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Chronic Hepatitis B Carrier

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61. On the potential role of intestinal microbial community in hepatocarcinogenesis in chronic hepatitis B (PubMed)

On the potential role of intestinal microbial community in hepatocarcinogenesis in chronic hepatitis B The chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most potent risk factor for the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The association of intestinal microbiota alteration with progressive liver disease has been investigated in recent studies. Overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria of gram-negative species and, in particular, a significant increase (...) in the fecal count of Escherichia coli (E. coli) are characterized in the presence of HCC. This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of the intestinal microbiota related to the presence of HCC in HBV-carrier patients. The available literature indicates the colonization of E. coli as principal source of portal vein lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in the gut may contribute to the carcinogenesis process by inducing chronic inflammation. This understanding could help to predict the clinical outcomes

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2018 Cancer medicine

62. A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial of Antroquinonol in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B

/treatment Phase HBV Drug: Antroquinonol Other: placebo Phase 2 Detailed Description: Hepatitis B virus infection is a worldwide disease and is still the most common cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Those carriers in China account for 33% of all chronic carriers globally. A big epidemiological study of patients with chronic hepatitis B has revealed that baseline HBV DNA level or cirrhosis is an independent predictor for the occurrence of HCC. Antroquinonol is a new chemical entity isolated from (...) A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial of Antroquinonol in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial of Antroquinonol in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies

2018 Clinical Trials

63. Chronic hepatitis B virus monoinfection at a university hospital in Zambia (PubMed)

Chronic hepatitis B virus monoinfection at a university hospital in Zambia To characterize antiviral therapy eligibility among hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected adults at a university hospital in Zambia.Hepatitis B surface antigen-positive adults (n = 160) who were HIV-negative and referred to the hospital after a routine or clinically-driven HBV test were enrolled. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), platelet count, hepatitis B e-antigen, and HBV DNA were measured (...) , and 30.9% were diagnosed with HBV through a clinically-driven test with the remainder identified via routine testing (at the blood bank, community events, etc.). Among 120 treatment-naïve individuals, 2.5% were categorized as immune tolerant, 11.7% were immune active, 35.6% were inactive carriers, and 46.7% had an indeterminate phenotype. Per WHO guidelines, 13 (10.8%) were eligible for immediate antiviral therapy. The odds of eligibility were eight times higher for those diagnosed at clinical vs

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2018 World journal of hepatology

64. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antenatal screening for HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis and rubella susceptibility

foreign countries with high HBsAg carrier rates were shown to be two times less likely to adhere to HBsAg screening than Italian women. Supplementary efforts were suggested to improve the effectiveness of the programme among foreign-born women [27]. Another Italian study evaluated compliance with a protocol for the prevention of perinatal hepatitis B infection in public and private hospitals of 13 Italian regions between 2008 and 2009. Prevalence of HBsAg among pregnant women varied between 0.4 (...) hepatitis B screening. Screening revealed that in 87% of cases the HBV carrier status was previously unknown. The cost of screening equated GBP 1 013 per new diagnosis, which was considered to be highly cost-effective considering the morbidity and mortality associated with vertically transmitted hepatitis B. Selective screening would have missed a significant number of those infected. Opt-out screening was concluded to be more appropriate than selective screening, with the added advantage of being

2017 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Literature Reviews

65. A unique B cell epitope-based particulate vaccine shows effective suppression of hepatitis B surface antigen in mice. (PubMed)

A unique B cell epitope-based particulate vaccine shows effective suppression of hepatitis B surface antigen in mice. This study aimed to develop a novel therapeutic vaccine based on a unique B cell epitope and investigate its therapeutic potential against chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in animal models.A series of peptides and carrier proteins were evaluated in HBV-tolerant mice to obtain an optimised therapeutic molecule. The immunogenicity, therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of the candidate were (...) in mice, rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys. Sera and purified polyclonal IgG from the immunised animals neutralised HBV infection in vitro and mediated efficient HBV/hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance in the mice. CR-T3-SEQ13-based vaccination induced long-term suppression of HBsAg and HBV DNA in HBV transgenic mice and eradicated the virus completely in hydrodynamic-based HBV carrier mice. The suppressive effects on HBsAg were strongly correlated with the anti-HBs level after

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2019 Gut

66. IFNL4 rs368234815 and rs117648444 variants predict off treatment HBsAg seroclearance in IFN treated HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B patients. (PubMed)

IFNL4 rs368234815 and rs117648444 variants predict off treatment HBsAg seroclearance in IFN treated HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B patients. Robust baseline predictors of interferon (IFN) response in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients are not currently available. The recently described rs368234815 TT/ΔG dinucleotide and rs117648444 nonsynonymous P70S polymorphisms in IFN lambda 4 (IFNL4) gene, which are strongly associated with response to IFN in hepatitis C virus (HCV (...) ) infection, could be also useful in IFN-treated CHB patients. Here we assessed whether IFNL4 rs368234815 and rs117648444 polymorphisms predict IFN-induced HBsAg clearance in CHB patients.We sequenced the IFNL4 gene on genomic DNA collected from 126 HBeAg-negative CHB patients treated with IFN and followed up for a median of 11 (1-23) years.The 15-year cumulative probability of HBsAg loss in the 62 carriers of the rs368234815 TT/TT genotype, which abolishes the IFNλ4 protein production, was comparable

2017 Liver International

67. Increasing LAG-3 expression suppresses T-cell function in chronic hepatitis B: A balance between immunity strength and liver injury extent. (PubMed)

-3 expression and to investigate the manner in which the immune response is regulated to balance the strength of the response with the extent of liver injury in chronic HBV infection. The results showed that LAG-3 expression levels were significantly higher in CD8 T cells from chronic hepatitis B patients in the immune-active phase compared with chronic asymptomatic HBV carriers and healthy controls. CD8 T-cell function was suppressed in cells with high LAG-3 expression, and these cells exhibited (...) Increasing LAG-3 expression suppresses T-cell function in chronic hepatitis B: A balance between immunity strength and liver injury extent. Weak or absent virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are thought to be responsible for persistent HBV infection. Previous studies have indicated that multiple inhibitory receptors, including lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), can suppress the CD8 T-cell response in chronic viral infection. This study aimed to detect LAG

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2017 Medicine

68. Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and infrastructure for its diagnosis in Madagascar: implication for the WHO's elimination strategy. (PubMed)

Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and infrastructure for its diagnosis in Madagascar: implication for the WHO's elimination strategy. WHO developed a global strategy to eliminate hepatitis B by 2030 and set target to treat 80% of people with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection eligible for antiviral treatment. As a first step to achieve this goal, it is essential to conduct a situation analysis that is fundamental to designing national hepatitis plans. We therefore (...) estimated the prevalence of chronic HBV infection, and described the existing infrastructure for HBV diagnosis in Madagascar.We conducted a stratified multi-stage serosurvey of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in adults aged ≥18 years using 28 sentinel surveillance sites located throughout the country. We obtained the list of facilities performing HBV testing from the Ministry of Health, and contacted the person responsible at each facility.A total of 1778 adults were recruited from the 28 study

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2017 BMC Public Health

69. Gut microbiota and hepatitis-B-virus-induced chronic liver disease: implications for faecal microbiota transplantation therapy. (PubMed)

Gut microbiota and hepatitis-B-virus-induced chronic liver disease: implications for faecal microbiota transplantation therapy. Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. It has been estimated that there are 350 million chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide. The liver is connected to the small intestine by the bile duct, which carries bile formed in the liver to the intestine. Nearly all of the blood that leaves the stomach and intestines must pass through (...) the liver. Human intestines contain a wide diversity of microbes, collectively termed the 'gut microbiota'. Gut microbiota play a significant role in host metabolic processes and host immune modulation, and influence host development and physiology (organ development). Altered gut microbiota is a common complication in liver disease. Changes in intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in induction and promotion of HBV-induced chronic liver disease progression, and specific species among

2017 Journal of Hospital Infection

70. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in children in Japan: a comparison of mother-to-child transmission with horizontal transmission. (PubMed)

Natural history of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in children in Japan: a comparison of mother-to-child transmission with horizontal transmission. It is necessary to evaluate the natural history of children with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in each country to consider their long-term management.A multi-center observational study of children with chronic HBV infection who were diagnosed at age ≤15 years was carried out in 18 hospitals in Japan.We reviewed children with HBV infection (...) with other genotypes (33 versus 45%). Hepatitis developed at any age but before 4 years of age the incidence was high in the horizontal group. At 3 years after the onset of the hepatitis, 26% of children with MTCT and 30% of those with horizontal transmission became inactive carriers. The incidences of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at 30 years of age were 6% in the MTCT group and 11% in the horizontal group.Patients with childhood-onset HBV infection with MTCT and horizontal transmission developed

2017 Journal of gastroenterology

71. The role of peginterferon in nucleos(t)ide-analogue-treated chronic hepatitis B patients: a review of published literature. (PubMed)

The role of peginterferon in nucleos(t)ide-analogue-treated chronic hepatitis B patients: a review of published literature. Chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) causes up to 1.0 million deaths annually. Currently, more than 90% of CHB patients worldwide are receiving indefinite nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) therapy. New strategies for optimizing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss are required for NA-treated patients as the majority are unable to achieve HBsAg loss and may require lifelong (...) therapy. In hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients, switching from NAs to finite peginterferon (PegIFN) therapy can double HBeAg seroconversion rates. One in five patients who switch to PegIFN can achieve HBsAg loss, whereas patients who continue NA therapy typically do not. In HBeAg-negative NA-treated patients, add-on PegIFN therapy achieves higher, albeit modest, HBsAg loss rates compared with continued NA monotherapy and offers the opportunity for NA-treated patients to achieve

2017 Journal of viral hepatitis

72. Differential expression of innate immune response genes in clinical phases of chronic hepatitis B infection. (PubMed)

Differential expression of innate immune response genes in clinical phases of chronic hepatitis B infection. We investigated innate immune gene expression in clinical phases of chronic hepatitis B infection, including immune tolerant (IT), immune active (IA), inactive carrier (IC) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative phases, as well as healthy controls. Expression levels of interferon types I, II and III, their receptor subunits, IRFs, TLRs and other IFN-induced genes in peripheral blood (...) expression levels of 23 genes were found in the IC phase. The highest mRNA expression levels of IFNs, IFN receptor subunits, IRFs and TLRs genes in all clinical phases were IFN-λ2 and 3, IFN-γR2, IRF7 and TLR7, and the lowest levels of mRNA expression were observed for IFN-α, IFN-λR1, IRF8 and TLR2. We conclude that innate immune response genes are expressed differentially among chronic HBV phases, and this difference may help to develop new precise and noninvasive methods to determine the progression

2017 Journal of viral hepatitis

73. Association Between the Telomerase rs2736098_TT Genotype and a Lower Risk of Chronic Hepatitis B and Cirrhosis in Chinese Males (PubMed)

Association Between the Telomerase rs2736098_TT Genotype and a Lower Risk of Chronic Hepatitis B and Cirrhosis in Chinese Males Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is caused by infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and liver cirrhosis (LC) is its most common complication. The accumulated evidence indicates a genetic context of HBV infection phenotypes. Here we determine a potential association of CHB/LC with the genetic variant of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), a key player in aging including (...) : OR 2.398, 95% CI 1.168-4.922, P=0.02). Further analyses showed that the rs2736098_TT genotype difference occurred between male controls and patients (P=0.008) and male CT/CC-carriers exhibited highly increased risk of CHB compared to male controls (CT+CC vs TT, OR 3.182, 95% CI 1.350-7.500, P=0.01). There was no difference in the rs2736100 variants between controls and CHB patients. LTL was not different between cases and controls.The TERT rs2736098_TT genotype is associated with a lower CHB and LC

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2017 Clinical and translational gastroenterology

74. Modulation of Tim-3 Expression by Antigen-Dependent and -Independent Factors on T Cells from Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection (PubMed)

in the inductor of Tim-3 expression on T cells, 76 patients with chronic HBV infection (including 40 chronic hepatitis B [CHB] and 36 asymptomatic HBV carriers [AsC]) and 40 of normal controls (NCs) were enrolled in this study. Tim-3 expressions on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were assessed in response to HBV-encoding antigens, HBV peptide pools, and common γ-chain (γc) cytokines stimulation by flow cytometry. HBV peptides and anti-CD3/CD28 directly induced Tim-3 expression on T cells. γc cytokines also drive Tim-3 (...) Modulation of Tim-3 Expression by Antigen-Dependent and -Independent Factors on T Cells from Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) was up-regulated on viral specific T cells and contributed to T cells exhaustion during chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, modulation of Tim-3 expression was still not fully elucidated. To evaluate the potential viral and inflammatory factors involved

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2017 Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

75. Current Condition of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Cuban Adults (PubMed)

at least a 6-month history of hepatitis B surface antigen positivity were recruited between 2013 and 2015. Descriptive statistical analysis of the epidemiologic, clinical, biochemical, and virologic variables was performed.Men accounted for 67.8% of patients, and the median age was 43 years. The median time since diagnosis of infection was 9 years. Among the patients, 59% had chronic hepatitis, 34% had liver cirrhosis, and 7% were inactive carriers. Concomitant diagnoses demonstrated that 16.4 (...) Current Condition of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Cuban Adults The reduction of the incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Cuba can be attributed to the effectiveness of the national immunization program. However, the number of patients with chronic HBV observed in clinical practice is not negligible.A cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the main clinical characteristics of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.A total of 146 patients who had

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2017 Current therapeutic research, clinical and experimental

76. Long-term Nucleos(t)ides Analogues for Chronic Hepatitis B Improve Liver and Spleen Size: A Noninvasive Sonographic Study (PubMed)

Long-term Nucleos(t)ides Analogues for Chronic Hepatitis B Improve Liver and Spleen Size: A Noninvasive Sonographic Study Histological improvement and regression of liver fibrosis after long-term use of nucleos(t)ides analogues (NUCs) have been documented. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the usefulness of traditional sonography to detect hepatic and splenic changes during NUC therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients.A total of 181 CHB patients receiving NUC treatment (...) were enrolled in this study. The study population was divided into three groups 72 cirrhotic, 58 noncirrhotic CHB, and 51 nonreplicative hepatitis B virus carriers. All patients had blood chemistries taken and sonography at baseline and during the NUC treatment period. The changes in liver size, liver edge, spleen size, platelet count, and platelet count/spleen diameter (PC/SD) ratio were compared among the three groups of patients.CHB Patients with and without cirrhosis have improved clinical

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2017 Journal of medical ultrasound

77. Immune Tolerant Chronic Hepatitis B: The Unrecognized Risks (PubMed)

Immune Tolerant Chronic Hepatitis B: The Unrecognized Risks Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) progresses through multiple phases, including immune tolerant, immune active, immune control, and, in a subset of patients who achieve immune control, reactivation. The first, the immune tolerant phase, is considered to be prolonged in duration but essentially benign in nature, lacking long-term consequences, and thus not recommended for antiviral therapy. This review challenges the notion (...) that the immune tolerant phase is truly benign and considers the possibility that events during this phase may contribute significantly to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and the premature death of 25% of HBV carriers worldwide. Thus, earlier treatment than recommended by current guidelines should be considered. Low therapeutic coverage exacerbated by restrictive treatment guidelines may facilitate disease progression in many patients but also increase the risk of neonatal and horizontal

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2017 Viruses

78. Serum microRNA-30c levels are correlated with disease progression in Xinjiang Uygur patients with chronic hepatitis B (PubMed)

Serum microRNA-30c levels are correlated with disease progression in Xinjiang Uygur patients with chronic hepatitis B We aimed to investigate the potential role and mechanism of microRNA-30c (miR-30c) in the pathological development of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The serum levels of miR-30c in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier Xinjiang Uygur patients with inactive, low-replicative, high-replicative and HBe antigen-positive CHB were investigated. HepG2 cells were co-transfected with pHBV1.3 and miR (...) -30c mimic or inhibitor or scramble RNA. The effects of miR-30c dysregulation on HBV replication and gene expression, cell proliferation and cell cycle were then investigated. miR-30c was down-regulated in Xinjiang Uygur patients with CHB compared to healthy controls and its expression level discriminated HBV carrier patients with inactive, low-replicative, high-replicative and HBe antigen-positive risk for disease progression. Overexpression of miR-30c significantly inhibited HBV replication

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2017 Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research

79. Serum Cytokeratin 18 M30 Levels in Chronic Hepatitis B Reflect Both Phase and Histological Activities of Disease (PubMed)

Serum Cytokeratin 18 M30 Levels in Chronic Hepatitis B Reflect Both Phase and Histological Activities of Disease Chronic hepatitis B has highly a dynamic course with significant fluctuations of HBV-DNA and ALT impeding assessment of disease activity. New biomarkers of inflammatory versus noninflammatory stages of HBV infection are urgently needed. Cytokeratin 18 epitope M30 (M30 CK-18) is a sensitive marker of cell death. We aimed to investigate an association between serum M30 CK-18 (...) and histological activity and phase of HBV infection. 150 Caucasian patients with HBV-infection were included in the study. Serum M30 CK-18 levels reflected phase of disease, being significantly higher in both HBeAg(+) and HBeAg(-) hepatitis B in comparison to HBsAg(+) carrier groups. The highest serum M30 CK-18 levels were observed in subjects with the most advanced stages of HBV. Moreover, its serum concentrations correlated with both inflammatory activity and fibrosis advancement (ANOVA P < 0.001

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2017 Mediators of inflammation

80. Lower Expression of MicroRNA-155 Contributes to Dysfunction of Natural Killer Cells in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B (PubMed)

Lower Expression of MicroRNA-155 Contributes to Dysfunction of Natural Killer Cells in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B MicroRNAs have been reported to be regulated in different ways in a variety of liver diseases. As a key modulator of cellular function in both innate and adaptive immunity, the role of miR-155 in chronic hepatitis B virus infection remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the expression and function of miR-155 in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. It was found that miR (...) -155 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was lower in CHB patients than healthy controls (HC). Among CHB infection, immune-active (IA) patients with abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels had relatively higher miR-155 expression in PBMCs and serum than immune-tolerant carriers, but were comparable to inactive carriers. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between miR-155 expression and ALT levels in CHB patients. Particularly, miR-155 expression in natural killer

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2017 Frontiers in immunology

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