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Clostridium perfringens

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61. Effect of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin on gastric cancer cells SGC7901 which highly expressed claudin-4 protein (PubMed)

Effect of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin on gastric cancer cells SGC7901 which highly expressed claudin-4 protein To investigate the effects of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) on gastric cancer cells which highly expressed claudin-4 (CL4) protein.In this study, we detected expression of CL4 protein in different gastric cancer cell lines. Then, we investigated the effects of CPE on SGC7901 cells which highly expressed CL4 protein and the effects of CPE on subcutaneous tumor

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2017 World journal of gastrointestinal oncology

62. Cyclic Di-GMP Binding by an Assembly ATPase (PilB2) and Control of Type IV Pilin Polymerization in the Gram-Positive Pathogen Clostridium perfringens (PubMed)

Cyclic Di-GMP Binding by an Assembly ATPase (PilB2) and Control of Type IV Pilin Polymerization in the Gram-Positive Pathogen Clostridium perfringens The Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens possesses type IV pili (TFP), which are extracellular fibers that are polymerized from a pool of pilin monomers in the cytoplasmic membrane. Two proteins that are essential for pilus functions are an assembly ATPase (PilB) and an inner membrane core protein (PilC). Two homologues each of PilB (...) evidence of the presence of TFP. The genetically tractable species Clostridium perfringens was used to study proteins involved in polymerizing the pilin, PilA2, into a pilus. The assembly ATPase PilB2 and its cognate membrane protein partner, PilC2, were purified. PilB2 bound the intracellular signal molecule c-di-GMP. Increased levels of intracellular c-di-GMP led to increased polymerization of PilA2, indicating that Gram-positive bacteria use this molecule to regulate pilus synthesis. These findings

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2017 Journal of bacteriology

63. Prevalence and toxin type of Clostridium perfringens in beef from four different types of meat markets in Seoul, Korea (PubMed)

Prevalence and toxin type of Clostridium perfringens in beef from four different types of meat markets in Seoul, Korea Beef is the primary source of foodborne poisoning caused by Clostridium perfringens. We investigated the prevalence of C. perfringens in retail beef from four different types of meat markets in Seoul using a standard culture method and real-time PCR assay. From June to September 2015, 82 beef samples were collected from 6 department stores (n=12), 14 butcher shops (n=28), 16 (...) traditional markets (n=32), and 5 supermarkets (n=10). The culture method and real-time PCR assay revealed that 4 (4.88%) and 10 (12.20%) samples were positive for C. perfringens, respectively. The beef purchased from the department store showed the highest prevalence (16.67%), followed by the traditional market (3.12%), butcher shop (3.57%), and supermarket (0%) (p>0.05). All isolates were type A and negative for the enterotoxin gene. In conclusion, the real-time PCR assay used in this study could

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2017 Food science and biotechnology

64. The Agr-Like Quorum Sensing System Is Required for Pathogenesis of Necrotic Enteritis Caused by Clostridium perfringens in Poultry (PubMed)

The Agr-Like Quorum Sensing System Is Required for Pathogenesis of Necrotic Enteritis Caused by Clostridium perfringens in Poultry Clostridium perfringens encodes at least two different quorum sensing (QS) systems, the Agr-like and LuxS, and recent studies have highlighted their importance in the regulation of toxin production and virulence. The role of QS in the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis (NE) in poultry and the regulation of NetB, the key toxin involved, has not yet been investigated

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2017 Infection and immunity

65. Claudin 4-targeted nanographene phototherapy using a Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin peptide-photosensitizer conjugate (PubMed)

Claudin 4-targeted nanographene phototherapy using a Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin peptide-photosensitizer conjugate In this study we designed a claudin 4-directed dual photodynamic and photothermal system, in which a 30-amino acid claudin 4-binding peptide, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), was linked to a photodynamic agent chlorin e6 (Ce6) through a polyethylene glycol spacer (CPC) and anchored onto reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets to form CPC/rGO nanosheets

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2017 Acta pharmacologica Sinica

66. Complete genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens CBA7123 isolated from a faecal sample from Korea (PubMed)

Complete genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens CBA7123 isolated from a faecal sample from Korea Clostridium perfringens is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis, mild diarrhea, clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene, sepsis, etc. In this study, we aim to determine the pathogenesis of this bacterium at the genomic level. The genome of strain CBA7123 was sequenced, and a comparative genomic analysis between strain CBA7123 and four other related C. perfringens (...) strains was performed.The genome of strain CBA7123 consisted of one circular chromosome and one plasmid that were 3,088,370 and 46,640 bp long with 28.5 and 27.1 mol% G+C content, respectively. The genomic DNA was predicted to contain 2798 open reading frames (ORFs), 10 rRNA genes, and 94 tRNA genes. The genomic comparison analysis between the five strains revealed the distinctive virulence properties of strain CBA7123 by highlighting certain strain-specific genes.In this study, the C. perfringens

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2017 Gut pathogens

67. There may be more than meets the eye with Clostridium perfringens bacteremia (PubMed)

There may be more than meets the eye with Clostridium perfringens bacteremia We present the case of an 89-year-old man with a 1 month history of fevers and fatigue. Blood cultures were positive for Clostridium perfringens. The patient had worsening abdominal distension in which an abdominal computed tomography scan uncovered a colonic mass, and further work-up revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient was treated with antibiotics, but unfortunately, given his age and the new

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2017 Journal of community hospital internal medicine perspectives

68. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens contamination in poultry feed ingredients: Isolation, identification and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern (PubMed)

Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens contamination in poultry feed ingredients: Isolation, identification and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern This work has been undertaken to study the occurrence of Clostridium perfringens contamination in the poultry feed ingredients and find out its in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity pattern to various antimicrobial drugs. Two hundred and ninety-eight poultry feed ingredient samples received at Poultry Disease Diagnosis and Surveillance Laboratory, Namakkal (...) , Tamil Nadu in South India were screened for the presence of C. perfringens. The organisms were isolated in Perfringens agar under anaerobic condition and subjected to standard biochemical tests for confirmation. In vitro antibiogram assay has been carried out to determine the sensitivity pattern of the isolates to various antimicrobial drugs. One hundred and one isolates of C. perfringens were obtained from a total of 298 poultry feed ingredient samples. Overall positivity of 33.89% could be made

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2017 Animal Nutrition

69. Recurring Necrotic Enteritis Outbreaks in Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks Strongly Influence Toxin Gene Carriage and Species Richness in the Resident Clostridium perfringens Population (PubMed)

Recurring Necrotic Enteritis Outbreaks in Commercial Broiler Chicken Flocks Strongly Influence Toxin Gene Carriage and Species Richness in the Resident Clostridium perfringens Population Extensive use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in food animals has been questioned due to the globally increasing problem of antibiotic resistance. For the poultry industry, digestive health management following AGP withdrawal in Europe has been a challenge, especially the control of necrotic enteritis (...) . Much research work has focused on gut health in commercial broiler chicken husbandry. Understanding the behavior of Clostridium perfringens in its ecological niche, the poultry barn, is key to a sustainable and cost-effective production in the absence of AGPs. Using polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we evaluated how the C. perfringens population evolved in drug-free commercial broiler chicken farms, either healthy or affected with recurring clinical necrotic enteritis

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2017 Frontiers in microbiology

70. Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin by β-cyclodextrin derivatives (PubMed)

Inhibition of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin by β-cyclodextrin derivatives Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX) is considered as one of the most dangerous potential biological weapons. The goal of this work was to identify inhibitors of ETX using a novel approach for the inactivation of pore-forming toxins. The approach is based on the blocking of the target pore with molecules having the same symmetry as the pore itself. About 200 various β-cyclodextrin derivatives were screened

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2017 International journal of pharmaceutics

71. Acute Effect of Pore-Forming Clostridium perfringens ε-Toxin on Compound Action Potentials of Optic Nerve of Mouse (PubMed)

Acute Effect of Pore-Forming Clostridium perfringens ε-Toxin on Compound Action Potentials of Optic Nerve of Mouse ε-Toxin is a pore forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D. It is synthesized as a less active prototoxin form that becomes fully active upon proteolytic activation. The toxin produces highly lethal enterotoxaemia in ruminants, has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and specifically binds to myelinated fibers. We discovered that the toxin

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2017 eNeuro

72. NanR Regulates nanI Sialidase Expression by Clostridium perfringens F4969, a Human Enteropathogenic Strain (PubMed)

NanR Regulates nanI Sialidase Expression by Clostridium perfringens F4969, a Human Enteropathogenic Strain Clostridium perfringens can produce up to three different sialidases, including NanI, its major exosialidase. The current study first showed that human intestinal strains of C. perfringens can grow by utilizing either glucose or sialic acids, such as N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), which are the end products of sialidase activity. For the human enteropathogenic strain F4969 (...) transcription levels. Furthermore, high glucose levels repressed F4969 culture sialidase activity and nanI expression even in the presence of low Neu5AC concentrations. To begin to evaluate the mechanistic basis for nanI expression, a nanR null mutant was used to demonstrate that NanR, a member of the RpiR family of regulatory proteins, decreases exosialidase activity and nanI transcription in the absence of sialic acid. The ability of C. perfringens to regulate its exosialidase activity, largely

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2017 Infection and immunity

73. Oral Multiple Sclerosis Drugs Inhibit the In vitro Growth of Epsilon Toxin Producing Gut Bacterium, Clostridium perfringens (PubMed)

Oral Multiple Sclerosis Drugs Inhibit the In vitro Growth of Epsilon Toxin Producing Gut Bacterium, Clostridium perfringens There are currently three oral medications approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Two of these medications, Fingolimod, and Teriflunomide, are considered to be anti-inflammatory agents, while dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is thought to trigger a robust antioxidant response, protecting vulnerable cells during an MS attack. We previously proposed that epsilon toxin (...) from the gut bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, may initiate newly forming MS lesions due to its tropism for blood-brain barrier (BBB) vasculature and central nervous system myelin. Because gut microbiota will be exposed to these oral therapies prior to systemic absorption, we sought to determine if these compounds affect C. perfringens growth in vitro. Here we show that Fingolimod, Teriflunomide, and DMF indeed inhibit C. perfringens growth. Furthermore, several compounds similar to DMF

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2017 Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

74. Influence of pCP1NetB ancillary genes on the virulence of Clostridium perfringens poultry necrotic enteritis strain CP1 (PubMed)

Influence of pCP1NetB ancillary genes on the virulence of Clostridium perfringens poultry necrotic enteritis strain CP1 Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an economically important disease of poultry caused by certain Clostridium perfringens type A strains. The NetB toxin plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of NE. We previously demonstrated that netB is located within a 42 kb plasmid-encoded pathogenicity locus (NELoc-1), which also encodes 36 additional genes. Although NetB clearly plays a role (...) in pathogenesis, the involvement of the other NELoc-1 genes has not yet been established. The current study was to provide experimental evidence to confirm the involvement of these genes in NE pathogenesis.The present study has characterized a virulent C. perfringens strain (CP1) that has spontaneously lost the NELoc-1-encoding plasmid, pCP1netB. When assessed for cytotoxicity on Leghorn Male Hepatoma (LMH) cells, the culture supernatant of the pCP1netB-deficient CP1 variant (CP1ΔpCP1netB) demonstrated

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2017 Gut pathogens

75. Notes from the Field: Clostridium perfringens Outbreak at a Catered Lunch — Connecticut, September 2016 (PubMed)

Notes from the Field: Clostridium perfringens Outbreak at a Catered Lunch — Connecticut, September 2016 28880855 2018 12 11 2018 12 11 1545-861X 66 35 2017 Sep 08 MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. Notes from the Field: Clostridium perfringens Outbreak at a Catered Lunch - Connecticut, September 2016. 940-941 10.15585/mmwr.mm6635a3 Leung Vivian H VH Phan Quyen Q Costa Cynthia E CE Nishimura Christina C Pung Kelly K Horn Liz L Sosa Lynn L eng Journal (...) Article 2017 09 08 United States MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 7802429 0149-2195 IM Clostridium Infections epidemiology Clostridium perfringens isolation & purification Connecticut epidemiology Disease Outbreaks Feces microbiology Food Microbiology Food Services Foodborne Diseases epidemiology microbiology Humans Lunch Meat microbiology 2017 9 8 6 0 2017 9 8 6 0 2018 12 12 6 0 epublish 28880855 10.15585/mmwr.mm6635a3 PMC5689043 Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Mar;69(3):1642-6 12620854 Anaerobe. 2008 Apr;14(2

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2017 MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report

76. Uterine Clostridium perfringens infection related to gynecologic malignancy (PubMed)

Uterine Clostridium perfringens infection related to gynecologic malignancy Uterine gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens is a serious, often life-threatening infection that is rarely encountered in the practice of gynecologic oncology. However, the hypoxic nature of gynecologic cancers due to necrosis and/or prior radiation therapy creates a microenvironment optimal for proliferation of anaerobic bacteria such as the Clostridium species. Early recognition and aggressive treatment (...) with IV antibiotics and surgical debridement remain the cornerstones of management in order to decrease morbidity and mortality. Here we present the case of a 52 year-old woman with a remote history of cervical cancer who was previously treated at our institution with primary chemotherapy and radiation and was then admitted decades later with Clostridium perfringens bacteremia and CT evidence of intrauterine abscess. The patient received a prolonged course of IV antibiotic therapy and subsequently

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2017 Gynecologic Oncology Reports

77. Fulminant Hepatic Failure and Fatal Cerebral Edema Following Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia: Case Report and Review of Literature (PubMed)

Fulminant Hepatic Failure and Fatal Cerebral Edema Following Clostridium perfringens Bacteremia: Case Report and Review of Literature Clostridium perfringens (CP) bacteremia is a rare but rapidly fatal infection. Only 36 cases of CP bacteremia with gas containing liver abscesses on image studies have been reported in the literature since 1990. In this report, we describe a 65-year-old diabetic male with CP bacteremia which progressed into fulminant hepatic failure with subsequent fatal cerebral

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2017 Cureus

78. Effect of Clostridium perfringens β-Toxin on Platelets (PubMed)

Effect of Clostridium perfringens β-Toxin on Platelets Clostridium perfringensβ-toxin (CPB) is the major virulence factor of C.perfringens type C causing a hemorrhagic enteritis in animals and humans. In experimentally infected pigs, endothelial binding of CPB was shown to be associated with early vascular lesions and hemorrhage but without obvious thrombosis of affected vessels, suggesting altered hemostasis in the early phase of the disease. The objective of the present study (...) cells of CPB and extend the current hypothesis of its role in the pathogenesis of C. perfringens type C enteritis.

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2017 Toxins

79. Adhesion and invasion of Clostridium perfringens type A into epithelial cells (PubMed)

Adhesion and invasion of Clostridium perfringens type A into epithelial cells Clostridium perfringens is the causative agent for necrotic enteritis. It secretes the major virulence factors, and α- and NetB-toxins that are responsible for intestinal lesions. The TpeL toxin affects cell morphology by producing myonecrosis, but its role in the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis is unclear. In this study, the presence of netB and tpeL genes in C. perfringens type A strains isolated from chickens (...) with necrotic enteritis, their cytotoxic effects and role in adhesion and invasion of epithelial cells were evaluated. Six (27.3%) of the 22 C. perfringens type A strains were harboring the tpeL gene and produced morphological alterations in Vero cells after 6h of incubation. Strains tpeL (-) induced strong cell rounding after 6h of incubation and produced cell enlargement. None of the 22 strains harbored netB gene. All the six tpeL (+) gene strains were able to adhere to HEp-2 cells; however, only four

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2017 Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

80. Genome analysis of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy and necrotic enteritis infected chickens and turkeys (PubMed)

Genome analysis of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy and necrotic enteritis infected chickens and turkeys Clostridium perfringens causes gastrointestinal diseases in both humans and domestic animals. Type A strains expressing the NetB toxin are the main cause of necrotic enteritis (NE) in chickens, which has remarkable impact on animal welfare and production economy in the international poultry industry. Three pathogenicity loci NELoc-1, -2 and -3 and a collagen adhesion gene cnaA (...) have been found to be associated with NE in chickens, whereas the presence of these has not been investigated in diseased turkeys. The purpose was to investigate the virulence associated genome content and the genetic relationship among 30 C. perfringens isolates from both healthy and NE infected chickens and turkeys, applying whole-genome sequencing.NELoc-1, -3, netB and cnaA were significantly associated with NE isolates from chickens, whereas only NELoc-2 was commonly observed in both diseased

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2017 BMC research notes

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