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Chronic Hepatitis B Carrier

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141. Hepatitis B Virus Screening for Patients With Cancer Before Therapy PCO Update

a provisional clinical opinion (PCO) on chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection screening in patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy for the treatment of malignant diseases. PCOs offer timely clinical direction to ASCO membership after publication or presentation of potentially practice-changing information. PCOs are updated periodically on the basis of review of recently published data. This PCO update presents a revised clinical opinion that summarizes the results of the literature review and analysis (...) With Recommendations for Hepatitis B Screening Table 1. Selected Guidance Documents With Recommendations for Hepatitis B Screening Recommending Body Patient Population Screening Recommendation Serologic Tests Prophylaxis American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (2009) Patients receiving cytotoxic or immunosuppressive therapy Screen patients at high risk for HBV infection HBsAg, anti-HBc Lamivudine, telbivudine, tenofovir, or entecavir for all HBV carriers; continue for ≥ 6 months after oncologic

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2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology Guidelines

142. Hepatitis B

very rarely (when there is profound immune suppression) does the hepatitis B virus probably become directly cytopathic. 2.1 Natural history The clinical course of HBV infection is variable and includes acute (self-limiting) infection, fulminant hepatic failure, inactive carrier state, and chronic hepatitis with chances of progression to cirrhosis and HCC [24,25]. 2.2 Chronic HBV infection The risk of chronicity in acute HBV infection is related to age at primary infection. Adults who become (...) . Hui CK, Leung N, Yuen ST, Zhang HY, Leung KW, Lu L, et al. Natural history and disease progression in Chinese chronic hepatitis B patients in immune-tolerant phase. Hepatology 2007;46:395–401. 29. Brunetto MR, Oliveri F, Colombatto P, Moriconi F, Ciccorossi P, Coco B, et al. Hepatitis B surface antigen serum levels help to distinguish active from inactive hepatitis B virus genotype D carriers. Gastroenterology 2010;139:483–90. 30. Raimondo G, Allain JP, Brunetto MR, Buendia MA, Chen DS, Colombo M

2015 World Gastroenterology Organisation

143. Factors Affecting the Natural Decay of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Children with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection during Long-Term Follow-Up. (PubMed)

Factors Affecting the Natural Decay of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Children with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection during Long-Term Follow-Up. To investigate the factors predicting spontaneous clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in a long-term, prospectively followed cohort from childhood into adult life.Children with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection without treatment were followed longitudinally every 6 months. At each visit, liver profiles and HBV markers were (...) assessed. Hepatitis B vaccination history and the maternal HBV markers also were studied.A total of 349 children (205 male) were followed for 20.6 ± 4.4 years with initial ages of 8.4 ± 3.9 years; 42 (12.0%) cleared HBsAg spontaneously. The HBsAg titers decayed with age, with an average annual clearance rate of 0.58%. Children had a lower annual HBsAg decay rate if their mothers are HBsAg carriers (P < .001). Hepatitis B e antigen-seroconversion is a favorable predictor for spontaneous HBsAg clearance

2014 Journal of Pediatrics

144. Effect of serum hepatitis B surface antigen levels on predicting the clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B infection: A meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Effect of serum hepatitis B surface antigen levels on predicting the clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B infection: A meta-analysis. The impact of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels on the prognosis of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to determine whether serum HBsAg levels influenced the risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Furthermore, we explored the role played by serum HBsAg levels (...) in prediction of spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance.We performed this meta-analysis including 11 studies to assess the effect of HBsAg levels on predicting clinical outcomes in chronic HBV carriers. The pooled odds ratios (OR) were calculated using a random or fixed effects model. PUBMED, EMBASE, MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database were searched for articles published from 1990 to May 2014.Our results showed that high HBsAg levels significantly increased the risk of developing cirrhosis (OR, 2.51; 95% confidence

2014 Hepatology research : the official journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology

145. Carrier Screening for Genetic Conditions

Carrier Screening for Genetic Conditions Carrier Screening for Genetic Conditions - ACOG Menu ▼ Carrier Screening for Genetic Conditions Page Navigation ▼ Number 691, March 2017 (Replaces Committee Opinion Number 318, October 2005; Committee Opinion Number 432, May 2009; Committee Opinion Number 442, October 2009; Committee Opinion Number 469, October 2010; Committee Opinion Number 486, April 2011) (Reaffirmed 2019) Committee on Genetics This Committee Opinion was developed by the American (...) College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Committee on Genetics in collaboration with committee members Britton Rink, MD; Stephanie Romero, MD; Joseph R. Biggio Jr, MD; Devereux N. Saller Jr, MD; and Rose Giardine, MS. This document reflects emerging clinical and scientific advances as of the date issued and is subject to change. The information should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure to be followed. Carrier Screening for Genetic Conditions ABSTRACT

2017 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

146. Quantitative Elastography of Liver Fibrosis and Spleen Stiffness in Chronic Hepatitis B Carriers: Comparison of Shear-Wave Elastography and Transient Elastography with Liver Biopsy Correlation. (PubMed)

Quantitative Elastography of Liver Fibrosis and Spleen Stiffness in Chronic Hepatitis B Carriers: Comparison of Shear-Wave Elastography and Transient Elastography with Liver Biopsy Correlation. To document utility of shear-wave (SW) elastography for assessing liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B and to compare its performance with that of transient elastography.Ethics committee approved the study, and informed consent was obtained. Patients with liver biopsy correlation (n = 226) and healthy

2013 Radiology

147. Hepatitis B virus surface protein mutations clustered mainly in CTL immune epitopes in chronic carriers: results of an Iranian nationwide study. (PubMed)

Hepatitis B virus surface protein mutations clustered mainly in CTL immune epitopes in chronic carriers: results of an Iranian nationwide study. Mutations within the coding region of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) have been found naturally in chronic carriers. To characterize the mutations of HBsAg from Iranian chronic carriers who were vaccine and/or medication naive. The surface genes from 360 patients were amplified and directly sequenced. The distribution of amino acid substitutions (...) and 206-215) epitopes were found to be hotspot motifs for the occurrence of 213 (52.7%) substitutions. 20 stop codons were identified in different epitopes. There was a significant association between amino acid substitutions and anti-HBe seropositivity; however, the correlation between such changes with viral load and ALT levels was not significant. In chronic hepatitis B virus(HBV) carriers, positive selection in particular outside the 'a' determinant appeared to exert influence on the surface

2013 Journal of viral hepatitis

148. Efficacy and safety of a chinese herbal formula (invigorating kidney and strengthening spleen) in chronic hepatitis B virus carrier: results from a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. (PubMed)

Efficacy and safety of a chinese herbal formula (invigorating kidney and strengthening spleen) in chronic hepatitis B virus carrier: results from a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. A Chinese Herbal Formula (CHF) has acquired a certain therapeutic effect on chronic HBV infection. To assess the efficacy and safety of CHF on HBV replication in chronic HBV carriers, we performed a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial involving patients from 16 (...) centers. A total of 300 confirmed chronic HBV carriers were randomized at baseline in a ratio of 2 : 1 to receive either CHF or placebo for 52 weeks. The results showed that a greater proportion of CHF than placebo treated patients achieved virological response at week 52; the mean decline of serum HBsAg levels in the CHF group dropped more obviously than that in the control group at all stages of the treatment; however, the rates of HBeAg loss and seroconversion had no difference between the two

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2013 Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

149. Safety of coitally administered tenofovir 1% gel, a vaginal microbicide, in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers: Results from the CAPRISA 004 trial. (PubMed)

Safety of coitally administered tenofovir 1% gel, a vaginal microbicide, in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers: Results from the CAPRISA 004 trial. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, a licensed oral treatment for both HIV and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, has been associated with severe rebound hepatic flares when treatment is interrupted. A gel formulation of tenofovir is currently being assessed as a microbicide against HIV. If licensed, it is possible that tenofovir gel could be used (...) either intentionally or unintentionally by HBV carriers. The purpose of this study was to establish the safety of tenofovir gel use in this patient group participating in the CAPRISA 004 tenofovir gel trial. HBV infection status was assessed at enrolment and study exit. Liver function testing was performed at enrolment, study months 3, 12, 24, study exit, and 2 months after exiting the study. At enrolment, 34 women were identified as being HBV carriers and 22 women acquired HBV infections during

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2013 Antiviral research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

150. Association of TGF-ß1 polymorphisms and chronic hepatitis C infection: a Meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Association of TGF-ß1 polymorphisms and chronic hepatitis C infection: a Meta-analysis. Although several researches have reported the connection between the transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) gene polymorphisms and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the conclusions of these studies were not always consistent. Here, this paper proposed a meta-analysis to evaluate whether the TGF-ß1 gene polymorphisms, -509C/T (rs1800469), codon 10 T/C (rs1982073) and codon 25G/C (rs1800471), were (...) to 1964 controls. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that the -509C/T polymorphism effected an increased risk of chronic HCV infection in all gene models. More specifically by ethnicity stratification, the Egyptians shared the similar association with the above overall study. Moreover, the meta-fusion of healthy control studies showed that - 509 T allele carriers (TT + TA) had nearly 2.00 and 3.36 fold higher risk of chronic HCV infection in the total and Egyptian populations, respectively

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

151. Solute Carrier NTCP Regulates Innate Antiviral Immune Responses Targeting Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Hepatocytes (PubMed)

Solute Carrier NTCP Regulates Innate Antiviral Immune Responses Targeting Hepatitis C Virus Infection of Hepatocytes Chronic hepatitis B, C, and D virus (HBV, HCV, and HDV) infections are the leading causes of liver disease and cancer worldwide. Recently, the solute carrier and sodium taurocholate co-transporter NTCP has been identified as a receptor for HBV and HDV. Here, we uncover NTCP as a host factor regulating HCV infection. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies, we show that NTCP (...) mediates HCV infection of hepatocytes and is relevant for cell-to-cell transmission. NTCP regulates HCV infection by augmenting the bile-acid-mediated repression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including IFITM3. In conclusion, our results uncover NTCP as a mediator of innate antiviral immune responses in the liver, and they establish a role for NTCP in the infection process of multiple viruses via distinct mechanisms. Collectively, our findings suggest a role for solute carriers

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2016 Cell reports

152. Incomplete Hepatitis B Immunization, Maternal Carrier Status and Increased Risk of Liver Diseases: A 20-year Cohort Study of 3.8 Million Vaccinees. (PubMed)

Incomplete Hepatitis B Immunization, Maternal Carrier Status and Increased Risk of Liver Diseases: A 20-year Cohort Study of 3.8 Million Vaccinees. Hepatitis B immunization has been documented to prevent fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by historical comparison studies in Taiwan. This study aimed to assess long-term risks and predictors of various liver diseases associated with incomplete immunization in 3.8 million vaccinees. Profiles of the National Hepatitis (...) B Immunization Registry, National Cancer Registry, and National Death Certification Registry were linked to ascertain newly diagnosed cases of HCC and deaths from FHF and chronic liver diseases (CLDs) from infancy to early adulthood of 3,836,988 newborn vaccinees. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for various risk predictors. There were 49 newly developed cases of HCC, 73 deaths from FHF, and 74 deaths from CLDs during the follow-up of 41,854,715 person

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2014 Hepatology

153. Prevalence of and factors influencing impaired glucose tolerance among hepatitis B carriers: a nationwide cross-sectional study in the Republic of Korea. (PubMed)

Prevalence of and factors influencing impaired glucose tolerance among hepatitis B carriers: a nationwide cross-sectional study in the Republic of Korea. Diabetes is associated with a poor prognosis for liver disease, particularly in chronic hepatitis carriers. We investigated the prevalence of factors associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) including diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among individuals with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.We used data from the Korean (...) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationwide cross-sectional survey conducted between 2007 and 2011. Sociodemographic information was collected using a structured questionnaire. The HBV surface antigen, liver enzymes, and lipid profile were measured from blood samples.IFG was found in 18.1% of HBV carriers and 19.3% of noncarriers (P = 0.25). Diabetes was observed in 10.0% of HBV carriers and 12.2% of noncarriers (P = 0.08). Lower level of educational attainment was associated

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2014 Medicine

154. Diagnostic Dilemma for Low Viremia with Significant Fibrosis; is Hepatitis B Virus DNA Threshold Level a Good Indicator for Predicting Liver Damage? (PubMed)

with 60 U/L alanine aminotransferase threshold level for predicting F≥2 fibrosis score were similar (sensitivity: 0.43 and 0.38, specificity: 0.76 and 0.77, respectively).Significant fibrosis may occur even in young cases with low viremia. It is not possible to define a single threshold hepatitis B virus DNA level for differentiating inactive carriers from patients with hepatitis B e-antigen-negative chronic hepatitis. Diagnostic accuracy of hepatitis B virus DNA with alanine aminotransferase (...) Diagnostic Dilemma for Low Viremia with Significant Fibrosis; is Hepatitis B Virus DNA Threshold Level a Good Indicator for Predicting Liver Damage? The most important difficulties about management of hepatitis B are still determining the liver damage and the right time to start antiviral therapy.To reveal the role of hepatitis B virus DNA threshold level for prediction of liver fibrosis and inflammation in young-aged hepatitis B e-antigen negative chronic hepatitis B patients.Diagnostic

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2018 Balkan medical journal

155. Correlation between polymorphisms in toll-like receptor genes and the activity of hepatitis B virus among treatment-naïve patients: a case-control study in a Han Chinese population. (PubMed)

Correlation between polymorphisms in toll-like receptor genes and the activity of hepatitis B virus among treatment-naïve patients: a case-control study in a Han Chinese population. Because of the high prevalence and absence of cure for infection, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been acknowledged as a pressing public health issue. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) activate the human innate immune system and the polymorphisms in TLRs may alter their function. The present study aimed (...) level of both HbsAg and cytokines were also correlated with the mutant carriers of rs3804099 and rs4696480.TLR mutations were significantly associated with milder hepatitis activity among patients with chronic HBV infection. Therefore, we conclude that the activation of TLR pathways may further intensify the inflammation of hepatocytes, and leads to progression of disease.

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2018 BMC Infectious Diseases

156. Newly Diagnosed with Hepatitis B? How Did I Get this? Learning the HBV Basics, Transmission – Part I

than six months, it is considered a chronic infection. It means you were probably infected at birth or during early childhood, when your immature immune system could not fight it. Knowing whether your hepatitis B is acute or chronic will help you and your doctor determine your next steps. Please get tested again in six months to find out if it’s chronic or acute. If you are unsure of what your blood test results mean, please visit: Good luck. I am an inactive carrier of HBV. Is it safe for me (...) infection, he needs to be tested over a six-month period. If he continues to test positive beyond six months for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), it means he may have been infected during early childhood, and this is one of many previously undiagnosed hepatitis B infections. I am happy to hear you are immunized. Good luck. I need some answers for my peace of mind. Five years ago I have been diagnosed with hep b , carrier, not infectious. So basically chronic hepatitis. I just had another blood

2018 hepbblog

157. UBE2L3, a susceptibility gene that plays oncogenic role in hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma. (PubMed)

UBE2L3, a susceptibility gene that plays oncogenic role in hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma. Previously, we identified UBE2L3 as a susceptibility gene for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection through genome-wide association study. Here, we analysed the association between genetic variants of UBE2L3 and the susceptibility to HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and further explored its role in HCC. This case-control study included 1344 subjects who cleared HBV, 1560 HBV (...) carriers and 1057 HBV-related HCC patients. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped, including rs2266959 and rs4821116. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compute the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). We further analysed the expression of UBE2L3 and its association with pathological features based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data and our tissue microarray. Proliferation and migration assays were performed in hepatoma cell lines with or without UBE2L3

2018 Journal of viral hepatitis

158. Hepatitis B reactivation among 1962 patients with hematological malignancy in Taiwan. (PubMed)

of 1962 patients comprising 1048 men and 914 women were studied. The median age of the patients was 55 years (range, 15-97 years). Chronic HBV carriage was documented at diagnosis of hematological malignancy in 286 (14.6%) patients. A total of 171 (59.8%) of the 286 HBV carriers received primary prophylaxis with anti-HBV agents. Of the HBV carriers, 97 (33.9%) developed hepatitis B reactivation during or after chemotherapy, including 59 patients who had discontinued antiviral therapy. The incidence (...) of hepatitis B reactivation among patients with hematological malignancy and HBV carriage was 10.4 per 100 person-years. A multivariate analysis revealed hepatocellular carcinoma (p < 0.001) and antiviral prophylaxis use (p < 0.001) were independent risk factors of HBV reactivation in HBV carriers. Of the 1676 patients with initial negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) counts, 41 (2.4%) experienced hepatitis B reactivation, reverse seroconversion of HBsAg, and lost their protective hepatitis B

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2018 BMC Gastroenterology

159. How to control highly endemic hepatitis B in Asia. (PubMed)

How to control highly endemic hepatitis B in Asia. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an enormous economic and social burden. Asian countries such as Vietnam, Mongolia, Laos, China, the Philippines, South Korea, Singapore and Cambodia have high or high-intermediate HBsAg prevalence. Most of the chronic HBV carriers in this region acquire their infection during early childhood or through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Asia has been highly successful in controlling HBV in the last (...) . The combined efforts of the government, the medical community, industry, civil society and the public should eliminate hepatitis B as a public threat by 2030.© 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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2018 Liver International

160. Analysis of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression in hepatitis B patients (PubMed)

Analysis of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression in hepatitis B patients Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in numerous biological processes, including epigenetic regulation, cell-cycle control, and transcriptional/translational regulation of gene expression. Differential expression of lncRNAs and disruption of the regulatory processes are recognized as critical steps in cancer development. The role of lncRNAs in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not well understood. Here (...) we analyzed the expression of 135 lncRNAs in plasma samples of 82 HBV patients (classified as chronic patients, inactive carriers, or resolved patients) at diagnosis and at 12 months of treatment in relation to control group (81 healthy volunteers). We also investigated the effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of lincRNA-SFMBT2 on HBV-positive human liver cancer cell line. lncRNA expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR

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2018 Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences

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