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Chronic Hepatitis B Carrier

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141. Safety of coitally administered tenofovir 1% gel, a vaginal microbicide, in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers: Results from the CAPRISA 004 trial. (PubMed)

Safety of coitally administered tenofovir 1% gel, a vaginal microbicide, in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers: Results from the CAPRISA 004 trial. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, a licensed oral treatment for both HIV and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, has been associated with severe rebound hepatic flares when treatment is interrupted. A gel formulation of tenofovir is currently being assessed as a microbicide against HIV. If licensed, it is possible that tenofovir gel could be used (...) either intentionally or unintentionally by HBV carriers. The purpose of this study was to establish the safety of tenofovir gel use in this patient group participating in the CAPRISA 004 tenofovir gel trial. HBV infection status was assessed at enrolment and study exit. Liver function testing was performed at enrolment, study months 3, 12, 24, study exit, and 2 months after exiting the study. At enrolment, 34 women were identified as being HBV carriers and 22 women acquired HBV infections during

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2013 Antiviral research

142. Solute Carrier NTCP Regulates Innate Antiviral Immune Responses Targeting Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Hepatocytes (PubMed)

Solute Carrier NTCP Regulates Innate Antiviral Immune Responses Targeting Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Hepatocytes Chronic hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV) infections are the leading causes of liver disease and cancer worldwide. Recently, the solute carrier and sodium taurocholate co-transporter NTCP has been identified as a receptor for HBV and HDV. Here, we uncover NTCP as a host factor regulating HCV infection. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we show that NTCP (...) mediates HCV infection of hepatocytes and is relevant for cell-to-cell transmission. NTCP regulates HCV infection by augmenting the bile-acid-mediated repression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including IFITM3. In conclusion, our results uncover NTCP as a mediator of innate antiviral immune responses in the liver, and they establish a role for NTCP in the infection process of multiple viruses via distinct mechanisms. Collectively, our findings suggest a role for solute carriers

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2016 Cell reports

143. Prevalence of and factors influencing impaired glucose tolerance among hepatitis B carriers: a nationwide cross-sectional study in the Republic of Korea. (PubMed)

Prevalence of and factors influencing impaired glucose tolerance among hepatitis B carriers: a nationwide cross-sectional study in the Republic of Korea. Diabetes is associated with a poor prognosis for liver disease, particularly in chronic hepatitis carriers. We investigated the prevalence of factors associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) including diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among individuals with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.We used data from the Korean (...) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationwide cross-sectional survey conducted between 2007 and 2011. Sociodemographic information was collected using a structured questionnaire. The HBV surface antigen, liver enzymes, and lipid profile were measured from blood samples.IFG was found in 18.1% of HBV carriers and 19.3% of noncarriers (P = 0.25). Diabetes was observed in 10.0% of HBV carriers and 12.2% of noncarriers (P = 0.08). Lower level of educational attainment was associated

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2014 Medicine

144. Incomplete Hepatitis B Immunization, Maternal Carrier Status and Increased Risk of Liver Diseases: A 20-year Cohort Study of 3.8 Million Vaccinees. (PubMed)

Incomplete Hepatitis B Immunization, Maternal Carrier Status and Increased Risk of Liver Diseases: A 20-year Cohort Study of 3.8 Million Vaccinees. Hepatitis B immunization has been documented to prevent fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by historical comparison studies in Taiwan. This study aimed to assess long-term risks and predictors of various liver diseases associated with incomplete immunization in 3.8 million vaccinees. Profiles of the National Hepatitis (...) B Immunization Registry, National Cancer Registry, and National Death Certification Registry were linked to ascertain newly diagnosed cases of HCC and deaths from FHF and chronic liver diseases (CLDs) from infancy to early adulthood of 3,836,988 newborn vaccinees. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for various risk predictors. There were 49 newly developed cases of HCC, 73 deaths from FHF, and 74 deaths from CLDs during the follow-up of 41,854,715 person

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2014 Hepatology

145. Acceptability and feasibility of a screen-and-treat programme for hepatitis B virus infection in The Gambia: the Prevention of Liver Fibrosis and Cancer in Africa (PROLIFICA) study. (PubMed)

Acceptability and feasibility of a screen-and-treat programme for hepatitis B virus infection in The Gambia: the Prevention of Liver Fibrosis and Cancer in Africa (PROLIFICA) study. Despite the introduction of immunisation for hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the 1990s, HBV-related morbidity and mortality remain high in sub-Saharan Africa. Identification and treatment of asymptomatic people with chronic HBV infection should reduce the disease burden. We therefore assessed the feasibility of a screen (...) -and-treat programme for HBV infection in The Gambia, west Africa, and estimated the proportion of HBV-infected people who had significant liver disease in need of treatment.Between Dec 7, 2011, and Jan 24, 2014, individuals living in randomly selected communities in western Gambia were offered hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening via a point-of-care test. The test was also offered to potential blood donors attending the central hospital in the capital, Banjul. HBsAg-positive individuals were

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2018 The Lancet. Global health

146. Efficacy of Antiviral Therapy in HBsAg-Positive Pregnant Women to Reduce Mother-to-Infant Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus. (PubMed)

Efficacy of Antiviral Therapy in HBsAg-Positive Pregnant Women to Reduce Mother-to-Infant Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus. Hepatitis B is a major health concern in Asia. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may cause hepatic cirrhosis and liver cancer. HBV is transmitted horizontally through blood and blood products and vertically from mother to infant. Perinatal infection is the main route of transmission in regions with high prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) carriage (...) , and perinatal transmission leads to high rates of chronic infection. Therefore, it is important to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HBV1. The present study aims at comparing the use of antivirals (lamivudine vs tenofovir) in reducing MTCT.A total of 60 HbsAg-positive pregnant women were enrolled in the prospective study to test the efficacy of antiviral (lamivudine vs tenofovir-category B drug) to reduce mother-to-child transmission and monitor hepatitis B viral status in infant. HbsAg

2018 Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology of India

147. Diagnostic Dilemma for Low Viremia with Significant Fibrosis; is Hepatitis B Virus DNA Threshold Level a Good Indicator for Predicting Liver Damage? (PubMed)

with 60 U/L alanine aminotransferase threshold level for predicting F≥2 fibrosis score were similar (sensitivity: 0.43 and 0.38, specificity: 0.76 and 0.77, respectively).Significant fibrosis may occur even in young cases with low viremia. It is not possible to define a single threshold hepatitis B virus DNA level for differentiating inactive carriers from patients with hepatitis B e-antigen-negative chronic hepatitis. Diagnostic accuracy of hepatitis B virus DNA with alanine aminotransferase (...) Diagnostic Dilemma for Low Viremia with Significant Fibrosis; is Hepatitis B Virus DNA Threshold Level a Good Indicator for Predicting Liver Damage? The most important difficulties about management of hepatitis B are still determining the liver damage and the right time to start antiviral therapy.To reveal the role of hepatitis B virus DNA threshold level for prediction of liver fibrosis and inflammation in young-aged hepatitis B e-antigen negative chronic hepatitis B patients.Diagnostic

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2018 Balkan medical journal

148. Correlation between polymorphisms in toll-like receptor genes and the activity of hepatitis B virus among treatment-naïve patients: a case-control study in a Han Chinese population. (PubMed)

Correlation between polymorphisms in toll-like receptor genes and the activity of hepatitis B virus among treatment-naïve patients: a case-control study in a Han Chinese population. Because of the high prevalence and absence of cure for infection, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been acknowledged as a pressing public health issue. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate the human innate immune system and the polymorphisms in TLRs may alter their function. The present study aimed (...) level of both HbsAg and cytokines were also correlated with the mutant carriers of rs3804099 and rs4696480.TLR mutations were significantly associated with milder hepatitis activity among patients with chronic HBV infection. Therefore, we conclude that the activation of TLR pathways may further intensify the inflammation of hepatocytes, and leads to progression of disease.

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2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

149. Newly Diagnosed with Hepatitis B? How Did I Get this? Learning the HBV Basics, Transmission – Part I

than six months, it is considered a chronic infection. It means you were probably infected at birth or during early childhood, when your immature immune system could not fight it. Knowing whether your hepatitis B is acute or chronic will help you and your doctor determine your next steps. Please get tested again in six months to find out if it’s chronic or acute. If you are unsure of what your blood test results mean, please visit: Good luck. I am an inactive carrier of HBV. Is it safe for me (...) infection, he needs to be tested over a six-month period. If he continues to test positive beyond six months for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), it means he may have been infected during early childhood, and this is one of many previously undiagnosed hepatitis B infections. I am happy to hear you are immunized. Good luck. I need some answers for my peace of mind. Five years ago I have been diagnosed with hep b , carrier, not infectious. So basically chronic hepatitis. I just had another blood

2018 hepbblog

150. UBE2L3, a susceptibility gene that plays oncogenic role in hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma. (PubMed)

UBE2L3, a susceptibility gene that plays oncogenic role in hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma. Previously, we identified UBE2L3 as a susceptibility gene for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection through genome-wide association study. Here, we analysed the association between genetic variants of UBE2L3 and the susceptibility to HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and further explored its role in HCC. This case-control study included 1344 subjects who cleared HBV, 1560 HBV (...) carriers and 1057 HBV-related HCC patients. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped, including rs2266959 and rs4821116. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compute the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). We further analysed the expression of UBE2L3 and its association with pathological features based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data and our tissue microarray. Proliferation and migration assays were performed in hepatoma cell lines with or without UBE2L3

2018 Journal of viral hepatitis

151. Hepatitis B reactivation among 1962 patients with hematological malignancy in Taiwan. (PubMed)

of 1962 patients comprising 1048 men and 914 women were studied. The median age of the patients was 55 years (range, 15-97 years). Chronic HBV carriage was documented at diagnosis of hematological malignancy in 286 (14.6%) patients. A total of 171 (59.8%) of the 286 HBV carriers received primary prophylaxis with anti-HBV agents. Of the HBV carriers, 97 (33.9%) developed hepatitis B reactivation during or after chemotherapy, including 59 patients who had discontinued antiviral therapy. The incidence (...) of hepatitis B reactivation among patients with hematological malignancy and HBV carriage was 10.4 per 100 person-years. A multivariate analysis revealed hepatocellular carcinoma (p < 0.001) and antiviral prophylaxis use (p < 0.001) were independent risk factors of HBV reactivation in HBV carriers. Of the 1676 patients with initial negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) counts, 41 (2.4%) experienced hepatitis B reactivation, reverse seroconversion of HBsAg, and lost their protective hepatitis B

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2018 BMC Gastroenterology

152. How to control highly endemic hepatitis B in Asia. (PubMed)

How to control highly endemic hepatitis B in Asia. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an enormous economic and social burden. Asian countries such as Vietnam, Mongolia, Laos, China, the Philippines, South Korea, Singapore and Cambodia have high or high-intermediate HBsAg prevalence. Most of the chronic HBV carriers in this region acquire their infection during early childhood or through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Asia has been highly successful in controlling HBV in the last (...) . The combined efforts of the government, the medical community, industry, civil society and the public should eliminate hepatitis B as a public threat by 2030.© 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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2018 Liver International

153. Analysis of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression in hepatitis B patients (PubMed)

Analysis of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression in hepatitis B patients Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in numerous biological processes, including epigenetic regulation, cell-cycle control, and transcriptional/translational regulation of gene expression. Differential expression of lncRNAs and disruption of the regulatory processes are recognized as critical steps in cancer development. The role of lncRNAs in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not well understood. Here (...) we analyzed the expression of 135 lncRNAs in plasma samples of 82 HBV patients (classified as chronic patients, inactive carriers, or resolved patients) at diagnosis and at 12 months of treatment in relation to control group (81 healthy volunteers). We also investigated the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of lincRNA-SFMBT2 on HBV-positive human liver cancer cell line. lncRNA expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR

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2018 Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences

154. Hepatitis B virus pre-S/S variants in liver diseases (PubMed)

Hepatitis B virus pre-S/S variants in liver diseases Chronic hepatitis B is a global health problem. The clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B infection include asymptomatic carrier state, chronic hepatitis (CH), liver cirrhosis (LC), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because of the spontaneous error rate inherent to viral reverse transcriptase, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome evolves during the course of infection under the antiviral pressure of host immunity. The clinical significance (...) of pre-S/S variants has become increasingly recognized in patients with chronic HBV infection. Pre-S/S variants are often identified in hepatitis B carriers with CH, LC, and HCC, which suggests that these naturally occurring pre-S/S variants may contribute to the development of progressive liver damage and hepatocarcinogenesis. This paper reviews the function of the pre-S/S region along with recent findings related to the role of pre-S/S variants in liver diseases. According to the mutation type

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2018 World Journal of Gastroenterology

155. Hepatitis B Virus Infection Predicts Better Survival In Patients With Colorectal Liver-only Metastases Undergoing Liver Resection (PubMed)

. Of these patients, 31.4 %(11/35) had chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 42.9 % (15/35) were inactive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers (IC) and 25.7 % (9/35) did not undergo HBV DNA detection. HBV infection was associated with more liver metastases (P = 0.025) and larger-sized liver metastases (P = 0.049). The 3-year OS and PFS rates in the HBV infection group were higher than those in the HBV non-infected group (OS: 75.0 % vs 64.8 %, P = 0.031; PFS: 55.9 % vs 39.6 %, P = 0.034). In multivariate Cox analysis (...) Hepatitis B Virus Infection Predicts Better Survival In Patients With Colorectal Liver-only Metastases Undergoing Liver Resection Objective: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been shown to decrease the risk of liver metastasis in patients with non-metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the prognostic value of HBV infection in long-term survival of patients with colorectal liver-only metastases (CRLM) after liver resection has not yet been evaluated. This study aims to explore

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2018 Journal of Cancer

156. Asymmetrical Dimethylarginine Levels in Hepatitis B Virus-Positive Patients (PubMed)

Asymmetrical Dimethylarginine Levels in Hepatitis B Virus-Positive Patients High asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels have been associated with endothelial dysfunction and contribute to the development of several diseases. However, data on the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) and ADMA are limited. The aim of our study was to explore the relationship between ADMA and HBV by comparing the ADMA levels in patients with chronic active hepatitis B (CHB), inactive HBV carriers (...) (carriers), and healthy volunteers (controls).The participants were divided into three groups: 90 patients with CHB, 90 HBV carriers, and 90 controls. Serum ADMA levels were quantified using an ELISA kit (Cusabio, Wuhan, China). The data were analyzed using an ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test as appropriate, with P<0.05 considered significant.Serum ADMA levels were significantly higher in patients with CHB (228.35±91.10 ng/mL) than in HBV carriers (207.80±75.80 ng/mL) and controls (207.61±89.10 ng/mL

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2018 Annals of laboratory medicine

157. Genome-wide association study identified new susceptible genetic variants in HLA class I region for hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (PubMed)

Genome-wide association study identified new susceptible genetic variants in HLA class I region for hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma We have performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 473 Japanese HBV (hepatitis B virus)-positive HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma) patients and 516 HBV carriers including chronic hepatitis and asymptomatic carrier individuals to identify new host genetic factors associated with HBV-derived HCC in Japanese and other East Asian

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2018 Scientific reports

158. One-Vector System for Multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9 against Hepatitis B Virus cccDNA Utilizing High-Capacity Adenoviral Vectors (PubMed)

One-Vector System for Multiplexed CRISPR/Cas9 against Hepatitis B Virus cccDNA Utilizing High-Capacity Adenoviral Vectors High-capacity adenoviral vectors (HCAdVs) devoid of all coding genes are powerful tools to deliver large DNA cargos into cells. Here HCAdVs were designed to deliver a multiplexed complete CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease system or a complete pair of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) directed against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome. HBV, which remains a serious (...) global health burden, forms covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) as a persistent DNA species in infected cells. This cccDNA promotes the chronic carrier status, and it represents a major hurdle in the treatment of chronic HBV infection. To date, only one study demonstrated viral delivery of a CRISPR/Cas9 system and a single guide RNA (gRNA) directed against HBV by adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors. The advancement of this study is the co-delivery of multiple gRNA expression cassettes along

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2018 Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids

159. Drug Delivery Strategies for Antivirals against Hepatitis B Virus (PubMed)

Drug Delivery Strategies for Antivirals against Hepatitis B Virus Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection poses a significant health challenge due to associated morbidity and mortality from cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer that eventually results in the breakdown of liver functionality. Nanotechnology has the potential to play a pivotal role in reducing viral load levels and drug-resistant HBV through drug targeting, thus reducing the rate of evolution of the disease. Apart from tissue (...) targeting, intracellular delivery of a wide range of drugs is necessary to exert a therapeutic action in the affected organelles. This review encompasses the strategies and techniques that have been utilized to target the HBV-infected nuclei in liver hepatocytes, with a significant look at the new insights and most recent advances in drug carriers and their role in anti-HBV therapy.

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2018 Viruses

160. Investigation of the Prevalence of Hepatopulmonary Syndrome in Cirrhosis Patients Caused by Hepatitis B in Western China

: Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) occurs in approximately 4%-29% of cirrhotic patients and influences mortality. China has 100 million Hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers and Chronic HBV infection is well-recognized risk factor for cirrhosis.But little is known about the prevalence of HPS in cirrhosis patients caused by HBV in western China. The aim of this study was to investigate the HPS incidence, and the signs, symptoms, arterial blood gas, and BMP9 in the serum of the patients. Study Design Go to Layout table (...) Military Medical University Affiliation: Southwest Hospital, China, Southwest Hospital, China ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: Other Study ID Numbers: CEE-HBV First Posted: February 16, 2018 Last Update Posted: February 16, 2018 Last Verified: February 2018 Layout table for additional information Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No Keywords provided by Lu KZ, Southwest Hospital, China: Hepatitis B, Chronic Cirrhosis Hepatopulmonary Syndrome

2018 Clinical Trials

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