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Clostridium perfringens

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181. Foodborne Disease Outbreaks caused by Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus aureus, United States, 1998-2008. (PubMed)

Foodborne Disease Outbreaks caused by Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus aureus, United States, 1998-2008. From 1998 to 2008, 1229 foodborne outbreaks caused by Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus aureus were reported in the United States; 39% were reported with a confirmed etiology. Vomiting was commonly reported in B. cereus (median, 75% of cases) and S. aureus outbreaks (median, 87%), but rarely in C. perfringens outbreaks (median, 9%). Meat (...) or poultry dishes were commonly implicated in C. perfringens (63%) and S. aureus (55%) outbreaks, and rice dishes were commonly implicated in B. cereus outbreaks (50%). Errors in food processing and preparation were commonly reported (93%), regardless of etiology; contamination by a food worker was only common in S. aureus outbreaks (55%). Public health interventions should focus on these commonly reported errors to reduce the occurrence of outbreaks caused by B. cereus, C. perfringens, and S. aureus

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2013 Clinical Infectious Diseases

182. Human Claudin-8 and -14 Are Receptors Capable of Conveying the Cytotoxic Effects of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin (PubMed)

Human Claudin-8 and -14 Are Receptors Capable of Conveying the Cytotoxic Effects of Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) contributes to several important human gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. This toxin and its derivatives are also being explored for translational applications, i.e., cancer therapy or drug delivery. Some, but not all, members of the 24-member claudin (Cldn) family of mammalian tight junction proteins can serve as CPE receptors. Among (...) in mammalian intestines, the current results support the possibility that these two hCldns contribute to natural CPE-mediated gastrointestinal disease and could be CPE-based therapeutic targets for cancers overexpressing those claudins. However, these results also suggest caution during therapeutic use of CPE, which might trigger toxic side effects in normal human tissues producing hCldn-8 or -14, as well as in those producing hCldn-3 or -4.Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is responsible

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2013 mBio

183. How do swine practitioners and veterinary pathologists arrive at a diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens type A enteritis in neonatal piglets? (PubMed)

How do swine practitioners and veterinary pathologists arrive at a diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens type A enteritis in neonatal piglets? A questionnaire was administered to 22 veterinary practitioners and 17 veterinary pathologists to investigate the methods used for diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens type A enteritis in neonatal pigs. Practitioners generally diagnosed C. perfringens type A associated enteritis by age of onset of diarrhea (between 1 to 7 days of age). Most practitioners (...) (95%) were moderately to very confident in their diagnosis. Pathologists generally diagnosed C. perfringens type A associated enteritis by combinations of isolation of the organism, genotyping or detecting the toxins of the organism, and ruling out other pathogens through histopathology. Almost half (41%) of the pathologists were not confident of their diagnosis. This study reports that the current diagnostic method for C. perfringens type A enteritis is not specific, and although many

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2013 The Canadian Veterinary Journal

184. An investigation into the association between cpb2-encoding Clostridium perfringens type A and diarrhea in neonatal piglets (PubMed)

An investigation into the association between cpb2-encoding Clostridium perfringens type A and diarrhea in neonatal piglets To investigate the possible role of cpb2-positive type A Clostridium perfringens in neonatal diarrheal illness in pigs, the jejunum and colon of matched normal and diarrheic piglets from 10 farms with a history of neonatal diarrhea were examined grossly and by histopathology, and tested for C. perfringens, for C. perfringens beta2 (CPB2) toxin, as well as for Clostridium (...) difficile toxins, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, rotavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus, and coccidia. Clostridium perfringens isolates were tested using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the presence of cpa, consensus and atypical cpb2, and other virulence-associated genes. The numbers of C. perfringens in the intestinal contents were lower in diarrheic piglets (log₁₀ 5.4 CFU/g) compared with normal piglets (log₁₀ 6.5 CFU/g) (P < 0.05

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2013 Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research

185. The synergistic necrohemorrhagic action of Clostridium perfringens perfringolysin and alpha toxin in the bovine intestine and against bovine endothelial cells (PubMed)

The synergistic necrohemorrhagic action of Clostridium perfringens perfringolysin and alpha toxin in the bovine intestine and against bovine endothelial cells Bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis is a major cause of mortality in veal calves. Clostridium perfringens is considered as the causative agent, but there has been controversy on the toxins responsible for the disease. Recently, it has been demonstrated that a variety of C. perfringens type A strains can induce necrohemorrhagic lesions (...) in a calf intestinal loop assay. These results put forward alpha toxin and perfringolysin as potential causative toxins, since both are produced by all C. perfringens type A strains. The importance of perfringolysin in the pathogenesis of bovine necrohemorrhagic enteritis has not been studied before. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the role of perfringolysin in the development of necrohemorrhagic enteritis lesions in calves and its synergism with alpha toxin

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2013 Veterinary Research

186. Acute Hemolysis in the Emergency Department: Think about Clostridium perfringens! (PubMed)

Acute Hemolysis in the Emergency Department: Think about Clostridium perfringens! Clostridium perfringens (CP) gives several clinical settings, from an asymptomatic to a massive intravascular hemolysis. We report a case of fatal intravascular hemolysis due to CP septicemia having a hepatic supposed starting point in the emergency department. Like in many cases, the diagnosis was made when patient had already gone into shock and died. The CP septicemia often complicated the course

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2013 Case Reports in Emergency Medicine

187. Inhibition of Clostridium botulinum by Strains of Clostridium perfringens Isolated from Soil (PubMed)

Inhibition of Clostridium botulinum by Strains of Clostridium perfringens Isolated from Soil Thirty-one soil samples were examined for the presence of organisms capable of inhibiting growth and toxin production of strains of Clostridium botulinum type A. Such organisms were found in eight samples of soil. Inhibiting strains of C. perfringens were found in five samples, of C. sporogenes in three and of Bacillus cereus in three. Three of the C. perfringens strains produced an inhibitor effective (...) on all 11 strains of C. botulinum type A against which they were tested, seven of eight proteolytic type B strains, one nonproteolytic type B strain, five of nine type E strains and all seven type F strains, whether proteolytic or nonproteolytic. They did not inhibit any of 26 type C strains, 6 type D strains, 4 type E strains, or 24 C. sporogenes strains. In mixed culture, an inhibitor strain of C. perfringens repressed growth and toxin production by a C. botulinum type A strain even though

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1975 Applied microbiology

188. METABOLISM OF PENTOSES BY CLOSTRIDIA II. Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium beijerinckii, andClostridium butylicum: The Fermentation of C14-Labeled Pentoses by (PubMed)

METABOLISM OF PENTOSES BY CLOSTRIDIA II. Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium beijerinckii, andClostridium butylicum: The Fermentation of C14-Labeled Pentoses by 13513607 2000 07 01 2018 12 01 0021-9193 75 3 1958 Mar Journal of bacteriology J. Bacteriol. Metabolism of pentoses by clostridia. II. The fermentation of C14-labeled pentoses by Clostridium per fringens, Clostridium beijerinckii, and Clostridium butylicum. 335-8 CYNKIN M A MA GIBBS M M eng Journal Article United States J Bacteriol (...) 2985120R 0021-9193 0 Pentoses OM Carbohydrate Metabolism Clostridium metabolism Clostridium beijerinckii Fermentation Gram-Positive Bacteria Humans Pentoses metabolism 5834:5952:147:225:449 CLOSTRIDIUM/metabolism FERMENTATION PENTOSES/metabolism 1958 3 1 1958 3 1 0 1 1958 3 1 0 0 ppublish 13513607 PMC290086 Arch Biochem Biophys. 1951 Sep;33(2):173-8 14885997 J Biol Chem. 1951 Oct;192(2):769-805 14907672 J Biol Chem. 1951 Nov;193(1):411-23 14907729 J Bacteriol. 1950 Mar;59(3):387-400 15436409 Bacteriol

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1958 Journal of bacteriology

189. SPORULATION OF CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM TYPES A, B, AND E, CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS, AND PUTREFACTIVE ANAEROBE 3679 IN DIALYSIS SACS (PubMed)

SPORULATION OF CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM TYPES A, B, AND E, CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS, AND PUTREFACTIVE ANAEROBE 3679 IN DIALYSIS SACS Schneider, Morris D. (Quartermaster Food and Container Institute for the Armed Forces, U.S. Army, Chicago, Ill.), Nicholas Grecz, and Abe Anellis. Sporulation of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, and E, Clostridium perfringens, and Putrefactive Anaerobe 3679 in dialysis sacs. J. Bacteriol. 85:126-133. 1963.-Concentrated cultures of spores of Clostridium botulinum type (...) A (33A, 37A), B (41B, 51B), and E (strain VH), C. perfringens (strain E), and Putrefactive Anaerobe 3679 were prepared in intussuscepted cellulose dialysis tubing. The apparatus consisted of a telescoped cellulose bag immersed into a suitable sporulation medium in a large Pyrex tube. The initial inoculum was a heavy suspension in physiological saline solution of either vegetative cells or heat-shocked spores. The seed material was introduced into the interior of the dialysis bag. Maximal spore

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1963 Journal of bacteriology

190. Effect of Potassium Sorbate on Salmonellae, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, and Clostridium botulinum in Cooked, Uncured Sausage (PubMed)

Effect of Potassium Sorbate on Salmonellae, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, and Clostridium botulinum in Cooked, Uncured Sausage Skinless precooked, uncured sausage links with and without potassium sorbate (0.1% wt/wt) were inoculated with salmonellae, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, and Clostridium botulinum and held at 27 C to represent temperature abuse of the product. Total counts of uninoculated product showed that the normal spoilage flora was delayed 1 day (...) when sorbate was present. Growth of salmonellae was markedly retarded by sorbate. Growth of S. aureus was delayed 1 day in the presence of sorbate, after which growth occurred to the same level as in product without sorbate. C. perfringens declined to below detectable levels within the first day in product with and without sorbate. Sorbate retarded the growth of C. botulinum. Botulinal toxin was detected in 4 days in product without sorbate but not until after 10 days in product with sorbate.

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1974 Applied microbiology

191. Clostridium sordellii Pathogenicity Locus Plasmid pCS1-1 Encodes a Novel Clostridial Conjugation Locus (PubMed)

evidence that genes within the cst locus are essential for the conjugative transfer of pCS1-1. The cst locus is present on all pCS1 subtypes, and homologous loci were identified on toxin-encoding plasmids from Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum and also carried within genomes of Clostridium difficile isolates, indicating that it is a widespread clostridial conjugation locus. The results of this study have broad implications for the dissemination of toxin genes and, potentially (...) Clostridium sordellii Pathogenicity Locus Plasmid pCS1-1 Encodes a Novel Clostridial Conjugation Locus A major virulence factor in Clostridium sordellii-mediated infection is the toxin TcsL, which is encoded within a region of the genome called the pathogenicity locus (PaLoc). C. sordellii isolates carry the PaLoc on the pCS1 family of plasmids, of which there are four characterized members. Here, we determined the potential mobility of pCS1 plasmids and characterized a fifth unique pCS1 member

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2018 mBio

192. The Binary Toxin CDT of Clostridium difficile as a Tool for Intracellular Delivery of Bacterial Glucosyltransferase Domains (PubMed)

The Binary Toxin CDT of Clostridium difficile as a Tool for Intracellular Delivery of Bacterial Glucosyltransferase Domains Binary toxins are produced by several pathogenic bacteria. Examples are the C2 toxin from Clostridium botulinum, the iota toxin from Clostridium perfringens, and the CDT from Clostridium difficile. All these binary toxins have ADP-ribosyltransferases (ADPRT) as their enzymatically active component that modify monomeric actin in their target cells. The binary C2 toxin

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2018 Toxins

193. Clostridium paraputrificum septicemia and liver abscess (PubMed)

species are C. perfringens and C. septicum (64.9% and 17.5% respectively). C. perfringens cases carried a mortality of 67.6% with median survival of 11 h, and 70.2% of the C. perfringens cases experienced hemolysis. All C. septicum cases were found to have underlying liver malignancy at the time of the presentation with a mortality of only 30%. The remaining cases were caused by various Clostridium species, and this cohort's clinical course was significantly milder when compared to the above C (...) Clostridium paraputrificum septicemia and liver abscess We report the first case of a healthy 23-year-old female who underwent an interventional radiology-guided embolization of a hepatic adenoma, which resulted in a gas forming hepatic liver abscess and septicemia by Clostridium paraputrificum. A retrospective review of Clostridial liver abscesses was performed using a PubMed literature search, and we found 57 clostridial hepatic abscess cases. The two most commonly reported clostridial

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2018 World journal of hepatology

194. Clostridium perfringens sepsis and liver abscess following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (PubMed)

Clostridium perfringens sepsis and liver abscess following laparoscopic cholecystectomy Clostridium perfringens sepsis with intravascular haemolysis is a catastrophic process with a reported mortality of between 90 to 100%. We successfully treated a case of severe clostridial infection with a liver abscess following laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the first to our knowledge. A 59-year-old man presented one week after an uneventful laparoscopic cholecystectomy with jaundice, peritonism, sepsis (...) and acute renal failure. He was found to have a haemolytic anaemia, unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and blood cultures grew Clostridium perfringens. A CT revealed a large gas forming abscess in the gallbladder fossa and right lobe of liver. He was treated with directed antibiotic therapy and underwent emergency laparotomy, drainage of the abscess and peritoneal washout. He required intensive care support, parenteral nutrition and inotropic support for a limited period. CT liver angiogram post op

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2012 Journal of surgical case reports

195. Molecular Characteristics of Clostridium perfringens TpeL Toxin and Consequences of Mono-O-GlcNAcylation of Ras in Living Cells (PubMed)

Molecular Characteristics of Clostridium perfringens TpeL Toxin and Consequences of Mono-O-GlcNAcylation of Ras in Living Cells TpeL is a member of the family of clostridial glucosylating toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens type A, B, and C strains. In contrast to other members of this toxin family, it lacks a C-terminal polypeptide repeat domain, which is suggested to be involved in target cell binding. It was shown that the glucosyltransferase domain of TpeL modifies Ras in vitro

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2012 The Journal of biological chemistry

196. Clostridium perfringens Alpha-toxin Recognizes the GM1a-TrkA Complex (PubMed)

Clostridium perfringens Alpha-toxin Recognizes the GM1a-TrkA Complex Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin is the major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of gas gangrene. Alpha-toxin is a 43-kDa protein with two structural domains; the N-domain contains the catalytic site and coordinates the divalent metal ions, and the C-domain is a membrane-binding site. The role of the exposed loop region (72-93 residues) in the N-domain, however, has been unclear. Here we show that this loop contains

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2012 The Journal of biological chemistry

197. Enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A in 9-month-old calves (PubMed)

Enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A in 9-month-old calves Four 9-month-old Simmental male calves were presented with a history of sudden death. The necropsy and microscopic findings allowed a diagnosis of enteritis and severe intraluminal hemorrhage with blood clots in the jejunum, suggestive of jejunal hemorrhage syndrome.

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2012 The Canadian Veterinary Journal

198. Identification of a Lambda Toxin-Negative Clostridium perfringens Strain that Processes and Activates Epsilon Prototoxin Intracellularly (PubMed)

Identification of a Lambda Toxin-Negative Clostridium perfringens Strain that Processes and Activates Epsilon Prototoxin Intracellularly Clostridium perfringens type B and D strains produce epsilon toxin (ETX), which is one of the most potent clostridial toxins and is involved in enteritis and enterotoxemias of domestic animals. ETX is produced initially as an inactive prototoxin that is typically then secreted and processed by intestinal proteases or possibly, for some strains, lambda toxin (...) . During the current work a unique C. perfringens strain was identified that intracellularly processes epsilon prototoxin to an active form capable of killing MDCK cells. This activated toxin is not secreted but instead is apparently released upon lysis of bacterial cells entering stationary phase. These findings broaden understanding of the pathogenesis of type B and D infections by identifying a new mechanism of ETX activation.Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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2012 Anaerobe

199. Role of the Agr-Like Quorum-Sensing System in Regulating Toxin Production by Clostridium perfringens Type B Strains CN1793 and CN1795 (PubMed)

Role of the Agr-Like Quorum-Sensing System in Regulating Toxin Production by Clostridium perfringens Type B Strains CN1793 and CN1795 Clostridium perfringens type B causes enteritis and enterotoxemia in domestic animals. By definition, these bacteria must produce alpha toxin (CPA), beta toxin (CPB) and epsilon toxin (ETX) although most type B strains also produce perfringolysin O (PFO) and beta2 toxin (CPB2). A recently identified Agr-like quorum-sensing (QS) system in C. perfringens controls (...) evident that strain-dependent variations exist in Agr-like QS system regulation of C. perfringens toxin production. The cell culture results further support a role for trypsin in determining which toxins contribute to disease involving type B strains.

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2012 Infection and immunity

200. The epidemiology of Clostridium perfringens type A on Ontario swine farms, with special reference to cpb2-positive isolates (PubMed)

The epidemiology of Clostridium perfringens type A on Ontario swine farms, with special reference to cpb2-positive isolates There is poor understanding of most aspects of Clostridium perfringens type A as a possible cause of neonatal diarrhea in piglets, and the prevalence and types of C. perfringens present on Ontario swine farms is unknown. To study the prevalence of fecal C. perfringens and selected toxin genes, 48 Ontario swine farms were visited between August 2010 and May 2011, and 354 (...) fecal samples were collected from suckling pigs, lactating sows, weanling pigs, grower-finisher pigs, and gestating sows, as well as from manure pits. The fecal samples were cultured quantitatively, and toxin genes were detected by real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).In mixed multivariable linear analysis, log(10) C. perfringens in fecal samples from suckling pigs were higher than that of weanling pigs, grower-finisher pigs, and manure pit samples (P <0.05). In mixed multivariable

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2012 BMC veterinary research

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