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Chronic Hepatitis B Carrier

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81. Immune Tolerant Chronic Hepatitis B: The Unrecognized Risks (PubMed)

Immune Tolerant Chronic Hepatitis B: The Unrecognized Risks Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) progresses through multiple phases, including immune tolerant, immune active, immune control, and, in a subset of patients who achieve immune control, reactivation. The first, the immune tolerant phase, is considered to be prolonged in duration but essentially benign in nature, lacking long-term consequences, and thus not recommended for antiviral therapy. This review challenges the notion (...) that the immune tolerant phase is truly benign and considers the possibility that events during this phase may contribute significantly to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the premature death of 25% of HBV carriers worldwide. Thus, earlier treatment than recommended by current guidelines should be considered. Low therapeutic coverage exacerbated by restrictive treatment guidelines may facilitate disease progression in many patients but also increase the risk of neonatal and horizontal

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2017 Viruses

82. Serum microRNA-30c levels are correlated with disease progression in Xinjiang Uygur patients with chronic hepatitis B (PubMed)

Serum microRNA-30c levels are correlated with disease progression in Xinjiang Uygur patients with chronic hepatitis B We aimed to investigate the potential role and mechanism of microRNA-30c (miR-30c) in the pathological development of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The serum levels of miR-30c in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier Xinjiang Uygur patients with inactive, low-replicative, high-replicative and HBe antigen-positive CHB were investigated. HepG2 cells were co-transfected with pHBV1.3 and miR (...) -30c mimic or inhibitor or scramble RNA. The effects of miR-30c dysregulation on HBV replication and gene expression, cell proliferation and cell cycle were then investigated. miR-30c was down-regulated in Xinjiang Uygur patients with CHB compared to healthy controls and its expression level discriminated HBV carrier patients with inactive, low-replicative, high-replicative and HBe antigen-positive risk for disease progression. Overexpression of miR-30c significantly inhibited HBV replication

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2017 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research

83. Serum Cytokeratin 18 M30 Levels in Chronic Hepatitis B Reflect Both Phase and Histological Activities of Disease (PubMed)

Serum Cytokeratin 18 M30 Levels in Chronic Hepatitis B Reflect Both Phase and Histological Activities of Disease Chronic hepatitis B has highly a dynamic course with significant fluctuations of HBV-DNA and ALT impeding assessment of disease activity. New biomarkers of inflammatory versus noninflammatory stages of HBV infection are urgently needed. Cytokeratin 18 epitope M30 (M30 CK-18) is a sensitive marker of cell death. We aimed to investigate an association between serum M30 CK-18 (...) and histological activity and phase of HBV infection. 150 Caucasian patients with HBV-infection were included in the study. Serum M30 CK-18 levels reflected phase of disease, being significantly higher in both HBeAg(+) and HBeAg(-) hepatitis B in comparison to HBsAg(+) carrier groups. The highest serum M30 CK-18 levels were observed in subjects with the most advanced stages of HBV. Moreover, its serum concentrations correlated with both inflammatory activity and fibrosis advancement (ANOVA P < 0.001

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2017 Mediators of inflammation

84. Lower Expression of MicroRNA-155 Contributes to Dysfunction of Natural Killer Cells in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B (PubMed)

Lower Expression of MicroRNA-155 Contributes to Dysfunction of Natural Killer Cells in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B MicroRNAs have been reported to be regulated in different ways in a variety of liver diseases. As a key modulator of cellular function in both innate and adaptive immunity, the role of miR-155 in chronic hepatitis B virus infection remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the expression and function of miR-155 in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. It was found that miR (...) -155 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was lower in CHB patients than healthy controls (HC). Among CHB infection, immune-active (IA) patients with abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels had relatively higher miR-155 expression in PBMCs and serum than immune-tolerant carriers, but were comparable to inactive carriers. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between miR-155 expression and ALT levels in CHB patients. Particularly, miR-155 expression in natural killer

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2017 Frontiers in immunology

85. Interleukin-35 Suppresses Antiviral Immune Response in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection (PubMed)

Interleukin-35 Suppresses Antiviral Immune Response in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection The mechanisms of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistent infection are not completely understood. Interleukin (IL)-35, which is a newly identified cytokine belongs to IL-12 family, has been demonstrated to induce immunotolerance. Thus, the aim of current study was to investigate the role of IL-35 during chronic HBV infection. A total of 61 patients with chronic HBV infection [37 chronic hepatitis B (CHB (...) ) and 24 asymptomatic HBV carriers (ASC)] and 20 healthy individuals were enrolled. IL-35 concentration as well as the modulatory function of IL-35 on CD4+CD25+CD127dim/- regulatory T cells (Tregs) and on HBV antigen-specific CD8+ T cells was investigated. IL-35 expression was significantly increased in both CHB and ASC, and was positively correlated with the levels of HBV DNA. Inhibition of viral replication induced the reduction in serum levels of IL-35. IL-35 stimulation led to inhibition

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2017 Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

86. A Phase â…£ Clinical Trial of the Recombinant Hepatitis E Vaccine (Escherichia Coli)(the Chronic Hepatitis B Patients )

A Phase â…£ Clinical Trial of the Recombinant Hepatitis E Vaccine (Escherichia Coli)(the Chronic Hepatitis B Patients ) A Phase Ⅳ Clinical Trial of the Recombinant Hepatitis E Vaccine (Escherichia Coli)(the Chronic Hepatitis B Patients ) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum (...) number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. A Phase Ⅳ Clinical Trial of the Recombinant Hepatitis E Vaccine (Escherichia Coli)(the Chronic Hepatitis B Patients ) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02964910 Recruitment Status : Completed First

2016 Clinical Trials

87. Birth order and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus: a case-control study in The Gambia. (PubMed)

Birth order and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus: a case-control study in The Gambia. Early age at infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) increases the risk of chronic infection. Moreover, early HBV infection may further independently increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) beyond its effect on chronicity.The distribution of birth order, a proxy for mode and timing of HBV transmission, was compared in The Gambia between hepatitis B surface (...) fourth birth order respectively (P = 0.01). A similar inverse association was observed in the hospital-based case-control comparison (P = 0.04).Compared to controls, HCC cases had earlier birth order, a proxy for young maternal age and maternal HBV viraemia at birth. This finding suggests that in chronic HBV carriers perinatal mother-to-infant transmission may increase HCC risk more than horizontal transmission. Providing HBV vaccine within 24 h of birth to interrupt perinatal transmission might

2015 Liver International

88. Molecular characteristics of Hepatitis B and chronic liver disease in a cohort of HB carriers from Bamako, Mali. (PubMed)

Molecular characteristics of Hepatitis B and chronic liver disease in a cohort of HB carriers from Bamako, Mali. Hepatitis B (HB) infection is common in Mali. However, there is little information on molecular and biochemical characteristics of HB carriers.A group of 1466 adult volunteers was recruited in the district of Bamako. Confirmed HB carriers were tested for HB viral load by quantitative PCR and HBV was genotyped by sequencing of HBS. Fibrosis and hepatitis activity were measured using (...) correlated with Fibrotest scores (p = 0.0006). Among 105 subjects tested, 60% had detectable levels of R249S copies (>40 copies/mL plasma).Chronic HB carriage in adults in Bamako district is well over epidemic threshold. About 1/3 of carriers have moderate to severe liver fibrosis and 60% have detectable aflatoxin-related TP53 R249S mutation. These results support introduction of anti-HB therapies to reduce the progression towards severe liver disease.

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2015 BMC Infectious Diseases

89. The sero-prevalence of anti-adenovirus 5 neutralizing antibodies is independent of a chronic hepatitis B carrier state in China (PubMed)

The sero-prevalence of anti-adenovirus 5 neutralizing antibodies is independent of a chronic hepatitis B carrier state in China We investigated the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies (NA) to human Adenovirus (Ad) 5 both in healthy subjects (HS) and Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) patients in Shanghai. Detection of anti-Ad5 NA (percentage of detection and titers) was similar between HS and CHB patients. A high percentage of subjects harbored no detectable antibodies (32.2 %) while proportion

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2015 Archives of Virology

90. A Nation-wide Hospital-based Hepatitis B Registry:China Registry of Hepatitis B

Go to Brief Summary: CR-HepB registry started in June 30,2012 to collect HBV cases from general hospitals or specialized hospitals for infectious diseases in mainland China. Demographics, diagnosis, laboratory test results, family history and prescriptions were recorded. The main criteria for registration is HBsAg-positivity more than 6 months, and these patients will receive followed-up visits every three to six months. Condition or disease Chronic Hepatitis B Detailed Description: This web (...) ,registry,cirrhosis, HCC Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Hepatitis Hepatitis A Hepatitis, Chronic Hepatitis B Hepatitis B, Chronic Liver Diseases Digestive System Diseases Hepatitis, Viral, Human Virus Diseases Enterovirus Infections Picornaviridae Infections RNA Virus Infections Hepadnaviridae Infections DNA Virus Infections

2017 Clinical Trials

91. Hepatitis B in pregnancy: screening, treatment, and prevention of vertical transmission

majority of chronically infected adults are asymptomatic. The diagnosis of the chronic carrier state is con?rmed with persistenceofHBsAgandtheabsenceof hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb), whichisaneutralizingantibodythatcan bedetectedafterHBVinfectionhasbeen cleared. HBsAb and HBsAg essentially do not exist together. HBsAb is also detected after successful immunization with the HBV vaccine. Therefore, we suggest performing routine screening during pregnancy for HBV infection with maternal HBsAg (...) ,AlexanderJM, Sercely B, Wendel GD. Risk of hepatitis B transmission in breast-fed infants of chronic hepatitis B carriers. Obstet Gynecol 2002;99: 1049-52. 18. de Martino M, Appendino C, Resti M, Rossi ME, Muccioli AT, Vierucci A. Should hep- atitis B surface antigen positive mothers breast feed? Arch Dis Child 1985;60:972-4. 19. Ko TM, Tseng LH, Chang MH, et al. Amniocentesis in mothers who are hepatitis B virus carriers does not expose the infant to an increasedriskofhepatitisBvirusinfection.Arch

2016 Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine

92. Plasma adipokines and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B virus infected carriers: a prospective study in Taiwan. (PubMed)

Plasma adipokines and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B virus infected carriers: a prospective study in Taiwan. Obesity is considered a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The relationship between adipocytokine and HCC in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers remains unclear. We prospectively investigated the association of adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels with HCC.We conducted a nested case-control study in a community-based cohort with 187 incident HCC (...) (P(trend) = 0.003). HCC risk associated with higher adiponectin level was higher in HBV carriers with ultrasonographic fatty liver, genotype C infection, higher viral load, and with elevated alanine aminotransferase. Longitudinally, participants with higher adiponectin were less likely to achieve surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) seroclearance and more likely to have persistently higher HBV DNA. Eventually, they were more likely to develop liver cirrhosis [OR = 1.65 (0.62-4.39

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2014 Cancer Epidemiology & Biomarkers and Prevention

93. High liver fibrosis index FIB-4 highly predictive of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B carriers. (PubMed)

High liver fibrosis index FIB-4 highly predictive of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B carriers. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is clinically important given that its early detection has remarkable survival benefits. We investigated the possible role of FIB-4, a recently developed noninvasive marker for liver fibrosis based on routine laboratory tests, as a clinical indicator for predicting future HCC among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers. Our (...) retrospective cohort study involved 986 Korean HBsAg carriers 40 years of age or older who visited Seoul National University Hospital for a health checkup. National medical service claims data were used to determine HCC incidence. Median follow-up time was 5.4 years (interquartile range: 4.4 years). Adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, and antiviral medication for hepatitis B, compared to subjects with FIB-4 <1.25, subjects with 1.7≤ FIB-4 <2.4 showed an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR

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2014 Hepatology

94. Staging chronic hepatitis B into seven categories, defining inactive carriers and assessing treatment impact using a fibrosis biomarker (FibroTest) and elastography (FibroScan). (PubMed)

Staging chronic hepatitis B into seven categories, defining inactive carriers and assessing treatment impact using a fibrosis biomarker (FibroTest) and elastography (FibroScan). The first aim was to extend the validation of FibroTest® (FT) and transient elastography (TE) as markers of occurrence of cirrhosis without complications (F4.1), oesophageal varices (F4.2), and severe complications (F4.3) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The second aim was to validate a previous definition (...) cohort. Of the 582 responders, 23 had complications (incidence 6.2% [3.2-9.1]) including 19 HCC (5.8% [2.6-9.0]) and 10 with varices (2.6% [0.8-4.4]). Of the 138 responders with advanced fibrosis, only 31% (15-47%) had fibrosis regression.FibroTest® and TE identified three categories of cirrhosis with increasing morbidity. Normal FibroTest® and ActiTest® were better able to identify inactive hepatitis B carriers than the standard definition. Despite virological response, the overall incidence

2014 Journal of Hepatology

95. HBsAg quantification for identification of liver disease in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers. (PubMed)

HBsAg quantification for identification of liver disease in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers. Quantification of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been proposed as a useful diagnostic marker for clinical staging (identification of inactive carrier state) and prognosis of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between HBsAg levels in serum and histological liver damage in patients with chronic infection.HBsAg levels in serum

2014 Liver International

96. Metabolic syndrome association with fibrosis development in chronic hepatitis B virus inactive carriers. (PubMed)

Metabolic syndrome association with fibrosis development in chronic hepatitis B virus inactive carriers. There are few data of fibrosis development in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients classified as inactive carriers. The aim of this study is to determinate the prevalence of significant fibrosis and probable cirrhosis measured by FibroScan in real inactive CHB carriers and investigate the relationship with virological, epidemiological, and metabolic factors.Cross-sectional cohort study (...) . Of them, 24% had metabolic syndrome, with higher FibroScan value than those without (8.4 kPa vs 5.5 kPa, P < 0.001). Factors associated with significant fibrosis were (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, P value): central obesity (7.1, 1.8-27.9, 0.005), elevated fasting glucose (4.3, 1.3-27.9, 0.036), reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (5.2, 1.2-23.6, 0.032) and elevated triglycerides (6.2, 1.4-28.3, 0.019). Factors as age, sex, transaminases, hepatitis B virus DNA or genotype were

2014 Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology

97. Hepatitis C Virus Modulates Solute carrier family 3 member 2 for Viral Propagation (PubMed)

Hepatitis C Virus Modulates Solute carrier family 3 member 2 for Viral Propagation Hepatitis C virus (HCV) exploits an extensive network of host proteins to maintain chronic infection. Using RNA-Seq technology, we identified 30 host genes that were differentially expressed in cell culture grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. Of these candidate genes, we selected solute carrier family 3 member 2 (SLC3A2) for further investigation. SLC3A2, also known as CD98hc, is a member of the solute carrier

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2018 Scientific reports

98. Pause for thought on the missing millions affected by hepatitis B: Are we doing enough? World Hepatitis Day – 28th July 2019

, such as those with links to endemic countries, but also people whose risk of infection include sexual exposure. 10,11 Yet, the epidemiology of hepatitis B infection remains poorly characterised in many countries, a problem compounded by the lack of systematic testing of those at risk and incomplete surveillance programs. 10 It is hardly surprising that globally fewer than 10% of chronic HBV carriers are aware of their status. Among those with a diagnosis, fewer than 10% are in appropriate care and receiving (...) doing enough to lift the heavy burden of hepatitis B? Worldwide, an estimated 257 million people have chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and one death every 30 seconds results from HBV-related complications – cirrhosis and liver cancer – totalling nearly a million deaths each year. 1-4 The global incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma continues to climb, with HBV infection as a leading cause. 5 In stark contrast, public health interventions over the past decades have sent incidence of many

2019 Sexually Transmitted Infections blog

99. Prediction of Clinical Outcomes in Hepatitis B E Antigen Negative Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Elevated Hepatitis B Virus DNA Levels (PubMed)

Prediction of Clinical Outcomes in Hepatitis B E Antigen Negative Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Elevated Hepatitis B Virus DNA Levels We investigated whether long-term clinical outcomes such as disease progression or inactive hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier state can be predicted by baseline factors in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative HBV infected patients with an elevated viral load.A retrospective cohort of 527 HBeAg-negative chronic HBV infected patients with an elevated viral load (...) independent risk factors for HCC. Low HBV DNA and quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) levels were independent predictors for becoming inactive carriers in patients without cirrhosis. In non-cirrhotic patients with both low qHBsAg and HBV DNA levels, the 5-year cumulative incidence of an inactive carrier was 39.8%, while that of disease progression was 1.6%.HBeAg negative patients without cirrhosis can be closely monitored for becoming an inactive carrier when both HBV DNA and qHBsAg levels

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2015 PloS one

100. Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Hepatic Cancer Stem Cells (PubMed)

Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Hepatic Cancer Stem Cells Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is linked to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis. Despite the availability of a HBV vaccine, current treatments for HCC are inadequate. Globally, 257 million people are chronic HBV carriers, and children born from HBV-infected mothers become chronic carriers, destined to develop liver cancer. Thus, new therapeutic approaches are needed to target essential (...) pathways involved in HCC pathogenesis. Accumulating evidence supports existence of hepatic cancer stem cells (hCSCs), which contribute to chemotherapy resistance and cancer recurrence after treatment or surgery. Understanding how hCSCs form will enable development of therapeutic strategies to prevent their formation. Recent studies have identified an epigenetic mechanism involving the downregulation of the chromatin modifying Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) during HBV infection, which results

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2018 Genes

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