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Chronic Hepatitis B Carrier

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3541. Significance of delta agent infection in chronic hepatitis B virus infection: a study in British carriers. (PubMed)

Significance of delta agent infection in chronic hepatitis B virus infection: a study in British carriers. Delta antigen (delta) is a transmissible agent requiring hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its replication. Antibody to delta (anti-delta) was present in nine of 71 (13%) British HBV carriers: six were intravenous drug abusers and two were haemophiliacs. Anti-delta was negative in 30 HBsAg positive homosexuals. Cirrhosis was common in patients with anti-delta and those with anti-delta positive (...) cirrhosis were significantly younger than those with anti-delta negative cirrhosis. In British HBV carriers delta infection is associated with intravenous drug abuse and haemophilia and perhaps a more rapid progression of chronic liver disease.

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1983 Gut

3542. Immunoregulation of the in vitro anti-HBs antibody synthesis in chronic HBsAg carriers and in recently boosted anti-hepatitis B vaccine recipients. (PubMed)

Immunoregulation of the in vitro anti-HBs antibody synthesis in chronic HBsAg carriers and in recently boosted anti-hepatitis B vaccine recipients. We report a study on immunoregulation of in vitro antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) synthesis induced by pokeweed mitogen (PWM) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in chronic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers and in 'high responders', (anti-HBs RIA ratio greater than or equal to 20 in serum), recently boosted (...) with anti-hepatitis B vaccine. Anti-HBs was detected in 11 days PBMC supernatants (SN) from 24 out of 36 'high responders', but in none from 31 chronic HBsAg carriers, despite detectable amounts of polyclonal IgG and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) were produced. The lack of anti-HBs production by chronic HBsAg carriers did not seem to be determined by suppressor influences because T lymphocytes from the majority of chronic HBsAg carriers, co-cultured with 'high responders' PBMC did

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1985 Clinical and experimental immunology

3543. Clinical and histological features of delta infection in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers. (PubMed)

Clinical and histological features of delta infection in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers. One hundred and six consecutive chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers were studied for the prevalence of delta markers in serum and tissue, and the clinical and histological features of those with and without delta infection were compared. Twenty (18.9%) patients were positive for anti-delta in serum or delta antigen in the liver or both. They presented at a younger age (30.3 v 38 years). All of them (...) %), chronic persistent hepatitis (9%), chronic active hepatitis (62%), and cirrhosis (19%). Delta infection in chronic HBV carriers is associated with a more active and progressive liver disease.

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1985 Journal of Clinical Pathology

3544. Chronic hepatitis B carriers with null genotypes of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms who are exposed to aflatoxin are at increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. (PubMed)

Chronic hepatitis B carriers with null genotypes of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphisms who are exposed to aflatoxin are at increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. This study was carried out to elucidate the effect of glutathione S-transferase (GST) Ml and Tl polymorphisms on the aflatoxin-related hepatocarcinogenesis among chronic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A total of 32 newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases and 73 age-matched controls (...) selected from a cohort of 4,841 chronic HBsAg carriers who had been followed for 5 years were studied. The level of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-albumin adducts in their serum samples collected at the recruitment was examined by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbance assay, and genotypes of GST M1 and T1 were determined by PCR. There was a dose-response relationship between serum level of AFB1-albumin adducts and risk of HCC. The biological gradients between serum AFB1-albumin adducts level and HCC risk were

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1996 American Journal of Human Genetics

3545. Efficacy of Phyllanthus amarus for eradication of hepatitis B virus in chronic carriers. (PubMed)

Efficacy of Phyllanthus amarus for eradication of hepatitis B virus in chronic carriers. Sixty-five adult asymptomatic chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus were enrolled to the randomized controlled efficacy study of Phyllanthus amarus. Thirty-four received Phyllanthus amarus 600 mg per day for 30 days and 31 received placebo in identical capsules. The conversion rate of HBsAg was 6 per cent in the study group at day 30. When 20 subjects in the Phyllanthus amarus group were given a further 30 (...) -day treatment and 22 placebo recipients given Phyllanthus amarus 1,200 mg per day for 30 days, the conversion was observed in 1 (5%) in the higher dose group. Adverse effects were not observed in all patients receiving the plant. The results indicated that Phyllanthus amarus, whole plant except root, grown in the central part of Thailand, given at the studied dosage and duration, had a very minimal effect on eradication of HBsAg from Thai adult asymptomatic chronic carriers.

1991 Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet

3546. The effect of indomethacin on hepatitis B virus replication in chronic healthy carriers. (PubMed)

The effect of indomethacin on hepatitis B virus replication in chronic healthy carriers. A chronic HBsAg carrier state, a major cause of viral spread in a community, is one of the consequences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Although successful immunization programs have been initiated to eliminate the virus, there is still a large number of people with HBV infection worldwide. This study was designed to investigate the effect of indomethacin treatment on HBV markers in humans (...) , in comparison with a control group.In total, 65 chronic 'healthy' HBV carriers were involved in the study. Patients were divided randomly into two groups. Group I (n = 42) received oral indomethacin 75 mg daily for 6 months. Group II (n = 23) acted as control. Patients in both groups were followed up for 6 months, during which laboratory tests, including viral parameters, were performed periodically. Liver biopsy was done in 17 patients (11/42 of the indomethacin group and 6/23 of the control group).All

2000 Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology

3547. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus: incidence and prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma in a North American urban population. (PubMed)

Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus: incidence and prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma in a North American urban population. To prospectively determine the prevalence and annual incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B carriers in a heterogeneous urban North American population and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of tests used for screening for this cancer.Prospective cohort study of 1,069 chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus using (...) chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus. The cohort was followed for 2,340 person-years (mean, 26 months follow-up, with a range from 6 to 60 months). During this period, 11 more subjects, 10 men and 1 woman, were diagnosed to have hepatocellular carcinoma (annual incidence, 470/100,000). In men only, the annual incidence was 657/100,000. During the study, 5 subjects died from hepatocellular carcinoma (annual mortality rate, 214/100,000). Sensitivity and specificity of serum alpha-fetoprotein > 20

1995 Hepatology

3548. Immunological monitoring during therapeutic vaccination as a prerequisite for the design of new effective therapies: induction of a vaccine-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferative response in chronic hepatitis B carriers. (PubMed)

Immunological monitoring during therapeutic vaccination as a prerequisite for the design of new effective therapies: induction of a vaccine-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferative response in chronic hepatitis B carriers. We characterized the anti-viral T-cell response in 22 chronically infected patients, who participated in a European multi-center randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind study therapeutic vaccination trial with pre-S1, pre-S2 and S antigenic components of the hepatitis B virus (...) is not always able to break tolerance leading to the clearance of the hepatitis B virus.

2002 Vaccine

3549. Diminished responsiveness of male homosexual chronic hepatitis B virus carriers with HTLV-III antibodies to recombinant alpha-interferon. (PubMed)

Diminished responsiveness of male homosexual chronic hepatitis B virus carriers with HTLV-III antibodies to recombinant alpha-interferon. In a randomized controlled trial, 41 chronic hepatitis B virus carriers were allocated, by opening numbered computerized randomization envelopes, to receive recombinant interferon-alpha 2A at three different doses: 2.5; 5.0, and 10.0 mU per m2. Thirty-two patients received treatment (6 for 3 months, 26 for 6 months), and 9 patients were controls (received (...) to treatment. The percentage reduction of hepatitis B virus DNA was significantly less in the anti-HTLV-III-positive group in comparison to the anti-HTLV-III-negative group at 1 and 4 months of treatment and at 3 months after the end of treatment (p less than 0.05). These patients were younger (33 vs. 42 years, p less than 0.02), had lower mean baseline AST values (42 vs. 80 IU per liter, p less than 0.02) and tended to have milder histological disease. Homosexual men with HBeAg-positive chronic liver

1987 Hepatology

3550. Prevention of the HBsAg carrier state in newborn infants of mothers who are chronic carriers of HBsAg and HBeAg by administration of hepatitis-B vaccine and hepatitis-B immunoglobulin. Double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study. (PubMed)

Prevention of the HBsAg carrier state in newborn infants of mothers who are chronic carriers of HBsAg and HBeAg by administration of hepatitis-B vaccine and hepatitis-B immunoglobulin. Double-blind randomised placebo-controlled study. Newborn infants of Chinese HBeAg-carrier mothers in Hong Kong were randomly assigned to one of four study groups. Group I was treated with 3 micrograms heat-inactivated hepatitis B (HB) vaccine at birth and at 1, 2, and 6 months thereafter, in conjunction (...) . This indicates that even high doses of HBIg do not interfere with the anti-HBs response to the vaccine. Probable intra-uterine HB infections were observed in 3 infants. No serious side-effects were observed from the interventions, even in the babies with intra-uterine infections who had received HBIg and HB-vaccine at birth. To prevent development of the persistent HBsAg carrier state, and thereby the consequent chronic liver disease and/or primary carcinoma of the liver, HB vaccine and HBIg should

1984 Lancet

3551. Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV): the impact of underlying active HBV replication on persistence of HCV infection and antibody responses to HCV (PubMed)

Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV): the impact of underlying active HBV replication on persistence of HCV infection and antibody responses to HCV The aim of this study was to assess whether underlying chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection interferes with persistence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and humoral immune responses to HCV in acute HCV infection.Serial sera from 12 patients with acute HCV infection (group A) and 12 hepatitis (...) B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers with acute HCV infection (seven anti-hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe) positive (group B1) and five hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive (group B2)) were tested for HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction, and anti-HCV by third generation enzyme immunoassay and confirmatory assay. Serial serum samples from HBsAg carriers were also tested for HBeAg, anti-HBe, and HBV DNA by hybridisation assay.Persistent HCV viraemia for more than six months was significantly more

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2002 Gut

3552. Hepatitis B virus precore mutants in HBeAg carriers with chronic hepatitis treated with interferon. (PubMed)

Hepatitis B virus precore mutants in HBeAg carriers with chronic hepatitis treated with interferon. Precore mutants of hepatitis B virus (HBV) were looked for in 18 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) carriers who were treated with recombinant interferon-alpha (rIFN) and the results were compared with those obtained in 12 untreated carriers who underwent spontaneous HBeAb seroconversion. Molecular analysis of the HBV precore region was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification (...) and direct sequencing. Precore mutants with a stop codon at codon 28 were detectable at baseline in 19/30 carriers. However, wild-type strains predominated in the baseline sera of both treated (n = 16) and untreated (n = 10) patients. Sera from the remaining four patients contained predominantly or exclusively mutant virions. Following IFN treatment, there was a shift from the wild-type pattern to the mutant pattern in all patients, with the precore pattern prevailing in long-term responders (six out

1995 Journal of viral hepatitis

3553. Fulminant hepatic failure in acute hepatitis C: increased risk in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (PubMed)

Fulminant hepatic failure in acute hepatitis C: increased risk in chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in fulminant hepatitis remains controversial. This study was conducted to investigate the risk of fulminant hepatitis C in relation to HCV genotypes and concurrent infection of other viruses.109 HCV RNA positive patients from 334 consecutive cases hospitalised to a medical centre in northern Taiwan for overt acute viral hepatitis were prospectively (...) evaluated.HCV RNA was detected by a combined reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. HCV genotypes were analysed using a genotype specific probe based assay in the 5' untranslated region.39 patients tested positive for hepatitis B surface antigen but negative for IgM antibody to hepatitis B core antigen, indicating concurrent chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Twelve patients were hepatitis G virus (HGV) RNA positive. Genotyping of HCV disclosed 1b in 93, 1b mixed with 2a/2c or 1b

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1999 Gut

3554. Detection of pre-C and core region mutants of hepatitis B virus in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers. (PubMed)

Detection of pre-C and core region mutants of hepatitis B virus in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers. We analyzed the pre-C and core region of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA by a polymerase chain reaction in 22 chronic carriers. In 9 hepatitis B e antigen-positive asymptomatic carriers, a single DNA band was detected at the expected size, whereas additional shorter DNA bands were observed in 7 out of 11 patients with chronic hepatitis. The smaller-sized DNAs from one chronic hepatitis patient had (...) various lengths of deletions spanning from 105 to 183 bp in the middle of the core gene, and all deletions included common nucleotide sequences. All of the smaller-sized DNAs from the other patients proved to be variant core genes. They were deleted in similar regions by Southern analysis using oligonucleotide probes. A follow-up study revealed that four out of seven chronic hepatitis patients with a short core gene seroconverted to antibody to hepatitis B e antigen, but those with only a "wild type

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1991 Journal of Clinical Investigation

3555. Synthesis of antibodies to hepatitis B virus by cultured lymphocytes from chronic hepatitis B surface antigen carriers. (PubMed)

Synthesis of antibodies to hepatitis B virus by cultured lymphocytes from chronic hepatitis B surface antigen carriers. It has been postulated that host immune defects are responsible for the development and persistence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier state. The nature of these defects is unknown, but the absence of a readily detectable antibody response to HBsAg (anti-HBs) may be important. The synthesis of both anti-HBs and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc (...) . In contrast, anti-HBs was detected in lymphocyte supernatants from 6 of 20 controls (predominantly in those who had high serum titers of anti-HBs) but in none of the supernatants from 29 HBsAg carriers. In order to identify the mechanisms for the lack of detectable anti-HBs synthesis by chronic HBsAg carrier lymphocytes, co-culture experiments were performed using T and B lymphocyte fractions that had been purified by affinity chromatography. B lymphocytes from carriers co-cultured with allogeneic

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1983 Journal of Clinical Investigation

3556. A pilot study on the combined therapy of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and hepatitis B vaccine on chronic hepatitis B virus carrier children. (PubMed)

A pilot study on the combined therapy of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and hepatitis B vaccine on chronic hepatitis B virus carrier children. To observe the efficacy of treating intrauterine infected chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier children with a combination of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) plus recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (rHBvac).A total of 27 chronic HBV infected children, who were born to HBV (...) carrier mothers and received hepatitis B immunoprophylaxis at birth, were randomized into 2 groups: one receiving a combined therapy of 50 micro g of GM-CSF plus 10 micro g of rHBvac injected intramuscularly at the same location (GM-CSF group, 14 children) or 200 IU HBIG and 10 micro g rHBvac in different muscles (HBIG group, 13 children) on a monthly four-dose schedule. HBV-DNA quantification and other HBV serological markers were tested before and after the four-dose therapy.Twelve children in each

2002 Chinese medical journal

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