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Clostridium perfringens

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81. Genome analysis of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy and necrotic enteritis infected chickens and turkeys Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genome analysis of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy and necrotic enteritis infected chickens and turkeys Clostridium perfringens causes gastrointestinal diseases in both humans and domestic animals. Type A strains expressing the NetB toxin are the main cause of necrotic enteritis (NE) in chickens, which has remarkable impact on animal welfare and production economy in the international poultry industry. Three pathogenicity loci NELoc-1, -2 and -3 and a collagen adhesion gene cnaA (...) have been found to be associated with NE in chickens, whereas the presence of these has not been investigated in diseased turkeys. The purpose was to investigate the virulence associated genome content and the genetic relationship among 30 C. perfringens isolates from both healthy and NE infected chickens and turkeys, applying whole-genome sequencing.NELoc-1, -3, netB and cnaA were significantly associated with NE isolates from chickens, whereas only NELoc-2 was commonly observed in both diseased

2017 BMC research notes

82. Clostridium perfringens α-toxin impairs erythropoiesis by inhibition of erythroid differentiation Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clostridium perfringens α-toxin impairs erythropoiesis by inhibition of erythroid differentiation Clostridium perfringens α-toxin induces hemolysis of erythrocytes from various species, but it has not been elucidated whether the toxin affects erythropoiesis. In this study, we treated bone marrow cells (BMCs) from mice with purified α-toxin and found that TER119+ erythroblasts were greatly decreased by the treatment. A variant α-toxin defective in enzymatic activities, phospholipase C (...) activities of α-toxin, which might be important to understand the pathogenesis of C. perfringens infection.

2017 Scientific reports

83. Cyclic Di-GMP Binding by an Assembly ATPase (PilB2) and Control of Type IV Pilin Polymerization in the Gram-Positive Pathogen Clostridium perfringens Full Text available with Trip Pro

Cyclic Di-GMP Binding by an Assembly ATPase (PilB2) and Control of Type IV Pilin Polymerization in the Gram-Positive Pathogen Clostridium perfringens The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens possesses type IV pili (TFP), which are extracellular fibers that are polymerized from a pool of pilin monomers in the cytoplasmic membrane. Two proteins that are essential for pilus functions are an assembly ATPase (PilB) and an inner membrane core protein (PilC). Two homologues each of PilB (...) evidence of the presence of TFP. The genetically tractable species Clostridium perfringens was used to study proteins involved in polymerizing the pilin, PilA2, into a pilus. The assembly ATPase PilB2 and its cognate membrane protein partner, PilC2, were purified. PilB2 bound the intracellular signal molecule c-di-GMP. Increased levels of intracellular c-di-GMP led to increased polymerization of PilA2, indicating that Gram-positive bacteria use this molecule to regulate pilus synthesis. These findings

2017 Journal of bacteriology

84. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of cyadox against Clostridium perfringens in swine Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of cyadox against Clostridium perfringens in swine The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of cyadox against Clostridium perfringens in swine and optimize the dosage regimen using ex vivo pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling. After oral administration, the ileum fluid of pigs containing the free cyadox was collected by implanted ultrafiltration probes. The Tmax, AUC24h, and CL/F of free cyadox in the ileum fluid were 1.96 h (...) to achieve the bacteriostatic, bactericidal, and virtual bacterial elimination effects were 26.72, 39.54, and 50.69 h, respectively. Monte Carlo simulations for the 90% target attainment rate (TAR) predicted daily doses of 29.30, 42.56, and 54.50 mg/kg over 24 h to achieve bacteriostatic, bactericidal, and elimination actions, respectively. The results of this study suggest that cyadox is a promising antibacterial agent for the treatment of C. perfringens infections, and can be used to inform its

2017 Scientific reports

85. Toxinotyping and Antimicrobial Resistance of Clostridium Perfringens Isolated from Processed Chicken Meat Products Full Text available with Trip Pro

Toxinotyping and Antimicrobial Resistance of Clostridium Perfringens Isolated from Processed Chicken Meat Products The toxinotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from processed chicken meat were determined.Two hundred processed chicken meat samples from luncheon meats, nuggets, burgers, and sausages were screened for Clostridium perfringens by multiplex PCR assay for the presence of alpha (cpa), beta (cpb), epsilon (etx), iota (ia), and enterotoxin (...) toxin (cpe) genes. The C. perfringens isolates were examined in vitro against eight antibiotics (streptomycin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, lincomycin, cefotaxime, rifampicin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole).An overall of 32 C. perfringens strains (16%) were isolated from 200 processed chicken meat samples tested. The prevalence of C. perfringens was significantly dependent on the type of toxin genes detected (P = 0.0), being the highest in sausages (32%), followed by luncheon meats

2017 Journal of Veterinary Research

86. Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin by β-cyclodextrin derivatives Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin by β-cyclodextrin derivatives Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX) is considered as one of the most dangerous potential biological weapons. The goal of this work was to identify inhibitors of ETX using a novel approach for the inactivation of pore-forming toxins. The approach is based on the blocking of the target pore with molecules having the same symmetry as the pore itself. About 200 various β-cyclodextrin derivatives were screened

2017 International journal of pharmaceutics

87. Clostridium perfringens sepsis complicated by right ventricular cardiogenic shock Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clostridium perfringens sepsis complicated by right ventricular cardiogenic shock Clostridium perfringens sepsis has been ascribed a dismal prognosis when associated with massive intravascular haemolysis. We present a 71-year-old woman's fatal case which was compounded by isolated right ventricular cardiogenic shock. In this context, combined use of transthoracic echocardiography and pulmonary artery catheter monitoring is able to yield an individualized hemodynamic resuscitation. We discuss

2016 Journal of the Intensive Care Society

88. Influence of pCP1NetB ancillary genes on the virulence of Clostridium perfringens poultry necrotic enteritis strain CP1 Full Text available with Trip Pro

Influence of pCP1NetB ancillary genes on the virulence of Clostridium perfringens poultry necrotic enteritis strain CP1 Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an economically important disease of poultry caused by certain Clostridium perfringens type A strains. The NetB toxin plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of NE. We previously demonstrated that netB is located within a 42 kb plasmid-encoded pathogenicity locus (NELoc-1), which also encodes 36 additional genes. Although NetB clearly plays a role (...) in pathogenesis, the involvement of the other NELoc-1 genes has not yet been established. The current study was to provide experimental evidence to confirm the involvement of these genes in NE pathogenesis.The present study has characterized a virulent C. perfringens strain (CP1) that has spontaneously lost the NELoc-1-encoding plasmid, pCP1netB. When assessed for cytotoxicity on Leghorn Male Hepatoma (LMH) cells, the culture supernatant of the pCP1netB-deficient CP1 variant (CP1ΔpCP1netB) demonstrated

2017 Gut pathogens

89. F199E substitution reduced toxicity of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin by depriving the receptor binding capability Full Text available with Trip Pro

F199E substitution reduced toxicity of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin by depriving the receptor binding capability Epsilon toxin (ETX), a potent toxin, is produced by types B and D strains of Clostridium perfringens, which could cause severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Mutant rETXF199E was previously demonstrated to be a good vaccine candidate. However, the mechanism concerned remains unknown. To clarify how F199E substitution reduced ETX toxicity, we performed a series

2017 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics

90. Clostridium perfringens's necrotizing acute pancreatitis: a case of success Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clostridium perfringens's necrotizing acute pancreatitis: a case of success The authors report a case of a 62-year-old man with upper abdominal pain with few hours of onset and vomits. The initial serum amylase was 2306 U/L. The first CT showed signs of a non-complicated acute pancreatitis. He suffered clinical deterioration and for this reason he was admitted on the intensive care unit where he progressed to multiple organ failure in <24 h. A new CT scan was performed that showed (...) pneumoperitoneum and pneumoretroperitoneum. He underwent an exploratory laparotomy and pancreatic necrosectomy and vacuum pack laparostomy were performed. Intraoperative peritoneal fluid culture was positive for Clostridium perfringens confirming the diagnosis. He was discharged from hospital after 61 days. According to our research this is the second case reported in literature of a spontaneous acute necrotizing pancreatitis caused by C. perfringens, with pneumoretroperitoneum and pneumoperitoneum

2017 Journal of surgical case reports

91. Complete genome sequences of Clostridium perfringens Del1 strain isolated from chickens affected by necrotic enteritis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Complete genome sequences of Clostridium perfringens Del1 strain isolated from chickens affected by necrotic enteritis Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in nature. It is a normal inhabitant in the intestinal tract of animals and humans. As the primary etiological agent of gas gangrene, necrosis and bacteremia, C. perfringens causes food poisoning, necrotic enteritis (NE), and even death. Epidemiology research has indicated that the increasing incidence of NE in poultry is associated (...) with the withdrawal of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production in response to government regulations. The recent omics studies have indicated that bacterial virulence is typically linked to highly efficient conjugative transfer of toxins, or plasmids carrying antibiotic-resistance traits. Currently, there is limited information on understanding of host-pathogen interaction in NE caused by virulent strains of C. perfringens. Elucidating such pathogenesis has practical impacts on fighting

2017 Gut pathogens

92. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes city, Morocco Full Text available with Trip Pro

Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes city, Morocco In Morocco, the consumption of meat products has experienced a sharp increase in recent years despite the presence of pathogenic bacteria due to hygiene failure. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes city (Morocco) and to study the different factors affecting it contamination with this bacterium. To this end, 156 samples of sausages were taken (...) in various shopping sites during one year from March 2014 to February 2015. The microbiological analysis was carried out using the specific medium for isolation and identification of C. perfringens. ANOVA test was used for Statistical analysis (p< 0.05). The results of this study showed the presence of C. perfringens in 77.56% (121 of 156) samples, with 88.88% (32 of 36) in street vendors, 79.16% (19 of 24) in a weekly market, 70.83% (51 of 72) in butchery and 62.5% (15 of 24) in a supermarket

2017 Open veterinary journal

93. Evaluation of plant-produced Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxoid in a vaccine against enterotoxaemia in sheep Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evaluation of plant-produced Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxoid in a vaccine against enterotoxaemia in sheep Enterotoxaemia (pulpy kidney) is a common bacterial disease of sheep caused by Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin. It has mortality rates of up to 30% in non-vaccinated animals. Current vaccines from whole cell cultures are expensive to manufacture and can induce local inflammatory responses in sheep. They usually have reduced immunogenicity because of the difficulty

2017 The Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research

94. Severe hemolysis after plasma transfusion in a neonate with necrotizing enterocolitis, Clostridium perfringens infection, and red blood cell T-polyagglutination. (Abstract)

Severe hemolysis after plasma transfusion in a neonate with necrotizing enterocolitis, Clostridium perfringens infection, and red blood cell T-polyagglutination. Red blood cell (RBC) Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen exposure (T activation) in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) has occasionally been associated with posttransfusional intravascular hemolysis thought to be due to anti-T antibodies in the donor plasma.We describe an infant with NEC and Clostridium perfringens infection

2017 Transfusion

95. Clostridium perfringens

Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Clostridium perfringens Clostridium (...) perfringens Aka: Clostridium perfringens , Gas Gangrene , Anaerobic Cellulitis , Clostridial Myonecrosis From Related Chapters II. Etiology: Clostridium Species Clostridium perfringens ( welchii) novyi septicum sordellii histolyticum III. Pathophysiology Tissue infection with gas-producing IV. Symptoms and Signs progression History of deep contaminated wound (Surgery, ) Onset Sudden pain at wound site Local swelling and edema of wound site Thin hemorrhagic exudate Toxemia Foul discharge from wound

2018 FP Notebook

96. EGA Protects Mammalian Cells from Clostridium difficile CDT, Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin Full Text available with Trip Pro

EGA Protects Mammalian Cells from Clostridium difficile CDT, Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin The pathogenic bacteria Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum produce the binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins CDT, iota and C2, respectively. These toxins are composed of a transport component (B) and a separate enzyme component (A). When both components assemble on the surface of mammalian target cells, the B components mediate (...) the intoxication of cells with Clostridium difficile toxins A and B, indicating a possible different entry route for this toxin. EGA does not affect either the binding of the C2 toxin to the cells surface or the enzyme activity of the A components of CDT, iota and C2, suggesting that this compound interferes with cellular uptake of the toxins. Moreover, for C2 toxin, we demonstrated that EGA inhibits the pH-dependent transport of the A component across cell membranes. EGA is not cytotoxic, and therefore, we

2016 Toxins

98. In Vitro Selective Growth-Inhibitory Effect of 8-Hydroxyquinoline on Clostridium perfringens versus Bifidobacteria in a Medium Containing Chicken Ileal Digesta. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In Vitro Selective Growth-Inhibitory Effect of 8-Hydroxyquinoline on Clostridium perfringens versus Bifidobacteria in a Medium Containing Chicken Ileal Digesta. Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis is generally controlled by antibiotics. However, because of increasing antibiotic resistance, other antibacterial agents are required, preferably ones that do not affect the beneficial intestinal microbiota of the host. This study evaluated the in vitro selective growth-inhibitory (...) effect of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) on C. perfringens vs. bifidobacteria in a medium containing chicken ileal digesta. Prior to the experiments, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of 8HQ and penicillin G were determined by broth microdilution assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of 8HQ for C. perfringens were 16-32 times lower than the values for bifidobacteria. Treatment of autoclaved and non-autoclaved chicken ileal digesta with 8HQ showed a selective anticlostridial effect. After

2016 PLoS ONE

99. A Thermophilic Phage Endolysin Fusion to a Clostridium perfringens-Specific Cell Wall Binding Domain Creates an Anti-Clostridium Antimicrobial with Improved Thermostability Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Thermophilic Phage Endolysin Fusion to a Clostridium perfringens-Specific Cell Wall Binding Domain Creates an Anti-Clostridium Antimicrobial with Improved Thermostability Clostridium perfringens is the third leading cause of human foodborne bacterial disease and is the presumptive etiologic agent of necrotic enteritis among chickens. Treatment of poultry with antibiotics is becoming less acceptable. Endolysin enzymes are potential replacements for antibiotics. Many enzymes are added to animal (...) feed during production and are subjected to high-heat stress during feed processing. To produce a thermostabile endolysin for treating poultry, an E. coli codon-optimized gene was synthesized that fused the N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase domain from the endolysin of the thermophilic bacteriophage ɸGVE2 to the cell-wall binding domain (CWB) from the endolysin of the C. perfringens-specific bacteriophage ɸCP26F. The resulting protein, PlyGVE2CpCWB, lysed C. perfringens in liquid and solid

2015 Viruses

100. Effect of a Probiotic on Prevention of Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens Shedding in Foals. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of a Probiotic on Prevention of Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens Shedding in Foals. Up to 60% of foals develop diarrhea within 6 months after birth. Preventive measures are limited but potentially probiotics could be used.To evaluate the effect of a newly designed probiotic on the incidence of foal diarrhea in a randomized field trial.Seventy-two healthy neonatal foals.Randomized, placebo-controlled field trial. Foals were administered a placebo or probiotic (...) for 3 weeks and monitored for an additional week. A total of 3 fecal samples were taken from each foal at biweekly intervals. Statistical modeling was applied for comparison of incidence and duration of diarrhea and fecal shedding of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile between treatment and age groups.The overall incidence of diarrhea was 41 of 72 (59%) and did not differ (P = 0.37) between treatment groups. Foals treated with probiotics were more likely to develop diarrhea requiring

2015 Journal of veterinary internal medicine / American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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