 IU/mL against epsilon toxin. These levels were above the minimum recommended by international protocols. As such, our vaccine was effective in generating protective antibodies and, thus, may represent an interesting alternative for the prevention of C. perfringens-related intoxications in farm animals.

2016 Scientific reports

122. Effects of thymol and carvacrol supplementation on intestinal integrity and immune responses of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of thymol and carvacrol supplementation on intestinal integrity and immune responses of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens Necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens infection leads to serious economic losses in the global poultry production. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of essential oils (EO, which contained 25 % thymol and 25 % carvacrol as active components) supplementation on growth performance, gut lesions, intestinal (...) morphology, and immune responses of the broiler chickens infected with C. perfringens. A total of 448 1-day-old male broiler chicks were allocated into eight treatment groups following a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement with four dietary EO dosages (0, 60, 120, or 240 mg/kg) and two infection status (with or without C. perfringens challenge from d 14 to 20).The challenge did not impair the growth performance of birds, but induced gut lesions and increased crypt depth in the ileum (P ≤ 0.05). It also down

2016 Journal of animal science and biotechnology

123. The C-terminal domain of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin as a vaccine candidate against bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis Full Text available with Trip Pro

The C-terminal domain of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin as a vaccine candidate against bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis Bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis is caused by Clostridium perfringens and leads to sudden death. Alpha toxin, together with perfringolysin O, has been identified as the principal toxin involved in the pathogenesis. We assessed the potential of alpha toxin as a vaccine antigen. Using an intestinal loop model in calves, we investigated the protection afforded by antisera (...) raised against native alpha toxin or its non-toxic C-terminal fragment against C. perfringens-induced intestinal necrosis. Immunization of calves with either of the vaccine preparations induced a strong antibody response. The resulting antisera were able to neutralize the alpha toxin activity and the C. perfringens-induced endothelial cytotoxicity in vitro. The antisera raised against the native toxin had a stronger neutralizing activity than those against the C-terminal fragment. However, antibodies

2016 Veterinary Research

124. Immunization with a novel Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin mutant rETXY196E-C confers strong protection in mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Immunization with a novel Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin mutant rETXY196E-C confers strong protection in mice Epsilon toxin (ETX) is produced by toxinotypes B and D of Clostridium perfringens. It can induce lethal enterotoxemia in domestic animals, mainly in sheep, goats and cattle, causing serious economic losses to global animal husbandry. In this study, a novel and stable epsilon toxin mutant rETX(Y196E)-C, obtained by substituting the 196th tyrosine (Y196) with glutamic acid (E

2016 Scientific reports

125. Clostridium Perfringens Infection in a Febrile Patient with Severe Hemolytic Anemia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clostridium Perfringens Infection in a Febrile Patient with Severe Hemolytic Anemia Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) can cause various infections, including gas gangrene, crepitant cellulitis, and fasciitis. While C. perfringens sepsis is uncommon, it is often rapidly fatal because the alpha toxin of this bacterium induces massive intravascular hemolysis by disrupting red blood cell membranes.We present the case of a male patient with diabetes who developed a fatal liver abscess (...) with massive intravascular hemolysis and septic shock caused by toxigenic C. perfringens. The peripheral blood smear showed loss of central pallor, with numerous spherocytes. Multiplex PCR only detected expression of the cpa gene, indicating that the pathogen was C. perfringens type A.C. perfringens infection should be considered in a febrile patient who has severe hemolytic anemia with a very low MCV, hemolyzed blood sample, and negative Coombs test. The characteristic peripheral blood smear findings may

2016 The American journal of case reports

126. Antimicrobial activities of six essential oils commonly used as condiments in Brazil against Clostridium perfringens Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antimicrobial activities of six essential oils commonly used as condiments in Brazil against Clostridium perfringens Despite recent advances in food production technology, food-borne diseases (FBD) remain a challenging public health concern. In several countries, including Brazil, Clostridium perfringens is among the five main causative agents of food-borne diseases. The present study determines antimicrobial activities of essential oils of six condiments commonly used in Brazil, viz., Ocimum (...) basilicum L. (basil), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), Origanum majorana L. (marjoram), Mentha × piperita L. var. Piperita (peppermint), Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) and Pimpinella anisum L. (anise) against C. perfringens strain A. Chemical compositions of the oils were determined by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The identities of the isolated compounds were established from the respective Kováts indices, and a comparison of mass spectral data was made with those reported earlier

2016 Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

127. The interaction of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin with receptor claudins Full Text available with Trip Pro

The interaction of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin with receptor claudins Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) has significant medical importance due to its involvement in several common human gastrointestinal diseases. This 35 kDa single polypeptide toxin consists of two domains: a C-terminal domain involved in receptor binding and an N-terminal domain involved in oligomerization, membrane insertion and pore formation. The action of CPE starts with its binding to receptors, which

2016 Anaerobe

128. Toxin-neutralizing antibodies protect against Clostridium perfringens-induced necrosis in an intestinal loop model for bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Toxin-neutralizing antibodies protect against Clostridium perfringens-induced necrosis in an intestinal loop model for bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis Bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis is caused by Clostridium perfringens type A. Due to the rapid progress and fatal outcome of the disease, vaccination would be of high value. In this study, C. perfringens toxins, either as native toxins or after formaldehyde inactivation, were evaluated as possible vaccine antigens. We determined whether (...) antisera raised in calves against these toxins were able to protect against C. perfringens challenge in an intestinal loop model for bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis.Alpha toxin and perfringolysin O were identified as the most immunogenic proteins in the vaccine preparations. All vaccines evoked a high antibody response against the causative toxins, alpha toxin and perfringolysin O, as detected by ELISA. All antibodies were able to inhibit the activity of alpha toxin and perfringolysin O in vitro

2016 BMC veterinary research

129. Clostridium perfringens α-Toxin Impairs Innate Immunity via Inhibition of Neutrophil Differentiation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clostridium perfringens α-Toxin Impairs Innate Immunity via Inhibition of Neutrophil Differentiation Although granulopoiesis is accelerated to suppress bacteria during infection, some bacteria can still cause life-threatening infections, but the mechanism behind this remains unclear. In this study, we found that mature neutrophils in bone marrow cells (BMCs) were decreased in C. perfringens-infected mice and also after injection of virulence factor α-toxin. C. perfringens infection interfered (...) with the replenishment of mature neutrophils in the peripheral circulation and the accumulation of neutrophils at C. perfringens-infected sites in an α-toxin-dependent manner. Measurements of bacterial colony-forming units in C. perfringens-infected muscle revealed that α-toxin inhibited a reduction in the load of C. perfringens. In vitro treatment of isolated BMCs with α-toxin (phospholipase C) revealed that α-toxin directly decreased mature neutrophils. α-Toxin did not influence the viability of isolated mature

2016 Scientific reports

130. Bystander Host Cell Killing Effects of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bystander Host Cell Killing Effects of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) binds to claudin receptors, e.g., claudin-4, and then forms a pore that triggers cell death. Pure cultures of host cells that do not express claudin receptors, e.g., fibroblasts, are unaffected by pathophysiologically relevant CPE concentrations in vitro However, both CPE-insensitive and CPE-sensitive host cells are present in vivo Therefore, this study tested whether CPE (...) -mediated apoptosis was found to be important for triggering release of the cytotoxic factor(s) from CPE-treated sensitive host cells. Furthermore, the cytotoxic factor(s) in these supernatants was shown to induce a caspase-3-mediated killing of fibroblasts. This bystander killing effect due to release of cytotoxic factors from CPE-treated sensitive cells could contribute to CPE-mediated disease.In susceptible host cells, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) binds to claudin receptors

2016 mBio

131. Inactivation Strategies for Clostridium perfringens Spores and Vegetative Cells Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inactivation Strategies for Clostridium perfringens Spores and Vegetative Cells Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen to human and animals and causes a wide array of diseases, including histotoxic and gastrointestinal illnesses. C. perfringens spores are crucial in terms of the pathogenicity of this bacterium because they can survive in a dormant state in the environment and return to being live bacteria when they come in contact with nutrients in food or the human body. Although (...) the strategies to inactivate C. perfringens vegetative cells are effective, the inactivation of C. perfringens spores is still a great challenge. A number of studies have been conducted in the past decade or so toward developing efficient inactivation strategies for C. perfringens spores and vegetative cells, which include physical approaches and the use of chemical preservatives and naturally derived antimicrobial agents. In this review, different inactivation strategies applied to control C. perfringens

2016 Applied and environmental microbiology

132. Massive haemolysis, gas-forming liver abscess and sepsis due to Clostridium perfringens bacteraemia Full Text available with Trip Pro

Massive haemolysis, gas-forming liver abscess and sepsis due to Clostridium perfringens bacteraemia Clostridial soft tissue infections are infrequent, but can be life-threatening when associated with certain underlying conditions, such as immunosuppression or malignancy. When bacteraemia occurs, it can be accompanied by haemolysis. Only surgical removal of the focus of infection and early onset of antibiotic therapy can prevent a very poor outcome. We describe the case of a man aged 65 years

2016 BMJ case reports

133. Recombinant Alpha, Beta, and Epsilon Toxins of Clostridium perfringens: Production Strategies and Applications as Veterinary Vaccines Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recombinant Alpha, Beta, and Epsilon Toxins of Clostridium perfringens: Production Strategies and Applications as Veterinary Vaccines Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming, commensal, ubiquitous bacterium that is present in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans and animals. This bacterium produces up to 18 toxins. The species is classified into five toxinotypes (A-E) according to the toxins that the bacterium produces: alpha, beta, epsilon, or iota. Each of these toxinotypes (...) is associated with myriad different, frequently fatal, illnesses that affect a range of farm animals and humans. Alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins are the main causes of disease. Vaccinations that generate neutralizing antibodies are the most common prophylactic measures that are currently in use. These vaccines consist of toxoids that are obtained from C. perfringens cultures. Recombinant vaccines offer several advantages over conventional toxoids, especially in terms of the production process

2016 Toxins

134. Role of RNase Y in Clostridium perfringens mRNA Decay and Processing Full Text available with Trip Pro

Role of RNase Y in Clostridium perfringens mRNA Decay and Processing RNase Y is a major endoribonuclease that plays a crucial role in mRNA degradation and processing. We study the role of RNase Y in the Gram-positive anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens, which until now has not been well understood. Our study implies an important role for RNase Y-mediated RNA degradation and processing in virulence gene expression and the physiological development of the organism. We began by constructing (...) an RNase Y conditional knockdown strain in order to observe the importance of RNase Y on growth and virulence. Our resulting transcriptome analysis shows that RNase Y affects the expression of many genes, including toxin-producing genes. We provide data to show that RNase Y depletion repressed several toxin genes in C. perfringens and involved the virR-virS two-component system. We also observe evidence that RNase Y is indispensable for processing and stabilizing the transcripts of colA (encoding

2016 Journal of bacteriology

135. Effect of Trehalose and Trehalose Transport on the Tolerance of Clostridium perfringens to Environmental Stress in a Wild Type Strain and Its Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Mutant Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Trehalose and Trehalose Transport on the Tolerance of Clostridium perfringens to Environmental Stress in a Wild Type Strain and Its Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Mutant Trehalose has been shown to protect bacterial cells from environmental stress. Its uptake and osmoprotective effect in Clostridium perfringens were investigated by comparing wild type C. perfringens ATCC 13124 with a fluoroquinolone- (gatifloxacin-) resistant mutant. In a chemically defined medium, trehalose and sucrose (...) was lower in the fluoroquinolone-resistant mutant. Protection of C. perfringens from environmental stress could therefore be correlated with the ability to take up trehalose.

2016 International journal of microbiology

136. Experimental induction of necrotic enteritis in chickens by a netB-positive Japanese isolate of Clostridium perfringens Full Text available with Trip Pro

Experimental induction of necrotic enteritis in chickens by a netB-positive Japanese isolate of Clostridium perfringens Necrotic enteritis (NE) is one of the most important bacterial diseases in terms of economic losses. Clostridium perfringens necrotic enteritis toxin B, NetB, was recently proposed as a new key virulent factor for the development of NE. The goal of this work was to develop a necrotic enteritis model in chickens by using a Japanese isolate of C. perfringens. The Japanese (...) of age, feed was withheld for 24 hr, and each chicken was orally challenged twice daily with 2 ml each of C. perfringens culture (109 to 1010 CFU) on 5 consecutive days. The gross necrotic lesions were observed in 90 and 12.5% of challenged and control chickens, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrated that a netB-positive Japanese isolate of C. perfringens is able to induce the clinical signs and lesions characteristic of NE in the experimental model, which may

2016 The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

137. Clostridium perfringens Sialidases: Potential Contributors to Intestinal Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Targets Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clostridium perfringens Sialidases: Potential Contributors to Intestinal Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Targets Clostridium perfringens is a major cause of histotoxic and intestinal infections of humans and other animals. This Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium can produce up to three sialidases named NanH, NanI, and NanJ. The role of sialidases in histotoxic infections, such as gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis), remains equivocal. However, recent in vitro studies suggest that NanI may (...) contribute to intestinal virulence by upregulating production of some toxins associated with intestinal infection, increasing the binding and activity of some of those toxins, and enhancing adherence of C. perfringens to intestinal cells. Possible contributions of NanI to intestinal colonization are further supported by observations that the C. perfringens strains causing acute food poisoning in humans often lack the nanI gene, while other C. perfringens strains causing chronic intestinal infections

2016 Toxins

138. Diversity of Clostridium perfringens toxin-genotypes from dairy farms Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diversity of Clostridium perfringens toxin-genotypes from dairy farms Clostridium (C.) perfringens is the causative agent of several diseases in animals and humans, including histotoxic and enteric infections. To gain more insight into the occurrence of its different toxin-genotypes in dairy herds, including those toxin genes previously associated with diseases in cattle or humans, 662 isolates cultivated from feces, rumen content and feed collected from 139 dairy farms were characterized

2016 BMC microbiology

139. Microwave ablation of liver metastasis complicated by Clostridium perfringens gas-forming pyogenic liver abscess (GPLA) in a patient with past gastrectomy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Microwave ablation of liver metastasis complicated by Clostridium perfringens gas-forming pyogenic liver abscess (GPLA) in a patient with past gastrectomy Gas-forming pyogenic liver abscess (GPLA) caused by C. perfringens is rare but fatal. Patients with past gastrectomy may be prone to such infection post-ablation.An 84-year-old male patient with past gastrectomy had MW ablation of his liver tumors complicated by GPLA. Computerised tomography scan showed gas-containing abscess in the liver (...) and he was managed successfully with antibiotic and percutaneous drainage of the abscess.C. perfringens GPLA secondary to MW ablation in a patient with previous gastrectomy has not been reported in the literature. Gastrectomy may predispose to such infection. Even in high-risk patients, empirical antibiotic before ablation is not a standard of practice. Therefore following the procedure, close observation of patients' conditions is necessary to allow early diagnosis and intervention that will prevent

2016 International journal of surgery case reports

140. Transcriptional Profile during Deoxycholate-Induced Sporulation in a Clostridium perfringens Isolate Causing Foodborne Illness Full Text available with Trip Pro

Transcriptional Profile during Deoxycholate-Induced Sporulation in a Clostridium perfringens Isolate Causing Foodborne Illness Clostridium perfringens type A is a common source of foodborne illness (FBI) in humans. Vegetative cells sporulate in the small intestinal tract and produce the major pathogenic factor C. perfringens enterotoxin. Although sporulation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of FBI, the mechanisms inducing sporulation remain unclear. Bile salts were shown previously (...) sporulation, at least partially, by facilitating the phosphorylation of Spo0A and activating Spo0A-regulated genes in strain NCTC8239 while altering the expression of various genes.Disease caused by Clostridium perfringens type A consistently ranks among the most common bacterial foodborne illnesses in humans in developed countries. The sporulation of C. perfringens in the small intestinal tract is a key event for its pathogenesis, but the factors and underlying mechanisms by which C. perfringens

2016 Applied and environmental microbiology

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