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Clostridium perfringens

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21. Acid Sphingomyelinase Promotes Cellular Internalization of Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin (PubMed)

Acid Sphingomyelinase Promotes Cellular Internalization of Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin is a binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin composed of the enzymatic component Ia and receptor binding component Ib. Ib binds to a cell surface receptor, forms Ib oligomer in lipid rafts, and associates with Ia. The Ia-Ib complex then internalizes by endocytosis. Here, we showed that acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) facilitates the cellular uptake of iota-toxin

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2018 Toxins

22. Prevalence, toxin gene profile, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characterization of Clostridium perfringens from diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs in Korea (PubMed)

Prevalence, toxin gene profile, antibiotic resistance, and molecular characterization of Clostridium perfringens from diarrheic and non-diarrheic dogs in Korea Clostridium perfringens causes diarrhea and other diseases in animals and humans. We investigated the prevalence, toxin gene profiles, and antibiotic resistance of C. perfringens isolated from diarrheic dogs (DD) and non-diarrheic dogs (ND) in two animal hospitals in Seoul, Korea. Fecal samples were collected from clinically DD (n = 49 (...) ) and ND (n = 34). C. perfringens was isolated from 31 of 49 DD (63.3%) and 21 of 34 ND dogs (61.8%). All C. perfringens strains were positive for the α toxin gene, but not for the β, ε, or ι toxin genes; therefore, all strains were identified as type A C. perfringens. All isolates were cpe-negative, whereas the β2 toxin gene was identified in 83.9% and 61.9% of isolates from DD and ND, respectively. Most isolates were susceptible to ampicillin (94%), chloramphenicol (92%), metronidazole (100

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2018 Journal of veterinary science

23. Whole genome analysis reveals the diversity and evolutionary relationships between necrotic enteritis-causing strains of Clostridium perfringens (PubMed)

Whole genome analysis reveals the diversity and evolutionary relationships between necrotic enteritis-causing strains of Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens causes a range of diseases in animals and humans including necrotic enteritis in chickens and food poisoning and gas gangrene in humans. Necrotic enteritis is of concern in commercial chicken production due to the cost of the implementation of infection control measures and to productivity losses. This study has focused (...) on the genomic analysis of a range of chicken-derived C. perfringens isolates, from around the world and from different years. The genomes were sequenced and compared with 20 genomes available from public databases, which were from a diverse collection of isolates from chickens, other animals, and humans. We used a distance based phylogeny that was constructed based on gene content rather than sequence identity. Similarity between strains was defined as the number of genes that they have in common divided

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2018 BMC genomics

24. A Tailored Multivariate Mixture Model for Detecting Proteins of Concordant Change Among Virulent Strains of Clostridium Perfringens (PubMed)

A Tailored Multivariate Mixture Model for Detecting Proteins of Concordant Change Among Virulent Strains of Clostridium Perfringens Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a serious disease of poultry caused by the bacterium C. perfringens. To identify proteins of C. perfringens that confer virulence with respect to NE, the protein secretions of four NE disease-producing strains and one baseline non-disease-producing strain of C. perfringens were examined. The problem then becomes a clustering task

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2018 Journal of the American Statistical Association

25. Determination of multidrug resistance mechanisms in Clostridium perfringens type A isolates using RNA sequencing and 2D-electrophoresis (PubMed)

Determination of multidrug resistance mechanisms in Clostridium perfringens type A isolates using RNA sequencing and 2D-electrophoresis In this study, we screened differentially expressed genes in a multidrug-resistant isolate strain of Clostridium perfringens by RNA sequencing. We also separated and identified differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the isolate strain by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS). The RNA sequencing results showed that, compared (...) transporter, and others. The results of the 2-DE showed that 70 proteins were differentially expressed in the isolate strain, 45 of which were up-regulated and 25 down-regulated. Twenty-seven DEPs were identified by MS and these included the following protein categories: ribosome, antimicrobial peptide resistance, and ABC transporter, all of which may be involved in MDR in the isolate strain of C. perfringens. The results provide reference data for further investigations on the drug resistant molecular

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2018 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research

26. Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Detection of Clostridium perfringens DNA Based Morphology-Dependent DNA Adsorption Properties of CeO2 Nanorods in Dairy Products (PubMed)

Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Detection of Clostridium perfringens DNA Based Morphology-Dependent DNA Adsorption Properties of CeO2 Nanorods in Dairy Products Foodborne pathogens such as Clostridium perfringens can cause diverse illnesses and seriously threaten to human health, yet far less attention has been given to detecting these pathogenic bacteria. Herein, two morphologies of nanoceria were synthesized via adjusting the concentration of NaOH, and CeO₂ nanorod has been utilized as sensing (...) -complementary DNA. The dynamic linear range of the proposed biosensor for detecting oligonucleotide sequence of Clostridium perfringens was from 1.0 × 10−14 to 1.0 × 10−7 mol/L. The detection limit was 7.06 × 10−15 mol/L. In comparison, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method quantified the target DNA with a detection limit of 1.95 × 10−15 mol/L. Moreover, the DNA biosensor could detect C. perfringens extracted DNA in dairy products and provided

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2018 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

27. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the growth performance and intestinal health of broilers challenged with Clostridium perfringens (PubMed)

Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus on the growth performance and intestinal health of broilers challenged with Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens is the main etiological agent of necrotic enteritis. Lactobacilli show beneficial effects on intestinal health in infectious disease, but the protective functions of lactobacilli in C. perfringens-infected chickens are scarcely described. This study examined the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) on the growth (...) performance and intestinal health of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) over a 28-day period. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, a total of 308 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chicks were included to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) on the growth performance and intestinal health of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) during a 28-day trial.During infection (d 14-21), C

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2018 Journal of animal science and biotechnology

28. Targeting oncogenic Ras by the Clostridium perfringens toxin TpeL (PubMed)

Targeting oncogenic Ras by the Clostridium perfringens toxin TpeL Clostridium perfringens toxin TpeL belongs to the family of large clostridial glycosylating toxins. The toxin causes N-acetylglucosaminylation of Ras proteins at threonine35 thereby inactivating the small GTPases. Here, we show that all main types of oncogenic Ras proteins (H-Ras, K-Ras and N-Ras) are modified by the toxin in vitro and in vivo. Toxin-catalyzed modification of Ras was accompanied by inhibition of the MAP kinase

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2018 Oncotarget

29. Concurrent Host-Pathogen Transcriptional Responses in a Clostridium perfringens Murine Myonecrosis Infection (PubMed)

Concurrent Host-Pathogen Transcriptional Responses in a Clostridium perfringens Murine Myonecrosis Infection To obtain an insight into host-pathogen interactions in clostridial myonecrosis, we carried out comparative transcriptome analysis of both the bacterium and the host in a murine Clostridium perfringens infection model, which is the first time that such an investigation has been conducted. Analysis of the host transcriptome from infected muscle tissues indicated that many genes were (...) upregulated compared to the results seen with mock-infected mice. These genes were enriched for host defense pathways, including Toll-like receptor (TLR) and Nod-like receptor (NLR) signaling components. Real-time PCR confirmed that host TLR2 and NLRP3 inflammasome genes were induced in response to C. perfringens infection. Comparison of the transcriptome of C. perfringens cells from the infected tissues with that from broth cultures showed that host selective pressure induced a global change in C

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2018 mBio

30. Plant-expressed bacteriophage lysins control pathogenic strains of Clostridium perfringens (PubMed)

Plant-expressed bacteriophage lysins control pathogenic strains of Clostridium perfringens The anaerobic spore-forming bacterium Clostridium perfringens is a source of one of the most common food-borne illnesses in the United States and Europe. The costs associated with disease management are high and interventions are limited; therefore, effective and safe antimicrobials are needed to control food contamination by C. perfringens. A viable solution to this problem could be bacteriophage lysins (...) used as food additives or food processing aids. Such antimicrobials could be produced cost-effectively and in ample supply in green plants. By using edible plant species as production hosts the need for expensive product purification can be reduced or obviated. We describe the first successful expression in plants of C. perfringens-specific bacteriophage lysins. We demonstrate that six lysins belonging to two different families (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase and glycosyl hydrolase 25

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2018 Scientific reports

31. An update on the human and animal enteric pathogen Clostridium perfringens (PubMed)

An update on the human and animal enteric pathogen Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens, a rapid-growing pathogen known to secrete an arsenal of >20 virulent toxins, has been associated with intestinal diseases in both animals and humans throughout the past century. Recent advances in genomic analysis and experimental systems make it timely to re-visit this clinically and veterinary important pathogen. This Review will summarise our understanding of the genomics and virulence-linked (...) factors, including antimicrobial potentials and secreted toxins of this gut pathogen, and then its up-to-date clinical epidemiology and biological role in the pathogenesis of several important human and animal-associated intestinal diseases, including pre-term necrotising enterocolitis. Finally, we highlight some of the important unresolved questions in relation to C. perfringens-mediated infections, and implications for future research directions.

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2018 Emerging Microbes & Infections

32. Commentary: Probing Genomic Aspects of the Multi-Host Pathogen Clostridium perfringens Reveals Significant Pangenome Diversity, and a Diverse Array of Virulence Factors (PubMed)

Commentary: Probing Genomic Aspects of the Multi-Host Pathogen Clostridium perfringens Reveals Significant Pangenome Diversity, and a Diverse Array of Virulence Factors 30154769 2018 11 14 1664-302X 9 2018 Frontiers in microbiology Front Microbiol Commentary: Probing Genomic Aspects of the Multi-Host Pathogen Clostridium perfringens Reveals Significant Pangenome Diversity, and a Diverse Array of Virulence Factors. 1856 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01856 Mehdizadeh Gohari Iman I Department of Pathobiology (...) , University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada. Prescott John F JF Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada. eng Journal Article Comment 2018 08 14 Switzerland Front Microbiol 101548977 1664-302X Front Microbiol. 2017 Dec 12;8:2485 29312194 Front Microbiol. 2018 Aug 16;9:1857 30166979 Clostridium perfringens clostridial infection comparative genomics genetic relatedness genetic variation pangenome whole genome sequencing 2017 12 20 2018 07 24 2018 8 30 6 0 2018 8 30 6 0 2018 8 30 6

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2018 Frontiers in microbiology

33. Response: Commentary: Probing Genomic Aspects of the Multi-Host Pathogen Clostridium perfringens Reveals Significant Pangenome Diversity, and a Diverse Array of Virulence Factors (PubMed)

Response: Commentary: Probing Genomic Aspects of the Multi-Host Pathogen Clostridium perfringens Reveals Significant Pangenome Diversity, and a Diverse Array of Virulence Factors 30166979 2018 11 14 1664-302X 9 2018 Frontiers in microbiology Front Microbiol Response: Commentary: Probing Genomic Aspects of the Multi-Host Pathogen Clostridium perfringens Reveals Significant Pangenome Diversity, and a Diverse Array of Virulence Factors. 1857 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01857 Kiu Raymond R Gut Microbes (...) infection Clostridium perfringens antimicrobial resistance exotoxins genomics pangenome pathogen whole genome sequencing 2018 06 02 2018 07 24 2018 9 1 6 0 2018 9 1 6 0 2018 9 1 6 1 epublish 30166979 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01857 PMC6106619 J Med Microbiol. 2005 Feb;54(Pt 2):129-35 15673505 Vet Microbiol. 2004 May 20;100(1-2):11-6 15135508 Front Microbiol. 2017 Dec 12;8:2485 29312194 PLoS Genet. 2016 Sep 12;12(9):e1006280 27618184 PLoS Pathog. 2008 Feb 8;4(2):e26 18266469 Nat Microbiol. 2017 Mar 28;2:17040

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2018 Frontiers in microbiology

34. Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin: The Toxin Forms Highly Cation-Selective Channels in Lipid Bilayers (PubMed)

Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin: The Toxin Forms Highly Cation-Selective Channels in Lipid Bilayers One of the numerous toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens is Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 35.5 kDa exhibiting three different domains. Domain one is responsible for receptor binding, domain two is involved in hexamer formation and domain three has to do with channel formation in membranes. CPE is the major virulence factor (...) with a single-channel conductance of 620 pS in 1 M KCl. The single-channel conductance was not a linear function of the bulk aqueous salt concentration indicating that point-negative charges at the CPE channel controlled ion transport. This resulted in the high cation selectivity of the CPE channels, which suggested that anions are presumably not permeable through the CPE channels. The possible role of cation transport by CPE channels in disease caused by C. perfringens is discussed.

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2018 Toxins

35. Interaction of Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin and Lipolysis-Stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor (LSR) (PubMed)

Interaction of Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin and Lipolysis-Stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor (LSR) Iota toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens is a binary, actin ADP-ribosylating toxin that is organized into the enzymatically active component Ia and the binding component Ib. Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) has been identified as a cellular receptor of Ib. Here, we investigated the functional interaction between Ib and LSR, where siRNA for LSR blocked the toxin-mediated

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2018 Toxins

36. Functionalization of gold-nanoparticles by the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin C-terminus for tumor cell ablation using the gold nanoparticle-mediated laser perforation technique (PubMed)

Functionalization of gold-nanoparticles by the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin C-terminus for tumor cell ablation using the gold nanoparticle-mediated laser perforation technique A recombinant produced C-terminus of the C. perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) was conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to produce a C-CPE-AuNP complex (C-CPE-AuNP). By binding to claudins, the C- CPE should allow to target the AuNPs onto the claudin expressing tumor cells for a subsequent cell killing

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2018 Scientific reports

37. Development of Adjuvant-Free Bivalent Food Poisoning Vaccine by Augmenting the Antigenicity of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin (PubMed)

Development of Adjuvant-Free Bivalent Food Poisoning Vaccine by Augmenting the Antigenicity of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is a common cause of food poisoning and hyperkalemia-associated death. Previously, we reported that fusion of pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) to C-terminal fragment of CPE (C-CPE) efficiently bound mucosal epithelium so that PspA-specific immune responses could be provoked. In this study, we found that fusion of C-CPE

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2018 Frontiers in immunology

38. Effects of Bile Acids and Nisin on the Production of Enterotoxin by Clostridium perfringens in a Nutrient-Rich Medium (PubMed)

Effects of Bile Acids and Nisin on the Production of Enterotoxin by Clostridium perfringens in a Nutrient-Rich Medium Clostridium perfringens is the second most common cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States, with nearly a million cases each year. C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), produced during sporulation, damages intestinal epithelial cells by pore formation, which results in watery diarrhea. The effects of low concentrations of nisin and bile acids on sporulation (...) and toxin production were investigated in C. perfringens SM101, which carries an enterotoxin gene on the chromosome, in a nutrient-rich medium. Bile acids and nisin increased production of enterotoxin in cultures; bile acids had the highest effect. Both compounds stimulated the transcription of enterotoxin and sporulation-related genes and production of spores during the early growth phase. They also delayed spore outgrowth and nisin was more inhibitory. Bile acids and nisin enhanced enterotoxin

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2018 International journal of microbiology

39. Temporal Effects of High Fishmeal Diet on Gut Microbiota and Immune Response in Clostridium perfringens-Challenged Chickens (PubMed)

Temporal Effects of High Fishmeal Diet on Gut Microbiota and Immune Response in Clostridium perfringens-Challenged Chickens Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens is responsible for huge financial losses in the poultry industry annually. A diet highly supplemented with fishmeal is one factor predisposing chickens to the development of clinical NE. However, the effects of fishmeal-rich diets on the gut microbiota and immune response in chickens with C. perfringens challenge (...) over the long-term are not well-understood. Here, a chicken NE model was established in which chickens were fed high fishmeal diet and subsequently infected with C. perfringens (FM/CP). Two control groups of chickens, one that was not infected and had a high fishmeal feeding (FM) and another group only infected with C. perfringens with basic diets (CP), were used as comparators. We analyzed the gut microbiota and immune response of the three groups at the age of 20, 24 [1 day post-infection (dpi

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2018 Frontiers in microbiology

40. In colon epithelia, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin causes focal leaks by targeting claudins which are apically accessible due to tight junction derangement. (PubMed)

In colon epithelia, Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin causes focal leaks by targeting claudins which are apically accessible due to tight junction derangement. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) causes food poisoning and antibiotic-associated diarrhea. It uses some claudin tight junction proteins (eg, claudin-4) as receptors to form Ca2+-permeable pores in the membrane, damaging epithelial cells in small intestine and colon. We demonstrate that only a subpopulation of colonic

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2017 Journal of Infectious Diseases

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