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Clostridium perfringens

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41. Clostridium perfringens Septicemia and a Bleeding Ulcer of a Jejunal Interposition: A Case Report and Short Review of the Literature Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clostridium perfringens Septicemia and a Bleeding Ulcer of a Jejunal Interposition: A Case Report and Short Review of the Literature We report a case of Clostridium perfringens septicemia in a patient presenting with a bleeding ulcer of a jejunal interposition.An 81-year-old female patient was acutely admitted to our hospital due to hematemesis and melena. She had a history of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor, for which she was receiving second line treatment with sunitinib. She had (...) also undergone a Merendino procedure 4 years prior to presentation. The patient underwent emergency gastroscopy, which revealed a bleeding ulcer in the jejunal interposition. Despite initial endoscopic control of the bleeding and transfusion of blood products, the hemoglobin level continued to drop, and the patient was treated for an assumed hemolytic transfusion reaction. The patient died 3 days following admission, and the results of blood cultures later confirmed a Clostridium perfringens

2018 Case reports in medicine

42. Effects of Bacillus coagulans supplementation on the growth performance and gut health of broiler chickens with Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Bacillus coagulans supplementation on the growth performance and gut health of broiler chickens with Clostridium perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis The poultry industry is in need of effective antibiotic alternatives to control outbreaks of necrotic enteritis (NE) due to Clostridium perfringens.This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding Bacillus coagulans on the growth performance and gut health of broiler chickens with C. perfringens-induced NE. Two hundred (...) and forty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two dietary B. coagulans levels (0 or 4 × 109 CFU/kg of diet) and two disease challenge statuses (control or NE challenged).NE-induced reduction in body weight gain was relieved by the addition of B. coagulans into broiler diets compared with the NE-infected birds. NE infection damaged intestinal morphological structure, promoted intestinal C. perfringens growth and liver invasion, and enhanced anti-C

2018 Journal of animal science and biotechnology

43. Growth-Promoting and Antioxidant Effects of Magnolia Bark Extract in Chickens Uninfected or Co-Infected with Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria maxima as an Experimental Model of Necrotic Enteritis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Growth-Promoting and Antioxidant Effects of Magnolia Bark Extract in Chickens Uninfected or Co-Infected with Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria maxima as an Experimental Model of Necrotic Enteritis Magnolia tree bark has been widely used in traditional Asian medicine. However, to our knowledge, no studies have been reported investigating the effects of dietary supplementation with magnolia bark extract in chickens.We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation of chickens (...) with a Magnolia officinalis bark extract would increase growth performance in uninfected and Eimeria maxima/Clostridium perfringens co-infected chickens.A total of 168 chickens were fed from hatch either a standard diet or a diet supplemented with 0.33 mg or 0.56 mg M. officinalis bark extract/kg (M/H low or M/H high, respectively) from days 1 to 35. At day 14, half of the chickens were orally infected with E. maxima, followed by C. perfringens infection at day 18 to induce experimental avian necrotic

2018 Current Developments in Nutrition

44. Diverse modes of galacto-specific carbohydrate recognition by a family 31 glycoside hydrolase from Clostridium perfringens. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diverse modes of galacto-specific carbohydrate recognition by a family 31 glycoside hydrolase from Clostridium perfringens. Clostridium perfringens is a commensal member of the human gut microbiome and an opportunistic pathogen whose genome encodes a suite of putative large, multi-modular carbohydrate-active enzymes that appears to play a role in the interaction of the bacterium with mucin-based carbohydrates. Among the most complex of these is an enzyme that contains a presumed catalytic

2017 PLoS ONE

45. Rapid eradication of colon carcinoma by Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin suicidal gene therapy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rapid eradication of colon carcinoma by Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin suicidal gene therapy. Bacterial toxins have evolved to an effective therapeutic option for cancer therapy. The Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is a pore-forming toxin with selective cytotoxicity. The transmembrane tight junction proteins claudin-3 and -4 are known high affinity CPE receptors. Their expression is highly upregulated in human cancers, including breast, ovarian and colon carcinoma. CPE binding

2017 BMC Cancer

46. Conjugation-Mediated Horizontal Gene Transfer of Clostridium perfringens Plasmids in the Chicken Gastrointestinal Tract Results in the Formation of New Virulent Strains Full Text available with Trip Pro

Conjugation-Mediated Horizontal Gene Transfer of Clostridium perfringens Plasmids in the Chicken Gastrointestinal Tract Results in the Formation of New Virulent Strains Clostridium perfringens is a gastrointestinal pathogen capable of causing disease in a variety of hosts. Necrotic enteritis in chickens is caused by C. perfringens strains that produce the pore-forming toxin NetB, the major virulence factor for this disease. Like many other C. perfringens toxins and antibiotic resistance genes (...) selective pressure to be applied. The demonstration of plasmid transfer within the chicken host may have implications for disease progression and pathogenesis of C. perfringens-mediated disease. Such horizontal gene transfer events are likely to be common in the clostridia and may be a key factor in strain evolution, both within animals and in the wider environment.ImportanceClostridium perfringens is a major gastrointestinal pathogen of poultry. C. perfringens strains that express the NetB pore-forming

2017 Applied and environmental microbiology

47. In silico design of a novel chimeric shigella IpaB fused to C terminal of clostridium perfringens enterotoxin as a vaccine candidate Full Text available with Trip Pro

In silico design of a novel chimeric shigella IpaB fused to C terminal of clostridium perfringens enterotoxin as a vaccine candidate This study aimed to design a novel chimeric protein in silico to serve as a serotype-independent vaccine candidate against Shigella. The chimera contains amino acid residues 240-460 of Shigella invasion plasmid antigen B (IpaB) and the C-terminus of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE). Amino acid sequences of 537 peptide linkers were obtained from two

2017 Bioengineered

48. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of enterotoxic Clostridium perfringens type A isolates recovered from humans and animals in Kolkata, India Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of enterotoxic Clostridium perfringens type A isolates recovered from humans and animals in Kolkata, India Clostridium perfringens is one of the most important globally recognised gastroenteric pathogen in humans as well as animals. The present study was aimed to know the similarities/divergence among C. perfringens type A isolates of human and animal origin using the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) as a molecular tool. The enterotoxic isolates obtained (...) by screening of human diarrhoeal cases (n = 130), diarrhoeal cases of pig (n = 52) and goat (n = 50), meat samples viz., pork (n = 59) and chevon (n = 57) were characterized by standard cultural and biochemical methods followed by PCR Assays. Accordingly, a total of 11 C. perfringens type A characterized isolates (16S rRNA+, cpa+, cpb2+ and cpe+) recovered from human diarrhoeal cases (n = 3); diarrhoeal cases of pig (n = 2) and goat (n = 2); meat samples viz. pork (n = 2) and chevon (n = 2) were examined

2017 International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine

49. Native or Proteolytically Activated NanI Sialidase Enhances the Binding and Cytotoxic Activity of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin and Beta Toxin Full Text available with Trip Pro

Native or Proteolytically Activated NanI Sialidase Enhances the Binding and Cytotoxic Activity of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin and Beta Toxin Many Clostridium perfringens strains produce NanI as their major sialidase. Previous studies showed that NanI could potentiate C. perfringens epsilon toxin cytotoxicity by enhancing the binding of this toxin to host cells. The present study first determined that NanI exerts similar cytotoxicity-enhancing effects on C. perfringens enterotoxin (...) and beta toxin, which are also important toxins for C. perfringens diseases (enteritis and enterotoxemia) originating in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Building upon previous work demonstrating that purified trypsin can activate NanI activity, this study next determined that purified chymotrypsin or mouse intestinal fluids can also activate NanI activity. Amino acid sequencing then showed that this effect involves the N-terminal processing of the NanI protein. Recombinant NanI (rNanI) species

2017 Infection and immunity

50. Probing Genomic Aspects of the Multi-Host Pathogen Clostridium perfringens Reveals Significant Pangenome Diversity, and a Diverse Array of Virulence Factors Full Text available with Trip Pro

Probing Genomic Aspects of the Multi-Host Pathogen Clostridium perfringens Reveals Significant Pangenome Diversity, and a Diverse Array of Virulence Factors Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of animal and human infections, however information about the genetic makeup of this pathogenic bacterium is currently limited. In this study, we sought to understand and characterise the genomic variation, pangenomic diversity, and key virulence traits of 56 C. perfringens strains which (...) included 51 public, and 5 newly sequenced and annotated genomes using Whole Genome Sequencing. Our investigation revealed that C. perfringens has an "open" pangenome comprising 11667 genes and 12.6% of core genes, identified as the most divergent single-species Gram-positive bacterial pangenome currently reported. Our computational analyses also defined C. perfringens phylogeny (16S rRNA gene) in relation to some 25 Clostridium species, with C. baratii and C. sardiniense determined to be the closest

2017 Frontiers in microbiology

51. Isolation, molecular characterization and prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in sheep and goats of Kashmir Himalayas, India Full Text available with Trip Pro

Isolation, molecular characterization and prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in sheep and goats of Kashmir Himalayas, India The study was conducted to report the occurrence of the Clostridium perfringens in sheep and goats of the Kashmir valley for the 1st time and to characterize them molecularly with respect to toxin genes to determine the prevalence of the various toxinotypes.A total of 177 samples (152 from sheep and 25 from goats) collected from healthy, diarrheic animals, and morbid (...) material of animals suspected to have died of enterotoxaemia were screened for C. perfringens toxinotypes. The presumptive positive isolates were confirmed using 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the confirmed isolates were screened for six toxin genes, namely; cpa, cpb, etx, cpi, cpb2, and cpe using a multiplex PCR.The PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene revealed that out of 177 samples collected, 125 (70.62%) were found positive for C. perfringens, of which 110 (72.36%) were

2017 Veterinary world

52. In colon epithelia, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin causes focal leaks by targeting claudins which are apically accessible due to tight junction derangement. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In colon epithelia, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin causes focal leaks by targeting claudins which are apically accessible due to tight junction derangement. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) causes food poisoning and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It uses some claudin tight junction proteins (eg, claudin-4) as receptors to form Ca2+-permeable pores in the membrane, damaging epithelial cells in small intestine and colon. We demonstrate that only a subpopulation of colonic

2017 Journal of Infectious Diseases

53. Mapping of the continuous epitopes displayed on the Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon-toxin Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mapping of the continuous epitopes displayed on the Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon-toxin The epsilon toxin, produced by Clostridium perfringens, is responsible for enterotoxemia in ruminants and is a potential bioterrorism agent. In the present study, 15 regions of the toxin were recognized by antibodies present in the serum, with different immunodominance scales, and may be antigen determinants that can be used to formulate subunit vaccines.Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de

2017 Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

54. Rethinking the role of alpha toxin in Clostridium perfringens-associated enteric diseases: a review on bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Rethinking the role of alpha toxin in Clostridium perfringens-associated enteric diseases: a review on bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis Bovine necro-haemorrhagic enteritis is an economically important disease caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains. The disease mainly affects calves under intensive rearing conditions and is characterized by sudden death associated with small intestinal haemorrhage, necrosis and mucosal neutrophil infiltration. The common assumption that, when (...) causing intestinal disease, C. perfringens relies upon specific, plasmid-encoded toxins, was recently challenged by the finding that alpha toxin, which is produced by all C. perfringens strains, is essential for necro-haemorrhagic enteritis. In addition to alpha toxin, other C. perfringens toxins and/or enzymes might contribute to the pathogenesis of necro-haemorrhagic enteritis. These additional virulence factors might contribute to breakdown of the protective mucus layer during initial stage

2017 Veterinary Research

55. Controlling of growth performance, lipid deposits and fatty acid composition of chicken meat through a probiotic, Lactobacillus johnsonii during subclinical Clostridium perfringens infection Full Text available with Trip Pro

Controlling of growth performance, lipid deposits and fatty acid composition of chicken meat through a probiotic, Lactobacillus johnsonii during subclinical Clostridium perfringens infection Meat is considered as a major source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) which is essential for humans, therefore its lipid level and fatty acid composition have drawn great attention. As no clinical sign can be found in chicks subclinically infected by Clostridium perfringens (CP), the meat may

2017 Lipids in health and disease

56. Metataxonomics reveal vultures as a reservoir for Clostridium perfringens Full Text available with Trip Pro

Metataxonomics reveal vultures as a reservoir for Clostridium perfringens The Old World vulture may carry and spread pathogens for emerging infections since they feed on the carcasses of dead animals and participate in the sky burials of humans, some of whom have died from communicable diseases. Therefore, we studied the precise fecal microbiome of the Old World vulture with metataxonomics, integrating the high-throughput sequencing of almost full-length small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA (...) lineages of uncultured representatives. Forty-five species have been reported to be responsible for human outbreaks or infections, and 23 yet to be described species belong to genera that include pathogenic species. Only six species were common to all vultures. Clostridium perfringens was the most abundant and present in all vultures, accounting for 30.8% of the total reads. Therefore, using the new technology, we found that vultures are an important reservoir for C. perfringens as evidenced

2017 Emerging Microbes & Infections

57. CodY Promotes Sporulation and Enterotoxin Production by Clostridium perfringens Type A Strain SM101 Full Text available with Trip Pro

CodY Promotes Sporulation and Enterotoxin Production by Clostridium perfringens Type A Strain SM101 Clostridium perfringens type D strains cause enterotoxemia and enteritis in livestock via epsilon toxin production. In type D strain CN3718, CodY was previously shown to increase the level of epsilon toxin production and repress sporulation. C. perfringens type A strains producing C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) cause human food poisoning and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Sporulation (...) is critical for C. perfringens type A food poisoning since spores contribute to transmission and resistance in the harsh food environment and sporulation is essential for CPE production. Therefore, the current study asked whether CodY also regulates sporulation and CPE production in SM101, a derivative of C. perfringens type A food-poisoning strain NCTC8798. An isogenic codY-null mutant of SM101 showed decreased levels of spore formation, along with lower levels of CPE production. A complemented strain

2017 Infection and immunity

58. Oral Multiple Sclerosis Drugs Inhibit the In vitro Growth of Epsilon Toxin Producing Gut Bacterium, Clostridium perfringens Full Text available with Trip Pro

Oral Multiple Sclerosis Drugs Inhibit the In vitro Growth of Epsilon Toxin Producing Gut Bacterium, Clostridium perfringens There are currently three oral medications approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Two of these medications, Fingolimod, and Teriflunomide, are considered to be anti-inflammatory agents, while dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is thought to trigger a robust antioxidant response, protecting vulnerable cells during an MS attack. We previously proposed that epsilon toxin (...) from the gut bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, may initiate newly forming MS lesions due to its tropism for blood-brain barrier (BBB) vasculature and central nervous system myelin. Because gut microbiota will be exposed to these oral therapies prior to systemic absorption, we sought to determine if these compounds affect C. perfringens growth in vitro. Here we show that Fingolimod, Teriflunomide, and DMF indeed inhibit C. perfringens growth. Furthermore, several compounds similar to DMF

2017 Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

59. In ovo vaccination using Eimeria profilin and Clostridium perfringens NetB proteins in Montanide IMS adjuvant increases protective immunity against experimentally-induced necrotic enteritis Full Text available with Trip Pro

In ovo vaccination using Eimeria profilin and Clostridium perfringens NetB proteins in Montanide IMS adjuvant increases protective immunity against experimentally-induced necrotic enteritis The effects of vaccinating 18-day-old chicken embryos with the combination of recombinant Eimeria profilin plus Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) NetB proteins mixed in the Montanide IMS adjuvant on the chicken immune response to necrotic enteritis (NE) were investigated using an Eimeria maxima (E (...) . maxima)/C. perfringens co-infection NE disease model that we previously developed.Eighteen-day-old broiler embryos were injected with 100 μL of phosphate-buffered saline, profilin, profilin plus necrotic enteritis B-like (NetB), profilin plus NetB/Montanide adjuvant (IMS 106), and profilin plus Net-B/Montanide adjuvant (IMS 101). After post-hatch birds were challenged with our NE experimental disease model, body weights, intestinal lesions, serum antibody levels to NetB, and proinflammatory cytokine

2017 Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences

60. Effect of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin on gastric cancer cells SGC7901 which highly expressed claudin-4 protein Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin on gastric cancer cells SGC7901 which highly expressed claudin-4 protein To investigate the effects of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) on gastric cancer cells which highly expressed claudin-4 (CL4) protein.In this study, we detected expression of CL4 protein in different gastric cancer cell lines. Then, we investigated the effects of CPE on SGC7901 cells which highly expressed CL4 protein and the effects of CPE on subcutaneous tumor

2017 World journal of gastrointestinal oncology

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