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Clock Drawing Test

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1. Optimizing Clock Drawing Scoring Criteria: Development of the West Haven-Yale Clock Drawing Test. (PubMed)

Optimizing Clock Drawing Scoring Criteria: Development of the West Haven-Yale Clock Drawing Test. The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a widely used measure, which has been included as a recommended cognitive screen for driving evaluations. This study aimed to develop an optimized scoring method-the West Haven-Yale CDT (WHY-CDT)-based on the scoring methods of Freund and Royall's CLOX, the latter of which is significantly associated with executive control functions.Retrospective cohort study.Greater (...) New Haven, Connecticut, area.A total of 237 adults, aged 70 years and older, who had a current driver's license and drove at least once a month.Clock drawings were independently scored using both scoring systems, as well as a qualitative-based 5-point gestalt score. Interrater reliability was calculated using Light's κ for dichotomous variables and intraclass correlations for continuous variables. A categorical principal component analysis was conducted to determine which items from the Freund

2019 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

2. The clock drawing test: A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy

The clock drawing test: A systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the clock drawing test and to compare its scoring methods.Dementia refers to a symptom where an adult demonstrates memory disorder and cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis of dementia is very important for medication management and prognosis. The clock drawing test is one of the most used cognitive screening tools for dementia. However, due to its scoring (...) system, the accuracy of the clock drawing test remains a topic of debate.A systematic review with meta-analysis following Cochrane's methods and the guidelines of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.A literature search was carried out in the OVID-MEDLINE, OVID-EMBASE and OVID-PsycINFO databases (27 October 2015).The quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2) tool was employed for this review. We used hierarchical regression models to pool the values of diagnostic accuracy

2018 EvidenceUpdates

3. The Pentagon Copying Test and the Clock Drawing Test as Prognostic Markers in Dementia with Lewy Bodies. (PubMed)

The Pentagon Copying Test and the Clock Drawing Test as Prognostic Markers in Dementia with Lewy Bodies. To determine whether the pentagon copying test (PCT) and the clock drawing test (CDT) are associated with nursing home admission or survival in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).The PCT and/or the CDT were retrospectively collected from 103 clinically diagnosed probable DLB patients at a university medical center and general hospital. Patients with high versus low scores on these tests were (...) ) for the CDT.The PCT and the CDT may function as prognostic markers in DLB. This finding is clinically relevant as these tests can be applied easily in the clinical setting and can provide valuable prognostic information. Furthermore, it may improve disease management and patient selection for research purposes.The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

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2018 Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

4. The Clock Drawing Test: A Reasonable Instrument to Assess Probable Dementia in Primary Care? (PubMed)

The Clock Drawing Test: A Reasonable Instrument to Assess Probable Dementia in Primary Care? The primary aim of the study was to determine accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) in detecting probable dementia as compared to the multi-domain dementia screening test DemTect.The sample was derived from the general practitioner (GP)-based, cluster-randomized controlled intervention trial DelpHi-MV (Dementia: life- and person-centered help in Mecklenburg-Western (...) Pomerania). Selected from 6.440 patients systematically screened for dementia in primary care, we examined three groups (a,b,c) where the CDT (as index test) as well as the DemTect (as reference standard) were available. After excluding cases with missing values, we included a sample of n=462 with "probable dementia", n=586 with "mild cognitive impairment" and n=553 with "no cognitive impairment" matched for age and gender. We analyzed the accuracy of the CDT in identifying people with probable dementia

2018 Current Alzheimer research

5. Don't neglect the clock drawing test. (PubMed)

Don't neglect the clock drawing test. A 63-year-old, right-handed woman with a history of hypertension presented to the ED with left arm paresis of 2 days duration. Three weeks before admission, she had flu-like symptoms with intermittent left arm weakness that had recovered briefly but recurred 2 days prior to her presentation. On neurological examination, GCS was 15 and cranial nerves' function was normal. Left upper limb strength was 4/5. There was left arm drift and pronation (...) but the patient denied noticing any difference between the positions of her arms. Hyper-reflexion was presented in the left arm. The rest of her motor, cerebellar, sensation and gait functions were normal. She was asked to draw a clock and set it to 15:30 (figure 1).emermed;35/1/38/F1F1F1Figure 1Clock drawing test results.What is the most probable aetiology?Right cerebral bleeding involving the occipital lobeRight middle cerebral artery occlusionRight parietal lesion, likely neoplasmLeft cortical stroke.©

2018 Emergency Medicine Journal

6. Clock Drawing Test: A Simple Scoring System for the Accurate Screening of Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia. (PubMed)

Clock Drawing Test: A Simple Scoring System for the Accurate Screening of Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia. The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a valid alternative screening tool to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and, crucially, it may be completed faster. The aim of our study was to standardize and simplify the CDT scoring system for screening in three common conditions: mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mixed

2018 Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

7. Clock-Drawing Test as a Bedside Assessment of Post-operative Delirium Risk in Elderly Patients with Accidental Hip Fracture. (PubMed)

Clock-Drawing Test as a Bedside Assessment of Post-operative Delirium Risk in Elderly Patients with Accidental Hip Fracture. Currently applied cognitive tests for assessing the risk of post-operative delirium require time and specialised medical staff, in addition to the patients' mental strain. We investigated the four-point scoring Clock-Drawing Test (CDT-4) as a preoperative independent predictor for post-operative delirium.A total of 100 consecutive patients aged over 65 years admitted

2017 World Journal of Surgery

8. The test of time: a history of clock drawing. (PubMed)

The test of time: a history of clock drawing. The clock drawing test (CDT) has become one of the most widely used cognitive screening instruments in clinical and research settings. Its effectiveness, acceptability, and quick and easy administration have made it a staple for cognitive screening in dementia and a wide range of brain disorders. Despite a spike in popularity since the 1990s, its origins are relatively unknown. The goal of this review is to chronicle its saga and chart its usage (...) back more than a century to 1915. A review of the literature shows that the CDT began as a test for aphasia-related disorders and constructional apraxia until its entry into contemporary cognitive screening in the 1980s when it primarily became a cognitive screen. Its usage took off in 1989 with over 2000 publications since.Despite a fairly obscure existence for decades, the CDT has emerged as an effective and ideal cognitive screening instrument for a wide range of conditions. Its use continues

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2017 International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

9. Screening for Dementia in Older Adults: Comparison of Mini-Mental State Examination, Mini-Cog, Clock Drawing Test and AD8. (PubMed)

Screening for Dementia in Older Adults: Comparison of Mini-Mental State Examination, Mini-Cog, Clock Drawing Test and AD8. This study was conducted to estimate screening performance of dementia screening tools including Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mini-Cog, Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and Ascertain Dementia 8 questionnaire (AD8) for older adults. 2015 participants aged 65 years or more in eastern China were enrolled. 4 screening tests were administered and scored by specifically trained

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2016 PLoS ONE

10. Increased Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Clock Drawing Test for Discrimination of Patients in the Early Course of Alzheimer’s Disease from Cognitively Healthy Individuals (PubMed)

Increased Diagnostic Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Clock Drawing Test for Discrimination of Patients in the Early Course of Alzheimer’s Disease from Cognitively Healthy Individuals The conventional Clock Drawing Test (cCDT) is a rapid and inexpensive screening tool for detection of moderate and severe dementia. However, its usage is limited due to poor diagnostic accuracy especially in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The diagnostic value of a newly developed digital (...) Clock Drawing Test (dCDT) was evaluated and compared with the cCDT in 20 patients with early dementia due to AD (eDAT), 30 patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 20 cognitively healthy controls (HCs). Parameters assessed by dCDT were time while transitioning the stylus from one stroke to the next above the surface (i.e., time-in-air), time the stylus produced a visible stroke (i.e., time-on-surface) and total-time during clock drawing. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated

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2017 Frontiers in aging neuroscience

11. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Overlapping Infinity Loops, Wire Cube, and Clock Drawing Tests for Cognitive Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (PubMed)

Diagnostic Accuracy of the Overlapping Infinity Loops, Wire Cube, and Clock Drawing Tests for Cognitive Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Purpose. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the overlapping infinity loops, wire cube, and clock drawing tests (CDT) in the detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Method. The participants were 60 normal controls (NC), 35 patients with MCI, and 47 patients with mild dementia. Results. The results illustrate (...) that infinity loops, cube, or CDT were not able to discriminate between NC and MCI groups. In dementia detection, the CDT had the highest diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 76.6% and specificity 87.4%) followed by infinity loops (sensitivity 63.8% and specificity 91.6%) and cube (sensitivity 93.6% and specificity 46.3%). Conclusion. This study demonstrates that the three drawing tests are sensitive detectors of dementia but not MCI.

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2017 International journal of Alzheimer's disease

12. Clinical usefulness of the clock drawing test applying rasch analysis in predicting of cognitive impairment (PubMed)

Clinical usefulness of the clock drawing test applying rasch analysis in predicting of cognitive impairment [Purpose] This study examined the clinical usefulness of the clock drawing test applying Rasch analysis for predicting the level of cognitive impairment. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 187 stroke patients with cognitive impairment were enrolled in this study. The 187 patients were evaluated by the clock drawing test developed through Rasch analysis along with the mini-mental state (...) examination of cognitive evaluation tool. An analysis of the variance was performed to examine the significance of the mini-mental state examination and the clock drawing test according to the general characteristics of the subjects. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the cutoff point for cognitive impairment and to calculate the sensitivity and specificity values. [Results] The results of comparison of the clock drawing test with the mini-mental state showed significant

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2016 Journal of physical therapy science

13. Clock Drawing Test

Clock Drawing Test Clock Drawing Test Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Clock Drawing Test Clock Drawing Test Aka: Clock (...) Drawing Test II. Indications Screening III. Technique Give patient blank sheet of paper Patient is told to draw a clock Draw the clock face Draw the numbers in correct position Draw clock hands to show time of 11:10 IV. Interpretation Drawing a closed circle: 1 point Drawing 12 numbers: 1 point Positioning numbers correctly: 1 point Place clock hands at designated time: 1 point V. References Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search

2018 FP Notebook

14. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in Huntington's disease with the clock drawing test. (PubMed)

Screening for cognitive dysfunction in Huntington's disease with the clock drawing test. The aim of the study is to investigate the performance of the clock drawing test as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in Huntington's disease (HD) mutation carriers.The performance of the clock drawing test was assessed in 65 mutation carriers using the Shulman and the Freund scoring systems. The mini-mental state examination, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, and the Stroop (...) tests were used as comparisons for the evaluation of cognitive functioning. Correlations of the clock drawing test with various cognitive tests (convergent validity), neuropsychiatric characteristics (divergent validity) and clinical characteristics were analysed using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Receiver-operator characteristic analyses were performed for the clock drawing test against both the mini-mental state examination and against a composite variable for executive cognitive

2016 International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

15. Clock drawing test in screening for Alzheimer's dementia and mild cognitive impairment in clinical practice. (PubMed)

Clock drawing test in screening for Alzheimer's dementia and mild cognitive impairment in clinical practice. The clock drawing test (CDT) is a commonly used brief cognitive measure. We evaluated diagnostic accuracy of subjective ratings of CDT by physicians (with/without specialty in cognitive neurology) and neuropsychologists in discriminating amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and cognitively healthy older adults. We further compared the diagnostic accuracy

2016 International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

16. Clock Drawing Performance Slows for Older Adults After Total Knee Replacement Surgery. (PubMed)

Clock Drawing Performance Slows for Older Adults After Total Knee Replacement Surgery. Clock drawing is a neurocognitive screening tool used in preoperative settings. This study examined hypothesized changes in clock drawing to command and copy test conditions 3 weeks and 3 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with general anesthesia.Participants included 67 surgery and 66 nonsurgery individuals >60 years who completed the digital clock drawing test before TKA (or a pseudosurgery date (...) ), and 3 weeks and 3 months postsurgery. Generalized linear mixed models assessed digital clock drawing test latency (ie, total time to completion, seconds between digit placement) and graphomotor output (ie, total number of strokes, clock size). Reliable change analyses examined the percent of participants showing change beyond differences found in nonsurgery peers.After adjusting for age, education, and baseline cognition, both digital clock drawing test latency measures were significantly different

2018 Anesthesia and Analgesia

17. Clock Drawing and Neuroanatomical Correlates: A Systematic Review. (PubMed)

Clock Drawing and Neuroanatomical Correlates: A Systematic Review. The popular clock drawing test (CDT) is easy to administer, acceptable to patients, and has excellent psychometric properties. Although it has been used primarily as a cognitive screening test, many studies have attempted to establish the CDT's ability to localize specific brain lesions or pathology. This systematic review aimed to summarize the evidence on the neuroanatomical correlates of the CDT.Using PRISMA guidelines (...) , the authors systematically reviewed the evidence on neuroanatomical correlates of clock drawing by a systematic search in six databases (Pubmed, CINHL, PsychINFO, HealthStar, Embase, and Web of Science) until January 2018. Studies were included if they reported CDT correlations with anatomical brain lesions documented by neuroimaging.Forty-five papers met inclusion criteria. Thirty-one studies identified distinct areas of neuroanatomical correlates of CDT utilizing different scoring methods and imaging

2018 International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

18. Relationship between clock-drawing and neuropsychological and functional status in elderly institutionalized patients with schizophrenia. (PubMed)

Relationship between clock-drawing and neuropsychological and functional status in elderly institutionalized patients with schizophrenia. The authors sought to examine the usefulness of the clock-drawing test (CDT) as a measure of general cognitive and adaptive functioning in elderly patients with schizophrenia.CDT performance of elderly institutionalized patients with schizophrenia were contrasted with a comparison group, similar in age. Cognitive and functional status was examined using (...) an expanded battery from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease and the Psychogeriatric Dependency Rating Scale.Patients (N=21) performed more poorly overall on the CDT than the comparison group (N=21), with greater clock number and hand errors. Production of the clock's gestalt did not differ between groups. In patients, overall CDT performance and clock hand placement were significantly correlated with general cognitive functioning, memory, visuoconstruction, and word-list

2017 The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

19. The Metabolic Syndrome Predicts Longitudinal Changes in Clock Drawing Test Performance in Older Nondemented Hypertensive Individuals. (PubMed)

The Metabolic Syndrome Predicts Longitudinal Changes in Clock Drawing Test Performance in Older Nondemented Hypertensive Individuals. The present study evaluated the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as independent predictor of 1-year longitudinal changes in cognitive function.104 stroke- and dementia-free older hypertensive subjects were studied. MetS was defined by NCEP ATP-III criteria. Cognitive function was assessed by the Clock Drawing Test (CDT); 1-year changes in cognitive function were

2015 The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

20. The clock drawing test, mortality, incident cardiovascular events and dementia. (PubMed)

The clock drawing test, mortality, incident cardiovascular events and dementia. The purpose of this study is to examine the association of the clock drawing test (CDT) with incident dementia, cardiovascular events and mortality in very elderly hypertensive patients.All participants were hypertensive and aged 80 years and over. The CDT was administered at baseline and annually thereafter. Data on incident cardiovascular, fatal events and dementia were collected over follow-up.There were 3845

2014 International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

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