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Clostridium perfringens

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101. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection and Other Conditions in Children: A Joint Position Paper From the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and the European Society for

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection and Other Conditions in Children: A Joint Position Paper From the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and the European Society for Downloaded from https://journals.lww.com/jpgn by BhDMf5ePHKav1zEoum1tQfN4a+kJLhEZgbsIHo4XMi0hCywCX1AWnYQp/IlQrHD3IJrtBKuSsQVsKRVaZGM1l4E1BpMVhD9eXUWmKDp4zSM= on 01/02/2019 Downloaded from https://journals.lww.com/jpgn (...) by BhDMf5ePHKav1zEoum1tQfN4a+kJLhEZgbsIHo4XMi0hCywCX1AWnYQp/IlQrHD3IJrtBKuSsQVsKRVaZGM1l4E1BpMVhD9eXUWmKDp4zSM= on 01/02/2019 Copyright © ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN. All rights reserved. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection and Other Conditions in Children:AJointPositionPaperFromtheNorthAmerican Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Zev H. Davidovics, y Sonia Michail, z

2019 North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

102. Clostridium perfringens: a rare cause of spondylodiscitis case report and review of the literature. (Abstract)

Clostridium perfringens: a rare cause of spondylodiscitis case report and review of the literature. Presented is a case of a 64-year old male with a unique and yet unreported case of a spondylodiscitis caused by Clostridium perfringens. Becoming symptomatic with massive neurological deficits. Computed tomography (CT) revealed typical signs of spondylodiscitis involving the vertebral body L5 with extensive vacuum phenomenon.

2016 British Journal of Neurosurgery

103. Gut microbiome analysis in neuromyelitis optica reveals over-abundance of Clostridium perfringens. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Gut microbiome analysis in neuromyelitis optica reveals over-abundance of Clostridium perfringens. T cells from neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients, which recognize the immunodominant epitope of aquaporin-4, exhibit Th17 polarization and cross-react with a homologous sequence of a Clostridium perfringens adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter. Therefore, this commensal microbe might participate in NMO pathogenesis. We examined the gut microbiome by PhyloChip G3 from 16 NMO patients (...) , 16 healthy controls (HC), and 16 multiple sclerosis patients. A significant difference in the abundance of several microbial communities was observed between NMO and HC (Adonis test, p = 0.001). Strikingly, C. perfringens was overrepresented in NMO (p = 5.24 × 10(-8) ). These observations support a potential role for C. perfringens in NMO pathogenesis. Ann Neurol 2016;80:443-447.© 2016 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological

2016 Annals of Neurology

104. Uterine Perforation with Intra-Abdominal Clostridium perfringens Gas Gangrene: A Rare and Fatal Infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

Uterine Perforation with Intra-Abdominal Clostridium perfringens Gas Gangrene: A Rare and Fatal Infection Background:Clostridium perfringens gas gangrene is an extremely rare and fatal infection. Necrosis of the myometrium is rarely seen and has only been recorded in 18 cases to date. Of these 18 reported cases, only 5 have occurred in nonpregnant women. This article presents the 6th case of myometrium necrosis from C. perfringens.Case: A 72-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 2, presented (...) with abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. After examinations, laboratory testing, and several surgical interventions, she was found to have C. perfringens infection and advanced high-grade serous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with >50% invasion into the myometrium. Results: Despite the surgical interventions and use of several antibiotics, this patient did not improve. She was weaned from treatment per her advance directive and died after weaning. Conclusions: Awareness of the many etiologies

2016 Journal of Gynecologic Surgery

105. Clostridium perfringens Sporulation and Sporulation-Associated Toxin Production Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clostridium perfringens Sporulation and Sporulation-Associated Toxin Production The ability of Clostridium perfringens to form spores plays a key role during the transmission of this Gram-positive bacterium to cause disease. Of particular note, the spores produced by food poisoning strains are often exceptionally resistant to food environment stresses such as heat, cold, and preservatives, which likely facilitates their survival in temperature-abused foods. The exceptional resistance properties (...) of spores made by most type A food poisoning strains and some type C foodborne disease strains involve their production of a variant small acid-soluble protein-4 that binds more tightly to spore DNA than to the small acid-soluble protein-4 made by most other C. perfringens strains. Sporulation and germination by C. perfringens and Bacillus spp. share both similarities and differences. Finally, sporulation is essential for production of C. perfringens enterotoxin, which is responsible for the symptoms

2016 Microbiology spectrum

106. Analysis of the Spore Membrane Proteome in Clostridium perfringens Implicates Cyanophycin in Spore Assembly Full Text available with Trip Pro

Analysis of the Spore Membrane Proteome in Clostridium perfringens Implicates Cyanophycin in Spore Assembly Heat-resistant endospore formation plays an important role in Clostridium perfringens-associated foodborne illnesses. The spores allow the bacterium to survive heating during normal cooking processes, followed by germination and outgrowth of the bacterium in contaminated foods. To identify proteins associated with germination and other spore functions, a comparative spore membrane (...) , respectively. One protein that was detected only in germinated spore membranes was the enzyme cyanophycinase, a protease that cleaves the polymer cyanophycin, which is composed of l-arginine-poly(l-aspartic acid), to β-Asp-Arg. Genes encoding cyanophycinase and cyanophycin synthetase have been observed in many species of Clostridium, but their role has not been defined. To determine the function of cyanophycin in C. perfringens, a mutation was introduced into the cphA gene, encoding cyanophycin synthetase

2016 Journal of bacteriology

107. RNA-seq analysis of virR and revR mutants of Clostridium perfringens Full Text available with Trip Pro

RNA-seq analysis of virR and revR mutants of Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens causes toxin-mediated diseases, including gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis) and food poisoning in humans. The production of the toxins implicated in gas gangrene, α-toxin and perfringolysin O, is regulated by the VirSR two-component regulatory system. In addition, RevR, an orphan response regulator, has been shown to affect virulence in the mouse myonecrosis model. RevR positively regulates (...) the expression of genes that encode hydrolytic enzymes, including hyaluronidases and sialidases.To further characterize the VirSR and RevR regulatory networks, comparative transcriptomic analysis was carried out with strand-specific RNA-seq on C. perfringens strain JIR325 and its isogenic virR and revR regulatory mutants. Using the edgeR analysis package, 206 genes in the virR mutant and 67 genes in the revR mutant were found to be differentially expressed. Comparative analysis revealed that VirR acts

2016 BMC genomics

108. Variable protection against experimental broiler necrotic enteritis after immunization with the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin and a non-toxic NetB variant Full Text available with Trip Pro

Variable protection against experimental broiler necrotic enteritis after immunization with the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin and a non-toxic NetB variant Necrotic enteritis toxin B (NetB) is a pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens and has been shown to play a key role in avian necrotic enteritis, a disease causing significant costs to the poultry production industry worldwide. The aim of this work was to determine whether immunization with a non (...) -toxic variant of NetB (NetB W262A) and the C-terminal fragment of C. perfringens alpha-toxin (CPA247-370) would provide protection against experimental necrotic enteritis. Immunized birds with either antigen or a combination of antigens developed serum antibody levels against NetB and CPA. When CPA247-370 and NetB W262A were used in combination as immunogens, an increased protection was observed after oral challenge by individual dosing, but not after in-feed-challenge.

2016 Avian Pathology

109. The Generation and Characterization of Recombinant Protein and Antibodies of Clostridium perfringens Beta2 Toxin Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Generation and Characterization of Recombinant Protein and Antibodies of Clostridium perfringens Beta2 Toxin Introduction. Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) beta2 toxin (CPB2) is an important virulent factor of necrotic enteritis in both animals and humans. However, studies of its pathogenic roles and functional mechanisms have been hampered due to the difficulty of purification and lack of specific antibodies against this toxin. Methods. A recombinant His-tagged C. perfringens beta2

2016 Journal of immunology research

110. Regulation of Toxin Production in Clostridium perfringens Full Text available with Trip Pro

Regulation of Toxin Production in Clostridium perfringens The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens is widely distributed in nature, especially in soil and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. C. perfringens causes gas gangrene and food poisoning, and it produces extracellular enzymes and toxins that are thought to act synergistically and contribute to its pathogenesis. A complicated regulatory network of toxin genes has been reported that includes a two (...) -component system for regulatory RNA and cell-cell communication. It is necessary to clarify the global regulatory system of these genes in order to understand and treat the virulence of C. perfringens. We summarize the existing knowledge about the regulatory mechanisms here.

2016 Toxins

111. Use of Plant Extracts as an Effective Manner to Control Clostridium perfringens Induced Necrotic Enteritis in Poultry Full Text available with Trip Pro

Use of Plant Extracts as an Effective Manner to Control Clostridium perfringens Induced Necrotic Enteritis in Poultry Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important concern in poultry industry since it causes economic losses, increased mortality, reduction of bird welfare, and contamination of chicken products for human consumption. For decades, the use of in-feed antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) has been the main strategy to control intestinal pathogens including Clostridium perfringens (CP

2016 BioMed research international

112. Prevalence of netF-positive Clostridium perfringens in foals in southwestern Ontario Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence of netF-positive Clostridium perfringens in foals in southwestern Ontario NetF-producing Clostridium perfringens have recently been identified as a cause of necrotizing enteritis in neonatal foals, but little is known about its prevalence in clinically normal foals. Foals (n = 88) ranging in age from < 1 wk to 2 to 4 mo (median age 2 to 4 wk) on 8 horse-breeding farms in Ontario were examined on 1 or 2 occasions for the presence of C. perfringens. Of the foals that tested positive, 5 (...) isolates (n = 675) were examined for the netF and enterotoxin (cpe) genes. Colonization by C. perfringens was most marked in foals < 1 wk of age [4.85 ± 2.70 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)] and declined markedly over time (1.23 ± 1.06 log10 CFU at 1 to 2 mo of age). Only 2 isolates possessed the cpe gene and none possessed netF. We concluded that netF-positive C. perfringens does not colonize young foals with any detectable frequency in Ontario and this organism is not likely to be adapted

2016 Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research

113. Mechanisms of Antibacterial Action of Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides against Clostridium perfringens and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mechanisms of Antibacterial Action of Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides against Clostridium perfringens and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) are a class of bioreductive compounds, however, their antibacterial mechanisms are still unclarified. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of two representative QdNO drugs, cyadox (CYA) and olaquindox (OLA), to produce reactive oxide species (ROS) in Gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium perfringens CVCC1125 and Gram (...) -negative anaerobe Brachyspira hyodysenteriae B204. In addition, the effects of QdNOs on the integrity of bacterial cell walls and membranes as well as the morphological alterations and DNA oxidative damage in C. perfringens and B. hyodysenteriae were analyzed. It was demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions, QdNOs were metabolized into the reduced products which did not show any antibacterial activity. A significant dose-related increase of intracellular ROS level and intracellular hydroxyl

2016 Frontiers in microbiology

114. Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Induces Rapid Cell Necrosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Induces Rapid Cell Necrosis Clostridium perfringens delta-toxin is a β-pore-forming toxin and a putative pathogenic agent of C. perfringens types B and C. However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity of delta-toxin remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of cell death induced by delta-toxin in five cell lines (A549, A431, MDCK, Vero, and Caco-2). All cell lines were susceptible to delta-toxin. The toxin caused rapid ATP depletion and swelling

2016 PloS one

115. Detection of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene in lambs by loop mediated isothermal amplification Full Text available with Trip Pro

Detection of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene in lambs by loop mediated isothermal amplification The loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was standardized for rapid detection of Clostridium perfringens.A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from enterotoxemia suspected lambs were used for screening of C. perfringens cpa gene by LAMP. The specificity of the LAMP amplified products was tested by digesting with restriction enzyme XmnI for alpha toxin gene.Out of 120 samples (...) will help to identify the C. perfringens toxin types from the clinical samples. The test could be a suitable alternative to the PCR in detection of toxin types without the help of sophisticated machinery like thermal cycler. Considering its simplicity in operation and high sensitivity, there is the potential use of this technique in clinical diagnosis and surveillance of infectious diseases.

2016 Veterinary world

116. Beta Lactamase Producing Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia in an Elderly Man with Acute Pancreatitis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Beta Lactamase Producing Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia in an Elderly Man with Acute Pancreatitis Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is associated with adverse outcomes. Known risk factors include chronic kidney disease, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal disease. We present a 74-year-old man admitted with confusion, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Exam revealed tachycardia, hypotension, lethargy, distended abdomen, and cold extremities. He required intubation and aggressive (...) resuscitation for septic shock. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury, and elevated lipase. CT scan of abdomen revealed acute pancreatitis and small bowel ileus. He was started on vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Initial blood cultures were positive for C. perfringens on day five. Metronidazole and clindamycin were added to the regimen. Repeat CT (day 7) revealed pancreatic necrosis. The patient developed profound circulatory shock requiring multiple

2016 Case reports in critical care

117. A novel Hsp70 inhibitor prevents cell intoxication with the actin ADP-ribosylating Clostridium perfringens iota toxin Full Text available with Trip Pro

A novel Hsp70 inhibitor prevents cell intoxication with the actin ADP-ribosylating Clostridium perfringens iota toxin Hsp70 family proteins are folding helper proteins involved in a wide variety of cellular pathways. Members of this family interact with key factors in signal transduction, transcription, cell-cycle control, and stress response. Here, we developed the first Hsp70 low molecular weight inhibitor specifically targeting the peptide binding site of human Hsp70. After demonstrating (...) that the inhibitor modulates the Hsp70 function in the cell, we used the inhibitor to show for the first time that the stress-inducible chaperone Hsp70 functions as molecular component for entry of a bacterial protein toxin into mammalian cells. Pharmacological inhibition of Hsp70 protected cells from intoxication with the binary actin ADP-ribosylating iota toxin from Clostridium perfringens, the prototype of a family of enterotoxins from pathogenic Clostridia and inhibited translocation of its enzyme component

2016 Scientific reports

118. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Clostridium perfringens in Natural and Processed Cheeses Full Text available with Trip Pro

Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Clostridium perfringens in Natural and Processed Cheeses This study evaluated the risk of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) foodborne illness from natural and processed cheeses. Microbial risk assessment in this study was conducted according to four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The hazard identification of C. perfringens on cheese was identified through literature (...) , and dose response models were utilized for hazard characterization of the pathogen. For exposure assessment, the prevalence of C. perfringens, storage temperatures, storage time, and annual amounts of cheese consumption were surveyed. Eventually, a simulation model was developed using the collected data and the simulation result was used to estimate the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption with @RISK. C. perfringens was determined to be low risk on cheese based

2016 Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences

119. Plasmid Characterization and Chromosome Analysis of Two netF+ Clostridium perfringens Isolates Associated with Foal and Canine Necrotizing Enteritis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Plasmid Characterization and Chromosome Analysis of Two netF+ Clostridium perfringens Isolates Associated with Foal and Canine Necrotizing Enteritis The recent discovery of a novel beta-pore-forming toxin, NetF, which is strongly associated with canine and foal necrotizing enteritis should improve our understanding of the role of type A Clostridium perfringens associated disease in these animals. The current study presents the complete genome sequence of two netF-positive strains, JFP55 (...) -encoding tcp-conjugative plasmid, a CPE/CPB2 toxins-encoding tcp-conjugative plasmid and a putative bacteriocin-encoding plasmid. The putative beta-pore-forming toxin genes, netF, netE and netG, were located in unique pathogenicity loci on tcp-conjugative plasmids. The C. perfringens JFP55 chromosome carries 2,825 protein-coding genes whereas the chromosome of JFP838 contains 3,014 protein-encoding genes. Comparison of these two chromosomes with three available reference C. perfringens chromosome

2016 PloS one

120. Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin: Action, Genetics, and Translational Applications Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin: Action, Genetics, and Translational Applications Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is responsible for causing the gastrointestinal symptoms of several C. perfringens food- and nonfood-borne human gastrointestinal diseases. The enterotoxin gene (cpe) is located on either the chromosome (for most C. perfringens type A food poisoning strains) or large conjugative plasmids (for the remaining type A food poisoning and most, if not all, other CPE-producing (...) strains). In all CPE-positive strains, the cpe gene is strongly associated with insertion sequences that may help to assist its mobilization and spread. During disease, CPE is produced when C. perfringens sporulates in the intestines, a process involving several sporulation-specific alternative sigma factors. The action of CPE starts with its binding to claudin receptors to form a small complex; those small complexes then oligomerize to create a hexameric prepore on the membrane surface. Beta hairpin

2016 Toxins

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