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Clostridium perfringens

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101. Antimicrobial activities of six essential oils commonly used as condiments in Brazil against Clostridium perfringens (PubMed)

Antimicrobial activities of six essential oils commonly used as condiments in Brazil against Clostridium perfringens Despite recent advances in food production technology, food-borne diseases (FBD) remain a challenging public health concern. In several countries, including Brazil, Clostridium perfringens is among the five main causative agents of food-borne diseases. The present study determines antimicrobial activities of essential oils of six condiments commonly used in Brazil, viz., Ocimum (...) basilicum L. (basil), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), Origanum majorana L. (marjoram), Mentha × piperita L. var. Piperita (peppermint), Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) and Pimpinella anisum L. (anise) against C. perfringens strain A. Chemical compositions of the oils were determined by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The identities of the isolated compounds were established from the respective Kováts indices, and a comparison of mass spectral data was made with those reported earlier

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2016 Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

102. Immunogenicity of a Trivalent Recombinant Vaccine Against Clostridium perfringens Alpha, Beta, and Epsilon Toxins in Farm Ruminants (PubMed)

Immunogenicity of a Trivalent Recombinant Vaccine Against Clostridium perfringens Alpha, Beta, and Epsilon Toxins in Farm Ruminants Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic bacterium that produces several toxins. Of these, the alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins are responsible for causing the most severe C. perfringens-related diseases in farm animals. The best way to control these diseases is through vaccination. However, commercially available vaccines are based on inactivated toxins and have (...)  ± 0.48, 4.34 ± 0.43, and 4.70 ± 0.58 IU/mL against alpha toxin, 13.71 ± 1.17 IU/mL (for all three species) against beta toxin, and 12.74 ± 1.70, 7.66 ± 1.69, and 8.91 ± 2.14 IU/mL against epsilon toxin. These levels were above the minimum recommended by international protocols. As such, our vaccine was effective in generating protective antibodies and, thus, may represent an interesting alternative for the prevention of C. perfringens-related intoxications in farm animals.

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2016 Scientific reports

103. Effects of thymol and carvacrol supplementation on intestinal integrity and immune responses of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens (PubMed)

Effects of thymol and carvacrol supplementation on intestinal integrity and immune responses of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens Necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens infection leads to serious economic losses in the global poultry production. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of essential oils (EO, which contained 25 % thymol and 25 % carvacrol as active components) supplementation on growth performance, gut lesions, intestinal (...) morphology, and immune responses of the broiler chickens infected with C. perfringens. A total of 448 1-day-old male broiler chicks were allocated into eight treatment groups following a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement with four dietary EO dosages (0, 60, 120, or 240 mg/kg) and two infection status (with or without C. perfringens challenge from d 14 to 20).The challenge did not impair the growth performance of birds, but induced gut lesions and increased crypt depth in the ileum (P ≤ 0.05). It also down

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2016 Journal of animal science and biotechnology

104. Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Induces Rapid Cell Necrosis (PubMed)

Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Induces Rapid Cell Necrosis Clostridium perfringens delta-toxin is a β-pore-forming toxin and a putative pathogenic agent of C. perfringens types B and C. However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity of delta-toxin remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of cell death induced by delta-toxin in five cell lines (A549, A431, MDCK, Vero, and Caco-2). All cell lines were susceptible to delta-toxin. The toxin caused rapid ATP depletion and swelling

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2016 PloS one

105. Beta Lactamase Producing Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia in an Elderly Man with Acute Pancreatitis (PubMed)

Beta Lactamase Producing Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia in an Elderly Man with Acute Pancreatitis Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is associated with adverse outcomes. Known risk factors include chronic kidney disease, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal disease. We present a 74-year-old man admitted with confusion, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Exam revealed tachycardia, hypotension, lethargy, distended abdomen, and cold extremities. He required intubation and aggressive (...) resuscitation for septic shock. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury, and elevated lipase. CT scan of abdomen revealed acute pancreatitis and small bowel ileus. He was started on vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Initial blood cultures were positive for C. perfringens on day five. Metronidazole and clindamycin were added to the regimen. Repeat CT (day 7) revealed pancreatic necrosis. The patient developed profound circulatory shock requiring multiple

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2016 Case reports in critical care

106. Effects of Bacillus licheniformis on the growth performance and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis (PubMed)

Effects of Bacillus licheniformis on the growth performance and expression of lipid metabolism-related genes in broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Clostridium perfringens, has cost the poultry industry $2 billion in losses. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Bacillus licheniformis as dietary supplement on the growth, serum antioxidant status, and expression of lipid-metabolism genes of broiler (...) chickens with C. perfringens-induced NE.A total of 240 one-day-old broilers were randomly grouped into four: a negative control, an NE experimental model (PC), chickens fed a diet supplemented with 30 % of fishmeal from day 14 onwards and challenged with coccidiosis vaccine (FC), and NE group supplied with feed containing 1.0 × 10(6) CFU/g B. licheniformis (BL).Body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, serum antioxidant status, and lipid-metabolism-gene expression were analyzed. In the PC group, FCR

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2016 Lipids in health and disease

107. Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin: Action, Genetics, and Translational Applications (PubMed)

Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin: Action, Genetics, and Translational Applications Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is responsible for causing the gastrointestinal symptoms of several C. perfringens food- and nonfood-borne human gastrointestinal diseases. The enterotoxin gene (cpe) is located on either the chromosome (for most C. perfringens type A food poisoning strains) or large conjugative plasmids (for the remaining type A food poisoning and most, if not all, other CPE-producing (...) strains). In all CPE-positive strains, the cpe gene is strongly associated with insertion sequences that may help to assist its mobilization and spread. During disease, CPE is produced when C. perfringens sporulates in the intestines, a process involving several sporulation-specific alternative sigma factors. The action of CPE starts with its binding to claudin receptors to form a small complex; those small complexes then oligomerize to create a hexameric prepore on the membrane surface. Beta hairpin

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2016 Toxins

108. Immunization with a novel Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin mutant rETXY196E-C confers strong protection in mice (PubMed)

Immunization with a novel Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin mutant rETXY196E-C confers strong protection in mice Epsilon toxin (ETX) is produced by toxinotypes B and D of Clostridium perfringens. It can induce lethal enterotoxemia in domestic animals, mainly in sheep, goats and cattle, causing serious economic losses to global animal husbandry. In this study, a novel and stable epsilon toxin mutant rETX(Y196E)-C, obtained by substituting the 196th tyrosine (Y196) with glutamic acid (E

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2016 Scientific reports

109. Clostridium Perfringens Infection in a Febrile Patient with Severe Hemolytic Anemia (PubMed)

Clostridium Perfringens Infection in a Febrile Patient with Severe Hemolytic Anemia Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) can cause various infections, including gas gangrene, crepitant cellulitis, and fasciitis. While C. perfringens sepsis is uncommon, it is often rapidly fatal because the alpha toxin of this bacterium induces massive intravascular hemolysis by disrupting red blood cell membranes.We present the case of a male patient with diabetes who developed a fatal liver abscess (...) with massive intravascular hemolysis and septic shock caused by toxigenic C. perfringens. The peripheral blood smear showed loss of central pallor, with numerous spherocytes. Multiplex PCR only detected expression of the cpa gene, indicating that the pathogen was C. perfringens type A.C. perfringens infection should be considered in a febrile patient who has severe hemolytic anemia with a very low MCV, hemolyzed blood sample, and negative Coombs test. The characteristic peripheral blood smear findings may

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2016 The American journal of case reports

110. The interaction of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin with receptor claudins (PubMed)

The interaction of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin with receptor claudins Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) has significant medical importance due to its involvement in several common human gastrointestinal diseases. This 35 kDa single polypeptide toxin consists of two domains: a C-terminal domain involved in receptor binding and an N-terminal domain involved in oligomerization, membrane insertion and pore formation. The action of CPE starts with its binding to receptors, which

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2016 Anaerobe

111. Clostridium perfringens

Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Clostridium perfringens Clostridium (...) perfringens Aka: Clostridium perfringens , Gas Gangrene , Anaerobic Cellulitis , Clostridial Myonecrosis From Related Chapters II. Etiology: Clostridium Species Clostridium perfringens ( welchii) novyi septicum sordellii histolyticum III. Pathophysiology Tissue infection with gas-producing IV. Symptoms and Signs progression History of deep contaminated wound (Surgery, ) Onset Sudden pain at wound site Local swelling and edema of wound site Thin hemorrhagic exudate Toxemia Foul discharge from wound

2018 FP Notebook

112. Gut microbiome analysis in neuromyelitis optica reveals over-abundance of Clostridium perfringens. (PubMed)

Gut microbiome analysis in neuromyelitis optica reveals over-abundance of Clostridium perfringens. T cells from neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients, which recognize the immunodominant epitope of aquaporin-4, exhibit Th17 polarization and cross-react with a homologous sequence of a Clostridium perfringens adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter. Therefore, this commensal microbe might participate in NMO pathogenesis. We examined the gut microbiome by PhyloChip G3 from 16 NMO patients (...) , 16 healthy controls (HC), and 16 multiple sclerosis patients. A significant difference in the abundance of several microbial communities was observed between NMO and HC (Adonis test, p = 0.001). Strikingly, C. perfringens was overrepresented in NMO (p = 5.24 × 10(-8) ). These observations support a potential role for C. perfringens in NMO pathogenesis. Ann Neurol 2016;80:443-447.© 2016 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological

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2016 Annals of Neurology

113. Recombinant Alpha, Beta, and Epsilon Toxins of Clostridium perfringens: Production Strategies and Applications as Veterinary Vaccines (PubMed)

Recombinant Alpha, Beta, and Epsilon Toxins of Clostridium perfringens: Production Strategies and Applications as Veterinary Vaccines Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming, commensal, ubiquitous bacterium that is present in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans and animals. This bacterium produces up to 18 toxins. The species is classified into five toxinotypes (A-E) according to the toxins that the bacterium produces: alpha, beta, epsilon, or iota. Each of these toxinotypes (...) is associated with myriad different, frequently fatal, illnesses that affect a range of farm animals and humans. Alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins are the main causes of disease. Vaccinations that generate neutralizing antibodies are the most common prophylactic measures that are currently in use. These vaccines consist of toxoids that are obtained from C. perfringens cultures. Recombinant vaccines offer several advantages over conventional toxoids, especially in terms of the production process

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2016 Toxins

114. Clostridium perfringens Sialidases: Potential Contributors to Intestinal Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Targets (PubMed)

Clostridium perfringens Sialidases: Potential Contributors to Intestinal Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Targets Clostridium perfringens is a major cause of histotoxic and intestinal infections of humans and other animals. This Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium can produce up to three sialidases named NanH, NanI, and NanJ. The role of sialidases in histotoxic infections, such as gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis), remains equivocal. However, recent in vitro studies suggest that NanI may (...) contribute to intestinal virulence by upregulating production of some toxins associated with intestinal infection, increasing the binding and activity of some of those toxins, and enhancing adherence of C. perfringens to intestinal cells. Possible contributions of NanI to intestinal colonization are further supported by observations that the C. perfringens strains causing acute food poisoning in humans often lack the nanI gene, while other C. perfringens strains causing chronic intestinal infections

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2016 Toxins

115. Massive haemolysis, gas-forming liver abscess and sepsis due to Clostridium perfringens bacteraemia (PubMed)

Massive haemolysis, gas-forming liver abscess and sepsis due to Clostridium perfringens bacteraemia Clostridial soft tissue infections are infrequent, but can be life-threatening when associated with certain underlying conditions, such as immunosuppression or malignancy. When bacteraemia occurs, it can be accompanied by haemolysis. Only surgical removal of the focus of infection and early onset of antibiotic therapy can prevent a very poor outcome. We describe the case of a man aged 65 years

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2016 BMJ case reports

116. Effect of Trehalose and Trehalose Transport on the Tolerance of Clostridium perfringens to Environmental Stress in a Wild Type Strain and Its Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Mutant (PubMed)

Effect of Trehalose and Trehalose Transport on the Tolerance of Clostridium perfringens to Environmental Stress in a Wild Type Strain and Its Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Mutant Trehalose has been shown to protect bacterial cells from environmental stress. Its uptake and osmoprotective effect in Clostridium perfringens were investigated by comparing wild type C. perfringens ATCC 13124 with a fluoroquinolone- (gatifloxacin-) resistant mutant. In a chemically defined medium, trehalose and sucrose (...) was lower in the fluoroquinolone-resistant mutant. Protection of C. perfringens from environmental stress could therefore be correlated with the ability to take up trehalose.

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2016 International journal of microbiology

117. Mechanisms of Antibacterial Action of Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides against Clostridium perfringens and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (PubMed)

Mechanisms of Antibacterial Action of Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides against Clostridium perfringens and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) are a class of bioreductive compounds, however, their antibacterial mechanisms are still unclarified. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of two representative QdNO drugs, cyadox (CYA) and olaquindox (OLA), to produce reactive oxide species (ROS) in Gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium perfringens CVCC1125 and Gram (...) -negative anaerobe Brachyspira hyodysenteriae B204. In addition, the effects of QdNOs on the integrity of bacterial cell walls and membranes as well as the morphological alterations and DNA oxidative damage in C. perfringens and B. hyodysenteriae were analyzed. It was demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions, QdNOs were metabolized into the reduced products which did not show any antibacterial activity. A significant dose-related increase of intracellular ROS level and intracellular hydroxyl

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2016 Frontiers in microbiology

118. Experimental induction of necrotic enteritis in chickens by a netB-positive Japanese isolate of Clostridium perfringens (PubMed)

Experimental induction of necrotic enteritis in chickens by a netB-positive Japanese isolate of Clostridium perfringens Necrotic enteritis (NE) is one of the most important bacterial diseases in terms of economic losses. Clostridium perfringens necrotic enteritis toxin B, NetB, was recently proposed as a new key virulent factor for the development of NE. The goal of this work was to develop a necrotic enteritis model in chickens by using a Japanese isolate of C. perfringens. The Japanese (...) of age, feed was withheld for 24 hr, and each chicken was orally challenged twice daily with 2 ml each of C. perfringens culture (109 to 1010 CFU) on 5 consecutive days. The gross necrotic lesions were observed in 90 and 12.5% of challenged and control chickens, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrated that a netB-positive Japanese isolate of C. perfringens is able to induce the clinical signs and lesions characteristic of NE in the experimental model, which may

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2016 The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

119. Inactivation Strategies for Clostridium perfringens Spores and Vegetative Cells (PubMed)

Inactivation Strategies for Clostridium perfringens Spores and Vegetative Cells Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen to human and animals and causes a wide array of diseases, including histotoxic and gastrointestinal illnesses. C. perfringens spores are crucial in terms of the pathogenicity of this bacterium because they can survive in a dormant state in the environment and return to being live bacteria when they come in contact with nutrients in food or the human body. Although (...) the strategies to inactivate C. perfringens vegetative cells are effective, the inactivation of C. perfringens spores is still a great challenge. A number of studies have been conducted in the past decade or so toward developing efficient inactivation strategies for C. perfringens spores and vegetative cells, which include physical approaches and the use of chemical preservatives and naturally derived antimicrobial agents. In this review, different inactivation strategies applied to control C. perfringens

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2016 Applied and environmental microbiology

120. Role of RNase Y in Clostridium perfringens mRNA Decay and Processing (PubMed)

Role of RNase Y in Clostridium perfringens mRNA Decay and Processing RNase Y is a major endoribonuclease that plays a crucial role in mRNA degradation and processing. We study the role of RNase Y in the Gram-positive anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens, which until now has not been well understood. Our study implies an important role for RNase Y-mediated RNA degradation and processing in virulence gene expression and the physiological development of the organism. We began by constructing (...) an RNase Y conditional knockdown strain in order to observe the importance of RNase Y on growth and virulence. Our resulting transcriptome analysis shows that RNase Y affects the expression of many genes, including toxin-producing genes. We provide data to show that RNase Y depletion repressed several toxin genes in C. perfringens and involved the virR-virS two-component system. We also observe evidence that RNase Y is indispensable for processing and stabilizing the transcripts of colA (encoding

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2016 Journal of bacteriology

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