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Salmonella-vectored vaccine delivering three Clostridiumperfringens antigens protects poultry against necrotic enteritis. Necrotic enteritis is an economically important poultry disease caused by the bacterium Clostridiumperfringens. There are currently no necrotic enteritis vaccines commercially available for use in broiler birds, the most important target population. Salmonella-vectored vaccines represent a convenient and effective option for controlling this disease. We used a single (...) attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain, engineered to lyse within the host, to deliver up to three C. perfringens antigens. Two of the antigens were toxoids, based on C. perfringens α-toxin and NetB toxin. The third antigen was fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (Fba), a metabolic enzyme with an unknown role in virulence. Oral immunization with a single Salmonella vaccine strain producing either Fba, α-toxoid and NetB toxoid, or all three antigens, was immunogenic, inducing serum, cellular and mucosal
Analysis of gut microbiota and the effect of lauric acid against necrotic enteritis in Clostridiumperfringens and Eimeria side-by-side challenge model. Gut microbiota has been demonstrated to be involved in intestinal nutrition, defense, and immunity, as well as participating in disease progression. This study was to investigate gut microbiota changes in chickens challenged with netB-positive Clostridiumperfringens strain (CP1) and/or the predisposing Eimeria species (Eimeria) and fed diets (...) on these two taxa increased the severity of NE lesions. Further analyses of metagenomeSeq, STAMP, and LEfSe consistently showed significant overgrowth of Clostridium sensu stricto 1 was associated with NE. The supplementation of lauric acid did not reduce NE incidence and severity but decreased the relative abundance of Escherichia Shigella. In conclusion, significant overgrowth of C. perfringens as well as other Clostridium species in Clostridium sensu stricto 1 with the decrement of Lactobacillus
Type A fulminant Clostridiumperfringens sepsis indicated RBC/Hb discrepancy; a case report. Clostridiumperfringens can cause various infections, including food poisoning, gas gangrene, cellulitis and fasciitis. C. perfringens septicemia is rare, but is a known cause of hemolysis by damaging red blood cell, and often proves rapidly fatal in emergency department (ED) situations.A previously healthy 76-year-old man presented to the ED 8 h after onset of acute abdominal pain and diarrhea (...) should prompt ED physicians to consider C. perfringens septicemia and to act quickly to provide appropriate treatment.
In vitro and in vivo antagonistic activity of new probiotic culture against Clostridium difficile and Clostridiumperfringens Genus Clostridium accompanies more than 200 known species and at least 30 among them are associated with human and animal diseases. At the moment, the treatment of clostridial infections is based on use of antibiotics. However, due to the European ban on the use of antibiotics in livestock production, novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of these hardly curable (...) infections have been evaluated. Hence, in this study the antimicrobial effect of newly designed probiotic culture consisted of natural isolates Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43, Lactobacillus fermentum BGHI14 and Streptococcus thermophilus BGVLJ1-44 against Clostridium difficile and Clostridiumperfringens was analyzed.The probiotic culture showed strong in vitro antimicrobial effect on C. difficile (human clinical isolate). In addition, individual strains and the probiotic combination exhibited
Cellular Entry of Clostridiumperfringens Iota-Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin Clostridiumperfringens iota-toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 toxin are composed of two non-linked proteins, one being the enzymatic component and the other being the binding/translocation component. These latter components recognize specific receptors and oligomerize in plasma membrane lipid-rafts, mediating the uptake of the enzymatic component into the cytosol. Enzymatic components induce actin
Disruption in the cecal microbiota of chickens challenged with Clostridiumperfringens and other factors was alleviated by Bacillus licheniformis supplementation. Clostridiumperfringens can induce necrotic enteritis of chickens, which causes large economic losses every year. Bacillus licheniformis, a probiotic, can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridiumperfringens, thereby improving the health status of chickens. However, from a microbial ecology perspective (...) , the mechanisms by which alterations to the gut microbiota improve health remain unknown. In this study, we used Illumina MiSeq sequencing to investigate the cecal microbiota of a negative control group (NC), a C. perfringens and Eimeria challenge group with fishmeal supplementation (PC), a group supplemented with fishmeal and infected with coccidia (FC), and group PC with B. licheniformis supplementation (BL). We found that the health status of C. perfringens-challenged chickens was compromised, and that B
Diverse modes of galacto-specific carbohydrate recognition by a family 31 glycoside hydrolase from Clostridiumperfringens. Clostridiumperfringens is a commensal member of the human gut microbiome and an opportunistic pathogen whose genome encodes a suite of putative large, multi-modular carbohydrate-active enzymes that appears to play a role in the interaction of the bacterium with mucin-based carbohydrates. Among the most complex of these is an enzyme that contains a presumed catalytic
Clostridiumperfringens sepsis complicated by right ventricular cardiogenic shock Clostridiumperfringens sepsis has been ascribed a dismal prognosis when associated with massive intravascular haemolysis. We present a 71-year-old woman's fatal case which was compounded by isolated right ventricular cardiogenic shock. In this context, combined use of transthoracic echocardiography and pulmonary artery catheter monitoring is able to yield an individualized hemodynamic resuscitation. We discuss
EGA Protects Mammalian Cells from Clostridium difficile CDT, Clostridiumperfringens Iota Toxin and Clostridium botulinum C2 Toxin The pathogenic bacteria Clostridium difficile, Clostridiumperfringens and Clostridium botulinum produce the binary actin ADP-ribosylating toxins CDT, iota and C2, respectively. These toxins are composed of a transport component (B) and a separate enzyme component (A). When both components assemble on the surface of mammalian target cells, the B components mediate (...) the intoxication of cells with Clostridium difficile toxins A and B, indicating a possible different entry route for this toxin. EGA does not affect either the binding of the C2 toxin to the cells surface or the enzyme activity of the A components of CDT, iota and C2, suggesting that this compound interferes with cellular uptake of the toxins. Moreover, for C2 toxin, we demonstrated that EGA inhibits the pH-dependent transport of the A component across cell membranes. EGA is not cytotoxic, and therefore, we
Dietary l-arginine Supplementation Alleviates the Intestinal Injury and Modulates the Gut Microbiota in Broiler Chickens Challenged by Clostridiumperfringens Our previous reports suggested that Dietary l-arginine supplementation attenuated gut injury of broiler chickens infected with Clostridiumperfringens by enhancing intestinal immune responses, absorption and barrier function, but its effect on the gut microbiome of broiler chickens remains unclear. This experiment aimed at evaluating (...) the effects of Dietary l-arginine supplementation on the gut bacterial community composition and function of broiler chickens challenged with C. perfringens. In total, 105 1-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chickens were assigned to three groups: Control (CTL), C. perfringens-challenged (CP), and C. perfringens-challenged and fed diet supplemented with 0.3% l-arginine (ARGCP) groups. The challenge led to macroscopic and histomorphological gut lesions, decreased villus height and increased the number
Clostridiumperfringens panophthalmitis and orbital cellulitis: a case report. Clostridiumperfringens is an uncommon pathogen in endophthalmitis, causing rapid destruction of ocular tissues. Clostridiumperfringens infection typically occurs after penetrating injury with soil-contaminated foreign bodies.Here, we describe the case of a 17-year-old male who sustained a penetrating injury with a metallic intraocular foreign body and who rapidly developed severe C. perfringens panophthalmitis
Uterine Sarcoma Presenting with Sepsis from Clostridiumperfringens Endometritis in a Postmenopausal Woman Clostridiumperfringens is an anaerobic gram positive rod that is found in normal vaginal and cervical flora in 1-10% of healthy women. Uterine infection with Clostridiumperfringens is seen rarely but is often related to underlying uterine pathology and can progress quickly to sepsis. Early recognition of sepsis, prompt treatment with antibiotics, and source control with surgical (...) management allow for optimal chance of recovery. We present a case of a postmenopausal woman who presented with sepsis, vaginal bleeding, and back pain who was found to have Clostridiumperfringens infection in the setting of undifferentiated uterine sarcoma.
A Rare Case of Spontaneous Empyema by Clostridiumperfringens Empyema caused by clostridial infections is rare especially in the absence of invasive thoracic procedures. We present the case of an 81-year-old man without a history of preceding trauma who presented with shortness of breath and nonproductive cough and grew Clostridiumperfringens only in the pleural cavity. He was predisposed to the infection due to his swallowing dysfunction. He was treated with penicillin and chest tube
NanI Sialidase Can Support the Growth and Survival of Clostridiumperfringens Strain F4969 in the Presence of Sialyated Host Macromolecules (Mucin) or Caco-2 Cells Enterotoxin-producing Clostridiumperfringens type A strains cause human gastrointestinal (GI) infections, including a very common food poisoning and 5 to 10% of all cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This bacterium can utilize free sialic acid for growth, but most sialic acids in the GI tract are sequestered on macromolecules (...) , such as the mucin proteins of mucus or glycoconjugates in host cells. However, many C. perfringens strains produce sialidases that might promote growth and survival by generating free sialic acid from those sialyated host macromolecules or by exposing underlying carbohydrates or proteins for digestion by other enzymes. The current study tested that possibility and found that the C. perfringens nonfoodborne human GI disease strain F4969 can use either a mucin preparation or Caco-2 cells, which are human
Effects of Bacillus coagulans supplementation on the growth performance and gut health of broiler chickens with Clostridiumperfringens-induced necrotic enteritis The poultry industry is in need of effective antibiotic alternatives to control outbreaks of necrotic enteritis (NE) due to Clostridium perfringens.This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding Bacillus coagulans on the growth performance and gut health of broiler chickens with C. perfringens-induced NE. Two hundred (...) and forty 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two dietary B. coagulans levels (0 or 4 × 109 CFU/kg of diet) and two disease challenge statuses (control or NE challenged).NE-induced reduction in body weight gain was relieved by the addition of B. coagulans into broiler diets compared with the NE-infected birds. NE infection damaged intestinal morphological structure, promoted intestinal C. perfringens growth and liver invasion, and enhanced anti-C
Clostridiumperfringens Septicemia and a Bleeding Ulcer of a Jejunal Interposition: A Case Report and Short Review of the Literature We report a case of Clostridiumperfringens septicemia in a patient presenting with a bleeding ulcer of a jejunal interposition.An 81-year-old female patient was acutely admitted to our hospital due to hematemesis and melena. She had a history of metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor, for which she was receiving second line treatment with sunitinib. She had (...) also undergone a Merendino procedure 4 years prior to presentation. The patient underwent emergency gastroscopy, which revealed a bleeding ulcer in the jejunal interposition. Despite initial endoscopic control of the bleeding and transfusion of blood products, the hemoglobin level continued to drop, and the patient was treated for an assumed hemolytic transfusion reaction. The patient died 3 days following admission, and the results of blood cultures later confirmed a Clostridiumperfringens
Growth-Promoting and Antioxidant Effects of Magnolia Bark Extract in Chickens Uninfected or Co-Infected with Clostridiumperfringens and Eimeria maxima as an Experimental Model of Necrotic Enteritis Magnolia tree bark has been widely used in traditional Asian medicine. However, to our knowledge, no studies have been reported investigating the effects of dietary supplementation with magnolia bark extract in chickens.We tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation of chickens (...) with a Magnolia officinalis bark extract would increase growth performance in uninfected and Eimeria maxima/Clostridiumperfringens co-infected chickens.A total of 168 chickens were fed from hatch either a standard diet or a diet supplemented with 0.33 mg or 0.56 mg M. officinalis bark extract/kg (M/H low or M/H high, respectively) from days 1 to 35. At day 14, half of the chickens were orally infected with E. maxima, followed by C. perfringens infection at day 18 to induce experimental avian necrotic
Mechanisms of Action and Cell Death Associated with Clostridiumperfringens Toxins Clostridiumperfringens uses its large arsenal of protein toxins to produce histotoxic, neurologic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. The major toxins involved in diseases are alpha (CPA), beta (CPB), epsilon (ETX), iota (ITX), enterotoxin (CPE), and necrotic B-like (NetB) toxins. CPA is the main virulence factor involved in gas gangrene in humans, whereas its role in animal diseases is limited (...) and controversial. CPB is responsible for necrotizing enteritis and enterotoxemia, mostly in neonatal individuals of many animal species, including humans. ETX is the main toxin involved in enterotoxemia of sheep and goats. ITX has been implicated in cases of enteritis in rabbits and other animal species; however, its specific role in causing disease has not been proved. CPE is responsible for human food-poisoning and non-foodborne C. perfringens-mediated diarrhea. NetB is the cause of necrotic enteritis
Clostridiumperfringens Virulent Bacteriophage CPS2 and Its Thermostable Endolysin LysCPS2 Clostridiumperfringens is one of the most common causes of food-borne illness. The increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria requires the development of alternatives to typical antimicrobial treatments. Here, we isolated and characterized a C. perfringens-specific virulent bacteriophage CPS2 from chicken feces. The CPS2 phage contains a 17,961 bp double-stranded DNA genome with 25 putative (...) ORFs, and belongs to the Picovirinae, subfamily of Podoviridae. Bioinformatic analysis of the CPS2 genome revealed a putative endolysin, LysCPS2, which is homologous to the endolysin of Clostridium phage phiZP2 and phiCP7R. The enzyme showed strong lytic activity against C. perfringens with optimum conditions at pH 7.5⁻10, 25⁻65 °C, and over a broad range of NaCl concentrations. Interestingly, LysCPS2 was found to be highly thermostable, with up to 30% of its lytic activity remaining after 10 min