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Clostridium perfringens

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81. Clostridium perfringens α-toxin impairs erythropoiesis by inhibition of erythroid differentiation (PubMed)

Clostridium perfringens α-toxin impairs erythropoiesis by inhibition of erythroid differentiation Clostridium perfringens α-toxin induces hemolysis of erythrocytes from various species, but it has not been elucidated whether the toxin affects erythropoiesis. In this study, we treated bone marrow cells (BMCs) from mice with purified α-toxin and found that TER119+ erythroblasts were greatly decreased by the treatment. A variant α-toxin defective in enzymatic activities, phospholipase C (...) activities of α-toxin, which might be important to understand the pathogenesis of C. perfringens infection.

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2017 Scientific reports

82. The effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis on the cytotoxicity of Clostridium perfringens type a in Caco-2 cell culture (PubMed)

The effects of probiotic Bacillus subtilis on the cytotoxicity of Clostridium perfringens type a in Caco-2 cell culture Some Bacillus strains have recently been identified for potential use as probiotics and food additives. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial effects of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and its metabolite on the enterotoxin and vegetative cells, spore and germinated spore of Clostridium perfringens type A in Caco-2 cells.We used flow cytometry and MTT assays to evaluate (...) the cytotoxicity effect of treatments. According to the results, the most cell survival was found in the 4% crude antimicrobial substance (CAS) with the vegetative form of C. perfringens among co-cultured groups. Furthermore, the apoptosis and necrosis in co-cultured groups were significantly decreased (P < 0.05).The present results suggested the crucial role of the current probiotic in the control of various forms of C. perfringens type A which was investigated for the first time. Also, the majority

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2017 BMC microbiology

83. Clostridium perfringens's necrotizing acute pancreatitis: a case of success (PubMed)

Clostridium perfringens's necrotizing acute pancreatitis: a case of success The authors report a case of a 62-year-old man with upper abdominal pain with few hours of onset and vomits. The initial serum amylase was 2306 U/L. The first CT showed signs of a non-complicated acute pancreatitis. He suffered clinical deterioration and for this reason he was admitted on the intensive care unit where he progressed to multiple organ failure in <24 h. A new CT scan was performed that showed (...) pneumoperitoneum and pneumoretroperitoneum. He underwent an exploratory laparotomy and pancreatic necrosectomy and vacuum pack laparostomy were performed. Intraoperative peritoneal fluid culture was positive for Clostridium perfringens confirming the diagnosis. He was discharged from hospital after 61 days. According to our research this is the second case reported in literature of a spontaneous acute necrotizing pancreatitis caused by C. perfringens, with pneumoretroperitoneum and pneumoperitoneum

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2017 Journal of surgical case reports

84. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of cyadox against Clostridium perfringens in swine (PubMed)

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of cyadox against Clostridium perfringens in swine The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of cyadox against Clostridium perfringens in swine and optimize the dosage regimen using ex vivo pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling. After oral administration, the ileum fluid of pigs containing the free cyadox was collected by implanted ultrafiltration probes. The Tmax, AUC24h, and CL/F of free cyadox in the ileum fluid were 1.96 h (...) to achieve the bacteriostatic, bactericidal, and virtual bacterial elimination effects were 26.72, 39.54, and 50.69 h, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations for the 90% target attainment rate (TAR) predicted daily doses of 29.30, 42.56, and 54.50 mg/kg over 24 h to achieve bacteriostatic, bactericidal, and elimination actions, respectively. The results of this study suggest that cyadox is a promising antibacterial agent for the treatment of C. perfringens infections, and can be used to inform its

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2017 Scientific reports

85. Complete genome sequences of Clostridium perfringens Del1 strain isolated from chickens affected by necrotic enteritis (PubMed)

Complete genome sequences of Clostridium perfringens Del1 strain isolated from chickens affected by necrotic enteritis Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in nature. It is a normal inhabitant in the intestinal tract of animals and humans. As the primary etiological agent of gas gangrene, necrosis and bacteremia, C. perfringens causes food poisoning, necrotic enteritis (NE), and even death. Epidemiology research has indicated that the increasing incidence of NE in poultry is associated (...) with the withdrawal of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production in response to government regulations. The recent omics studies have indicated that bacterial virulence is typically linked to highly efficient conjugative transfer of toxins, or plasmids carrying antibiotic-resistance traits. Currently, there is limited information on understanding of host-pathogen interaction in NE caused by virulent strains of C. perfringens. Elucidating such pathogenesis has practical impacts on fighting

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2017 Gut pathogens

86. Two Lactobacillus Species Inhibit the Growth and α-Toxin Production of Clostridium perfringens and Induced Proinflammatory Factors in Chicken Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Vitro (PubMed)

Two Lactobacillus Species Inhibit the Growth and α-Toxin Production of Clostridium perfringens and Induced Proinflammatory Factors in Chicken Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Vitro Clostridium perfringens is the causative pathogen of avian necrotic enteritis. Lactobacillus spp. are well-characterized probiotics with anti-microbial and immune-modulatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L. acidophilus and L. fermentum on the growth, α-toxin production (...) and inflammatory responses of C. perfringens. In in vitro culture experiments, both lactobacilli inhibited the growth of C. perfringens (P < 0.01), accompanied with a decrease in pH (P < 0.01). Supernatants from lactobacilli cultures also suppressed the growth of C. perfringens during 24 h of incubation (P < 0.01), but this inhibitory effect disappeared after 48 h. Both lactobacilli decreased the α-toxin production of C. perfringens (P < 0.01) without influencing its biomass, and even degraded the established

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2017 Frontiers in microbiology

87. Complete Genome Sequence of Clostridium perfringens LLY_N11, a Necrotic Enteritis-Inducing Strain Isolated from a Healthy Chicken Intestine (PubMed)

Complete Genome Sequence of Clostridium perfringens LLY_N11, a Necrotic Enteritis-Inducing Strain Isolated from a Healthy Chicken Intestine Clostridium perfringens strain LLY_N11, a commensal bacterium, which previously induced necrotic enteritis in an experimental study, was isolated from the intestine of a young healthy chicken. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of this strain, which may provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in necrotic enteritis

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2017 Genome Announcements

88. Use of an online survey during an outbreak of clostridium perfringens in a retirement community-Arizona, 2012. (PubMed)

Use of an online survey during an outbreak of clostridium perfringens in a retirement community-Arizona, 2012. An outbreak of gastrointestinal (GI) illness among retirement community residents was reported to the Maricopa County Department of Public Health. Online surveys can be useful for rapid investigation of disease outbreaks, especially when local health departments lack time and resources to perform telephone interviews. Online survey utility among older populations, which may lack (...) the barbecue, 63 (95.5%) reported diarrhea, and 5 (7.6%) reported vomiting. Leftover beef from an attendee's refrigerator grew Clostridium perfringens. Of 552 residents contacted by telephone, 113 completed the telephone survey (mean age, 71.3 years; 63.3% women), 101 (89.4%) reported the ability to send e-mail, 82 (81.2%) checked e-mail daily, and 28 (27.7%) checked e-mail on a handheld device. The attack rate was 17.8% for online versus 2.7% for telephone respondents (P < .001).This outbreak demonstrated

2017 Journal of Public Health Management and Practice

89. Data from a survey of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile shedding by dogs and cats in the Madrid region (Spain), including phenotypic and genetic characteristics of recovered isolates (PubMed)

Data from a survey of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile shedding by dogs and cats in the Madrid region (Spain), including phenotypic and genetic characteristics of recovered isolates This article contains information related to a recent survey of the prevalence of fecal shedding of Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile by dogs and cats attended in veterinary clinics located in the Madrid region (Spain). Specifically, we provide detailed information about the clinics

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2017 Data in brief

90. Microwave ablation of liver metastasis complicated by Clostridium perfringens gas-forming pyogenic liver abscess (GPLA) in a patient with past gastrectomy (PubMed)

Microwave ablation of liver metastasis complicated by Clostridium perfringens gas-forming pyogenic liver abscess (GPLA) in a patient with past gastrectomy Gas-forming pyogenic liver abscess (GPLA) caused by C. perfringens is rare but fatal. Patients with past gastrectomy may be prone to such infection post-ablation.An 84-year-old male patient with past gastrectomy had MW ablation of his liver tumors complicated by GPLA. Computerised tomography scan showed gas-containing abscess in the liver (...) and he was managed successfully with antibiotic and percutaneous drainage of the abscess.C. perfringens GPLA secondary to MW ablation in a patient with previous gastrectomy has not been reported in the literature. Gastrectomy may predispose to such infection. Even in high-risk patients, empirical antibiotic before ablation is not a standard of practice. Therefore following the procedure, close observation of patients' conditions is necessary to allow early diagnosis and intervention that will prevent

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2016 International journal of surgery case reports

91. Comparative transcriptome analysis by RNAseq of necrotic enteritis Clostridium perfringens during in vivo colonization and in vitro conditions (PubMed)

Comparative transcriptome analysis by RNAseq of necrotic enteritis Clostridium perfringens during in vivo colonization and in vitro conditions Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by netB-positive type A Clostridium perfringens is an important bacterial disease of poultry. Through its complex regulatory system, C. perfringens orchestrates the expression of a collection of toxins and extracellular enzymes that are crucial for the development of the disease; environmental conditions play an important (...) role in their regulation. In this study, and for the first time, global transcriptomic analysis was performed on ligated intestinal loops in chickens colonized with a netB-positive C. perfringens strain, as well as the same strain propagated in vitro under various nutritional and environmental conditions.Analysis of the respective pathogen transcriptomes revealed up to 673 genes that were significantly expressed in vivo. Gene expression profiles in vivo were most similar to those of C. perfringens

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2016 BMC microbiology

92. Cloning and expression of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine strain epsilon toxin gene in E. coli as a recombinant vaccine candidate (PubMed)

Cloning and expression of Clostridium perfringens type D vaccine strain epsilon toxin gene in E. coli as a recombinant vaccine candidate Clostridium perfringens, a Gram-positive obligate anaerobic bacterium, is able to form resistant spores which are widely distributed in the environment. C. perfringens is subdivided into five types A to E based on its four major alpha, beta, epsilon and iota toxins. The aim of the present study was cloning and expression of C. perfringens type D vaccine strain (...) epsilon toxin gene.Genomic DNA was extracted and the epsilon toxin gene was amplified using Pfu DNA polymerase. The PCR product was cloned into pJET1.2/blunt cloning vector. The recombinant vector (pJETε) was sequenced using universal primers. At the next step epsilon toxin gene was subcloned into pET22b(+) expression vector and transformed into E. coli Rosetta (DE3) host strain.The recombinant protein has been expressed in E. coli Rosetta (DE3) cells after subcloning of C. perfringens etx gene (1008

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2016 Iranian journal of microbiology

93. A case of acute onset postoperative gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens (PubMed)

A case of acute onset postoperative gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens Gas gangrene is a necrotic infection of soft tissue associated with high mortality rates. We report a case of postoperative gas gangrene with very acute onset and rapid progression of symptoms. To our knowledge, this case is the most acute onset of postoperative gas gangrene ever reported.A 65-year-old Japanese female patient developed a shock state 16 h after radical cystectomy with ileal conduit reconstruction (...) emergency fasciotomy. Subsequently, multidisciplinary treatment, including empirical therapy using multiple antibiotics, mechanical ventilation, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column direct hemoperfusion, and continuous hemodiafiltration, was commenced. Culture of the debris from a wound abscess removed by emergency fasciotomy detected the presence of Clostridium perfringens. We hypothesized that the source of infection in this case may have been the ileum used for bladder

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2016 BMC research notes

94. Diversity of Clostridium perfringens toxin-genotypes from dairy farms (PubMed)

Diversity of Clostridium perfringens toxin-genotypes from dairy farms Clostridium (C.) perfringens is the causative agent of several diseases in animals and humans, including histotoxic and enteric infections. To gain more insight into the occurrence of its different toxin-genotypes in dairy herds, including those toxin genes previously associated with diseases in cattle or humans, 662 isolates cultivated from feces, rumen content and feed collected from 139 dairy farms were characterized

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2016 BMC microbiology

95. The Generation and Characterization of Recombinant Protein and Antibodies of Clostridium perfringens Beta2 Toxin (PubMed)

The Generation and Characterization of Recombinant Protein and Antibodies of Clostridium perfringens Beta2 Toxin Introduction. Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) beta2 toxin (CPB2) is an important virulent factor of necrotic enteritis in both animals and humans. However, studies of its pathogenic roles and functional mechanisms have been hampered due to the difficulty of purification and lack of specific antibodies against this toxin. Methods. A recombinant His-tagged C. perfringens beta2

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2016 Journal of immunology research

96. Use of Plant Extracts as an Effective Manner to Control Clostridium perfringens Induced Necrotic Enteritis in Poultry (PubMed)

Use of Plant Extracts as an Effective Manner to Control Clostridium perfringens Induced Necrotic Enteritis in Poultry Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important concern in poultry industry since it causes economic losses, increased mortality, reduction of bird welfare, and contamination of chicken products for human consumption. For decades, the use of in-feed antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) has been the main strategy to control intestinal pathogens including Clostridium perfringens (CP

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2016 BioMed research international

97. Transcriptional Profile during Deoxycholate-Induced Sporulation in a Clostridium perfringens Isolate Causing Foodborne Illness (PubMed)

Transcriptional Profile during Deoxycholate-Induced Sporulation in a Clostridium perfringens Isolate Causing Foodborne Illness Clostridium perfringens type A is a common source of foodborne illness (FBI) in humans. Vegetative cells sporulate in the small intestinal tract and produce the major pathogenic factor C. perfringens enterotoxin. Although sporulation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of FBI, the mechanisms inducing sporulation remain unclear. Bile salts were shown previously (...) sporulation, at least partially, by facilitating the phosphorylation of Spo0A and activating Spo0A-regulated genes in strain NCTC8239 while altering the expression of various genes.Disease caused by Clostridium perfringens type A consistently ranks among the most common bacterial foodborne illnesses in humans in developed countries. The sporulation of C. perfringens in the small intestinal tract is a key event for its pathogenesis, but the factors and underlying mechanisms by which C. perfringens

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2016 Applied and environmental microbiology

98. The C-terminal domain of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin as a vaccine candidate against bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis (PubMed)

The C-terminal domain of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin as a vaccine candidate against bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis Bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis is caused by Clostridium perfringens and leads to sudden death. Alpha toxin, together with perfringolysin O, has been identified as the principal toxin involved in the pathogenesis. We assessed the potential of alpha toxin as a vaccine antigen. Using an intestinal loop model in calves, we investigated the protection afforded by antisera (...) raised against native alpha toxin or its non-toxic C-terminal fragment against C. perfringens-induced intestinal necrosis. Immunization of calves with either of the vaccine preparations induced a strong antibody response. The resulting antisera were able to neutralize the alpha toxin activity and the C. perfringens-induced endothelial cytotoxicity in vitro. The antisera raised against the native toxin had a stronger neutralizing activity than those against the C-terminal fragment. However, antibodies

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2016 Veterinary Research

99. Clostridium perfringens: a rare cause of spondylodiscitis case report and review of the literature. (PubMed)

Clostridium perfringens: a rare cause of spondylodiscitis case report and review of the literature. Presented is a case of a 64-year old male with a unique and yet unreported case of a spondylodiscitis caused by Clostridium perfringens. Becoming symptomatic with massive neurological deficits. Computed tomography (CT) revealed typical signs of spondylodiscitis involving the vertebral body L5 with extensive vacuum phenomenon.

2016 British Journal of Neurosurgery

100. Severe Sepsis due to Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia of Urinary Origin: A Case Report and Systematic Review. (PubMed)

Severe Sepsis due to Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia of Urinary Origin: A Case Report and Systematic Review. Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is an uncommon yet serious clinical syndrome that typically arises from a gastrointestinal source. However, clinicians should consider nongastrointestinal sources as well. We present a rare case of C. perfringens bacteremia of urinary origin that required surgical intervention for definitive treatment. A 61-year-old male presented with acute nausea (...) and vomiting, altered mental status, and chronic diarrhea. His physical exam revealed right costovertebral tenderness and his laboratory work-up revealed acute renal failure. Percutaneous blood cultures grew C. perfringens. Cross-sectional imaging revealed a right-sided ureteral stone with hydronephrosis, which required nephrostomy placement. On placement of the nephrostomy tube, purulent drainage was identified and Gram stain of the drainage revealed Gram-variable rods. A urinary source of C. perfringens

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2016 Case reports in infectious diseases

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